Cassiopeia is a constellation in the northern sky, named after the vain queen Cassiopeia in Greek mythology, who boasted about her unrivaled beauty. Cassiopeia was one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations today, it is recognizable due to its distinctive'W' shape, formed by five bright stars. It is opposite Ursa Major. In northern locations above latitude 34ºN it is visible year-round and in the tropics it can be seen at its clearest from September to early November. In low southern latitudes below 25ºS it can be seen low in the North. At magnitude 2.2, Alpha Cassiopeiae, or Schedar, is the brightest star in Cassiopeia, though is shaded by Gamma Cassiopeiae, which has brightened to magnitude 1.6 on occasion. The constellation hosts some of the most luminous stars known, including the yellow hypergiants Rho Cassiopeiae and V509 Cassiopeiae and white hypergiant 6 Cassiopeiae; the semiregular variable. In 1572, Tycho Brahe's supernova flared brightly in Cassiopeia.
Cassiopeia A is a supernova remnant and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz. Fourteen star systems have been found to have exoplanets, one of which—HR 8832—is thought to host seven planets. A rich section of the Milky Way runs through Cassiopeia, containing a number of open clusters, young luminous galactic disc stars, nebulae. IC 10 is an irregular galaxy, the closest known starburst galaxy and the only one in the Local Group of galaxies; the constellation is named after the queen of Aethiopia. Cassiopeia was the wife of mother of Princess Andromeda. Cepheus and Cassiopeia were placed next to each other among the stars, along with Andromeda, she was placed in the sky as a punishment after enraging Poseidon with the boast that her daughter Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereids or, that she herself was more beautiful than the sea nymphs. She was forced to wheel around the North Celestial Pole on her throne, spending half of her time clinging to it so she does not fall off, Poseidon decreed that Andromeda should be bound to a rock as prey for the monster Cetus.
Andromeda was rescued by the hero Perseus, whom she married. Cassiopeia has been variously portrayed throughout her history as a constellation. In Persia, she was drawn by al-Sufi as a queen holding a staff with a crescent moon in her right hand, wearing a crown, as well as a two-humped camel. In France, she was portrayed as having a marble throne and a palm leaf in her left hand, holding her robe in her right hand; this depiction is from Augustin Royer's 1679 atlas. In Chinese astronomy, the stars forming the constellation Cassiopeia are found among three areas: the Purple Forbidden enclosure, the Black Tortoise of the North, the White Tiger of the West; the Chinese astronomers saw several figures in. Kappa, Mu Cassiopeiae formed a constellation called the Bridge of the Kings; the charioteer's whip was represented by Gamma Cassiopeiae, sometimes called "Tsih", the Chinese word for "whip". In the 1600s, various Biblical figures were depicted in the stars of Cassiopeia; these included Solomon's mother.
A figure called the "Tinted Hand" appeared in the stars of Cassiopeia in some Arab atlases. This is variously said to represent a woman's hand dyed red with henna, as well as the bloodied hand of Muhammad's daughter Fatima; the hand is made up of the stars α Cas, β Cas, γ Cas, δ Cas, ε Cas, η Cas. The arm is made up of the stars α Per, γ Per, δ Per, ε Per, η Per, ν Per. Another Arab constellation that incorporated the stars of Cassiopeia was the Camel, its head was composed of Lambda, Kappa and Phi Andromedae. Other cultures see a moose antlers in the pattern; these include the Lapps. The Chukchi of Siberia saw the five main stars as five reindeer stags; the people of the Marshall Islands saw Cassiopeia as part of a great porpoise constellation. The main stars of Cassiopeia make its tail and Triangulum form its body, Aries makes its head. In Hawaii, Alpha and Gamma Cassiopeiae were named. Alpha Cassiopeiae was called Poloahilani, Beta Cassiopeiae was called Polula, Gamma Cassiopeiae was called Mulehu.
The people of Pukapuka saw the figure of Cassiopeia as a distinct constellation called Na Taki-tolu-a-Mataliki. In Modern Indian Astronomy Cassiopeia is known as Sharmishtha. In Hindu mythology, Sharmistha known as Sharmista or Sharmishtha, was the daughter of the great Devil King Vrishparva, she was a friend of Devayani for whom she becomes a servant. Covering 598.4 square degrees and hence 1.451% of the sky, Cassiopeia ranks 25th of the 88 constellations in area. It is bordered by Cepheus to the north and west, Andromeda to the south and west, Perseus to the southeast and Camelopardalis to the east, shares a short border with Lacerta to the west; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'Cas'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 30 segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 00h 27m 03s and 23h 41m 06s, while the decl
Andromeda is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Located north of the celestial equator, it is named for Andromeda, daughter of Cassiopeia, in the Greek myth, chained to a rock to be eaten by the sea monster Cetus. Andromeda is most prominent during autumn evenings in the Northern Hemisphere, along with several other constellations named for characters in the Perseus myth; because of its northern declination, Andromeda is visible only north of 40° south latitude. It is one of the largest constellations, with an area of 722 square degrees; this is over 1,400 times the size of the full moon, 55% of the size of the largest constellation and over 10 times the size of the smallest constellation, Crux. Its brightest star, Alpha Andromedae, is a binary star, counted as a part of Pegasus, while Gamma Andromedae is a colorful binary and a popular target for amateur astronomers. Only marginally dimmer than Alpha, Beta Andromedae is a red giant, its color visible to the naked eye.
The constellation's most obvious deep-sky object is the naked-eye Andromeda Galaxy, the closest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way and one of the brightest Messier objects. Several fainter galaxies, including M31's companions M110 and M32, as well as the more distant NGC 891, lie within Andromeda; the Blue Snowball Nebula, a planetary nebula, is visible in a telescope as a blue circular object. In Chinese astronomy, the stars that make up Andromeda were members of four different constellations that had astrological and mythological significance. Andromeda is the location of the radiant for the Andromedids, a weak meteor shower that occurs in November; the uranography of Andromeda has its roots most in the Greek tradition, though a female figure in Andromeda's location had appeared earlier in Babylonian astronomy. The stars that make up Pisces and the middle portion of modern Andromeda formed a constellation representing a fertility goddess, sometimes named as Anunitum or the Lady of the Heavens.
Andromeda is known as "the Chained Lady" or "the Chained Woman" in English. It was known as Mulier Catenata in al-Mar ` at al Musalsalah in Arabic, it has been called Persea or Cepheis, all names that refer to Andromeda's role in the Greco-Roman myth of Perseus, in which Cassiopeia, the queen of Ethiopia, bragged that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids, sea nymphs blessed with incredible beauty. Offended at her remark, the nymphs petitioned Poseidon to punish Cassiopeia for her insolence, which he did by commanding the sea monster Cetus to attack Ethiopia. Andromeda's panicked father, was told by the Oracle of Ammon that the only way to save his kingdom was to sacrifice his daughter to Cetus, she was chained to a rock by the sea but was saved by the hero Perseus, who in one version of the story used the head of Medusa to turn the monster into stone. Perseus and Andromeda married. After Andromeda's death Athena placed her in the sky as a constellation. Several of the neighboring constellations represent characters in the Perseus myth.
It is connected with the constellation Pegasus. Andromeda was one of the original 48 constellations formulated by Ptolemy in his 2nd-century Almagest, in which it was defined as a specific pattern of stars, she is depicted with α Andromedae as her head, ο and λ Andromedae as her chains, δ, π, μ, Β, γ Andromedae representing her body and legs. However, there is no universal depiction of Andromeda and the stars used to represent her body and chains. Arab astronomers were aware of Ptolemy's constellations, but they included a second constellation representing a fish at Andromeda's feet. Several stars from Andromeda and most of the stars in Lacerta were combined in 1787 by German astronomer Johann Bode to form Frederici Honores, it was designed to honor King Frederick II of Prussia, but fell into disuse. Since the time of Ptolemy, Andromeda has remained a constellation and is recognized by the International Astronomical Union, although like all modern constellations, it is now defined as a specific region of the sky that includes both Ptolemy's pattern and the surrounding stars.
In 1922, the IAU defined its recommended three-letter abbreviation, "And". The official boundaries of Andromeda were defined in 1930 by Eugène Delporte as a polygon of 36 segments, its right ascension is between 22h 57.5m and 2h 39.3m and its declination is between 53.19° and 21.68° in the equatorial coordinate system. In traditional Chinese astronomy, nine stars from Andromeda, along with seven stars from Pisces, formed an elliptical constellation called "Legs"; this constellation either represented the foot of a wild boar. Gamma Andromedae and its neighbors were called "Teen Ta Tseang Keun", representing honor in astrology and a great general in mythology. Alpha Andromedae and Gamma Pegasi together made "Wall", representing the eastern wall of the imperial palace and/or the emperor's personal library. For the Chinese, the northern swath of Andromeda formed a stable for changing horses and the fa
Hydra is the largest of the 88 modern constellations, measuring 1303 square degrees, the longest at over 100 degrees. Its southern end abuts its northern end borders Cancer, it was included among the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy. It is represented as a water snake, it should not be confused with the named constellation of Hydrus. The Greek constellation of Hydra is an adaptation of a Babylonian constellation: the MUL. APIN includes a "serpent" constellation, it is one of two Babylonian "serpent" constellations, a mythological hybrid of serpent and bird. The shape of Hydra resembles a twisting snake, features as such in some Greek myths. One myth associates it with a water snake that a crow served Apollo in a cup when it was sent to fetch water, it is associated with the monster Hydra, with its many heads, killed by Hercules, represented in another constellation. According to legend, if one of the Hydra's heads was cut off, two more would grow in its place. However, Hercules' nephew, seared the necks with a torch to prevent them from growing back and thus enabled Hercules to overcome the Hydra.
In Hindu Mythology the star that equivalents Hydra is Ashlesha. In Chinese astronomy, the stars that correspond to Hydra are located within the Vermilion Bird and the Azure Dragon; the head of Hydra was collectively known as "Min al Az'al," meaning "belonging to the uninhabited spot" in Arabic. Despite its size, Hydra contains only one moderately bright star, designated Alpha Hydrae, it is an orange giant of 177 light-years from Earth. Its traditional name means "the solitary one". Beta Hydrae is a blue-white star of 365 light-years from Earth. Gamma Hydrae is a yellow giant of 132 light-years from Earth. Hydra has one bright binary star, Epsilon Hydrae, difficult to split in amateur telescopes; the primary is a yellow star of magnitude 3.4 and the secondary is a blue star of magnitude 6.7. However, there are binary stars in Hydra. 27 Hydrae is a triple star with two components visible in binoculars and three visible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a white star of 244 light-years from Earth.
The secondary, a binary star, appears in binoculars at magnitude 7.0 but is composed of a magnitude 7 and a magnitude 11 star. 54 Hydrae is a binary star 99 light-years from Earth divisible in small amateur telescopes. The primary is a yellow star of magnitude 5.3 and the secondary is a purple star of magnitude 7.4. N Hydrae is a pair of stars of magnitudes 5.8 and 5.9. Struve 1270 consists of a pair of stars, magnitudes 6.4 and 7.4. The other main named star in Hydra is Sigma Hydrae, which has the name of Minchir, from the Arabic for snake's nose. At magnitude 4.54, it is rather dim. The head of the snake corresponds to the Āshleshā Nakshatra, the lunar zodiacal constellation in Indian astronomy; the name of Nakshatra become the proper name of Epsilon Hydrae since 1 June 2018 by IAU. Hydra is home to several variable stars. R Hydrae is a Mira variable star 2000 light-years from Earth, it has a period of 390 days. V Hydrae is an unusually vivid red variable star 20,000 light-years from Earth, it varies in magnitude from a minimum of 9.0 to a maximum of 6.6.
Along with its notable color, V Hydrae is home to at least two exoplanets. U Hydrae is a semi-regular variable star with 528 light-years from Earth, it has a minimum magnitude of 6.6 and a maximum magnitude of 4.2. The constellation contains the radio source Hydra A. Hydra contains three Messier objects. M83 known as the high Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, is located on the border of Hydra and Centaurus, M68 is a globular cluster near M83, M48 is an open star cluster in the western end of the serpent. NGC 3242 is a planetary nebula of 1400 light-years from Earth. Discovered in 1785 by William Herschel, it has earned the nickname "Ghost of Jupiter" because of its striking resemblance to the giant planet, its blue-green disk is visible in small telescopes and its halo is visible in larger instruments.fudge M48 is an open cluster, visible to the naked eye under dark skies. Its shape has been described as "triangular". There are several globular clusters in Hydra. M68 is a globular cluster resolvable in medium amateur telescopes.
It is 31,000 light-years of the 8th magnitude. NGC 5694 is a globular cluster of 105,000 light-years from Earth. Called "Tombaugh's Globular Cluster", it is a Shapley class VII cluster. Though it was discovered as a non-stellar object in 1784 by William Herschel, its status as a globular cluster was not ascertained until 1932, when Clyde Tombaugh looked at photographic plates taken of the region near Pi Hydrae on 12 May 1931. M83, the Southern Pinwheel Galaxy, is an 8th magnitude face-on spiral galaxy, it is observed in skies south of 40°N latitude, found by using 1, 2, 3, 4 Centauri as guide stars. It has been host to six supernovae, more than any Messier object. Large amateur telescopes - a
Canes Venatici is one of the 88 official modern constellations. It is a small northern constellation, created by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century, its name is Latin for "hunting dogs", the constellation is depicted in illustrations as representing the dogs of Boötes the Herdsman, a neighboring constellation. Cor Caroli is the constellation's brightest star, with an apparent magnitude of 2.9. La Superba is one of one of the brightest carbon stars; the Whirlpool Galaxy is a spiral galaxy tilted face-on to observers on Earth, was the first galaxy whose spiral nature was discerned. The stars of Canes Venatici are not bright. In classical times, they were listed by Ptolemy as unfigured stars below the constellation Ursa Major in his star catalogue. In medieval times, the identification of these stars with the dogs of Boötes arose through a mistranslation; some of Boötes's stars were traditionally described as representing the club of Boötes. When the Greek astronomer Ptolemy's Almagest was translated from Greek to Arabic, the translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq did not know the Greek word and rendered it as a similar-sounding Arabic word for a weapon, writing al-`aşā dhāt al-kullāb, which means "the spearshaft having a hook".
When the Arabic text was translated into Latin, the translator Gerard of Cremona mistook kullāb, meaning "hook", for kilāb, meaning "dogs", writing hastile habens canes. In 1533, the German astronomer Peter Apian depicted Boötes as having two dogs with him; these spurious dogs floated about the astronomical literature until Hevelius decided to specify their presence in the sky by making them a separate constellation in 1687. Hevelius chose the name Asterion for the northern dog and Chara for the southern dog, as Canes Venatici, the Hunting Dogs, in his star atlas. In his star catalogue, the Czech astronomer Bečvář assigned the names Asterion to β CVn and Chara to α CVn. Canes Venatici is bordered by Ursa Major to the north and west, Coma Berenices to the south, Boötes to the east; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is'CVn'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 14 sides.
In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 12h 06.2m and 14h 07.3m, while the declination coordinates are between +27.84° and +52.36°. Covering 465 square degrees, it ranks 38th of the 88 constellations in size. Canes Venatici contains no bright stars and Beta Canum Venaticorum being only of 3rd and 4th magnitude respectively. Flamsteed catalogued 25 stars in the constellation, labelling them 1 to 25 Canum Venaticorum, however 1 turned out to be in Ursa Major, 13 was in Coma Berenices and 22 did not exist. Alpha Canum Venaticorum known as Cor Caroli, is the constellation's brightest star, named by Sir Charles Scarborough in memory of King Charles I, the deposed king of Britain. Legend has it that α CVn was brighter than usual during the Restoration, as Charles II returned to England to take the throne. Cor Caroli is a wide double star, with a primary of magnitude 2.9 and a secondary of magnitude 5.6. The primary has an unusually strong variable magnetic field.
Beta Canum Venaticorum, or Chara, is a yellow-hued main sequence star of magnitude 4.2, 27 light-years from Earth. Its common name comes from the word for "joy". Y Canum Venaticorum is a semiregular variable star that varies between magnitudes 5.0 and 6.5 over a period of around 158 days. It is deep red in color. AM Canum Venaticorum, a blue star of magnitude 14, is the prototype of a special class of cataclysmic variable stars, in which the companion star is a white dwarf, rather than a main sequence star. RS Canum Venaticorum is the prototype of a special class of binary stars of chromospherically active and optically variable components. R Canum Venaticorum is a Mira variable that ranges between magnitudes 6.5 and 12.9 over a period of 329 days. The Giant Void, an large void is within the vicinity of this constellation, it may be the largest void discovered larger than the Eridanus Supervoid and 1,200 times the volume of expected typical voids. It was discovered in 1988 in a deep-sky survey.
Canes Venatici contains five Messier objects, including four galaxies. One of the more significant galaxies in Canes Venatici is the Whirlpool Galaxy and NGC 5195, a small barred spiral galaxy, seen face on; this was the first galaxy recognised as having a spiral structure, this structure being first observed by Lord Rosse in 1845. It is a face-on spiral galaxy 37 million light-years from Earth. Considered to be one of the most beautiful galaxies visible, M51 has many star-forming regions and nebulae in its arms, coloring them pink and blue in contrast to the older yellow core. M51 has a smaller companion, NGC 5195, that has few star-forming regions and thus appears yellow, it may be the cause of the larger galaxy's prodigious star formation. Other notable spiral galaxies in Canes Venatici are the Sunflower Galaxy, M94, M106. M63, the Sunflower Galaxy, was named for its appearance in large amateur telescopes, it is a spiral galaxy with an integrated magnitude of 9.0. M94 is a small face-on spiral
Antlia is a constellation in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere. Its name means "pump" in Latin. Antlia Pneumatica, the constellation was established by Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille in the 18th century, though its name was abbreviated by John Herschel. Located close to the stars forming the old constellation of the ship Argo Navis, Antlia is visible from latitudes south of 49 degrees north. Antlia is a faint constellation. S Antliae is an eclipsing binary star system, changing in brightness as one star passes in front of the other. Sharing a common envelope, the stars are so close. Two star systems with known exoplanets, HD 93083 and WASP-66, lie within Antlia, as do NGC 2997, a spiral galaxy, the Antlia Dwarf Galaxy; the French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille first described the constellation in French as la Machine Pneumatique in 1751–52, commemorating the air pump invented by the French physicist Denis Papin. De Lacaille had observed and catalogued 10,000 southern stars during a two-year stay at the Cape of Good Hope, devising fourteen new constellations in uncharted regions of the Southern Celestial Hemisphere not visible from Europe.
He named all but one in honour of instruments. Lacaille depicted Antlia as a single-cylinder vacuum pump used in Papin's initial experiments, while German astronomer Johann Bode chose the more advanced double-cylinder version. Lacaille Latinised the name to Antlia pneumatica on his 1763 chart. English astronomer John Herschel proposed shrinking the name to one word in 1844, noting that Lacaille himself had abbreviated his constellations thus on occasion; this was universally adopted. The International Astronomical Union adopted it as one of the 88 modern constellations in 1922. Although visible to the Ancient Greeks, Antlia's stars were too faint to have been included in any ancient constellations; the stars that now comprise Antlia lay within an area of the sky covered by the ancient constellation Argo Navis, the Ship of the Argonauts, which due to its immense size was split into several smaller constellations by Lacaille in 1763. Ridpath reports that due to their faintness, the stars of Antlia did not make up part of the classical depiction of Argo Navis.
Chinese astronomers were able to view what is modern Antlia from their latitudes, incorporated its stars into two different constellations. Several stars in the southern part of Antlia were a portion of "Dong'ou", which represented an area in southern China. Furthermore, Epsilon and Theta Antliae were incorporated into the celestial temple, which contained stars from modern Pyxis. Covering 238.9 square degrees and hence 0.579% of the sky, Antlia ranks 62nd of the 88 modern constellations by area. Its position in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere means that the whole constellation is visible to observers south of 49°N. Hydra the sea snake runs along the length of its northern border, while Pyxis the compass, Vela the sails, Centaurus the centaur line it to the west and east respectively; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is Ant. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Belgian astronomer Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of twelve segments.
In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 09h 26.5m and 11h 05.6m, while the declination coordinates are between −24.54° and −40.42°. Lacaille gave nine stars Bayer designations, labelling them Alpha through to Theta, combining two stars next to each other as Zeta. Gould added a tenth, Iota Antliae. Beta and Gamma Antliae ended up in the neighbouring constellation Hydra once the constellation boundaries were delineated in 1930. Within the constellation's borders, there are 42 stars brighter than or equal to apparent magnitude 6.5. The constellation's two brightest stars—Alpha and Epsilon Antliae—shine with a reddish tinge. Alpha is an orange giant of spectral type K4III, a suspected variable star, ranging between apparent magnitudes 4.22 and 4.29. It is located 320 ± 10 light-years away from Earth. Estimated to be shining with around 480 to 555 times the luminosity of the Sun, it is most an ageing star, brightening and on its way to becoming a Mira variable star, having converted all its core fuel into carbon.
Located 590 ± 30 light-years from Earth, Epsilon Antliae is an evolved orange giant star of spectral type K3 IIIa, that has swollen to have a diameter about 69 times that of the Sun, a luminosity of around 1279 Suns. It is variable. At the other end of Antlia, Iota Antliae is an orange giant of spectral type K1 III, it is 202 ± 2 light-years distant. Located near Alpha is Delta Antliae, a binary star, 450 ± 10 light-years distant from Earth; the primary is a blue-white main sequence star of spectral type B9.5V and magnitude 5.6, the secondary is a yellow-white main sequence star of spectral type F9Ve and magnitude 9.6. Zeta Antliae is a wide optical double star; the brighter star—Zeta1 Antliae—is 410 ± 40 light-years distant and has a magnitude of 5.74, though it is a true binary star system composed of two white main sequence stars of magnitudes 6.20 and 7.01 that are separated by 8.042 arcseconds. The fainter star—Zeta2 Antliae—is 386 ± 5 light-years distant and of magnitude 5.9. Eta Antliae is another double composed of a yellow white star of spectral type F1V and magnitude 5.31, with a companion of magnitude 11.3.
Camelopardalis is a large but faint constellation of the northern sky representing a giraffe. The constellation was introduced in 1613 by Petrus Plancius; some older astronomy books give Camelopardalus or Camelopardus as alternative spellings of the name, but the official version recognized by the International Astronomical Union is Camelopardalis. First attested in English in 1785, the word camelopardalis comes from Latin, it is the romanization of the Greek "καμηλοπάρδαλις" meaning "giraffe", from "κάμηλος", "camel" + "πάρδαλις", "leopard", because it has a long neck like a camel and spots like a leopard. Although Camelopardalis is the 18th largest constellation, it is not a bright constellation, as the brightest stars are only of fourth magnitude. In fact, it only contains four stars below magnitude 5.0. Α Cam is a blue-hued supergiant star of 5000 light-years from Earth. It is one of the most distant stars visible with the naked eye. Β Cam is the brightest star in Camelopardalis with an apparent magnitude of 4.03.
This star is a double star, with components of magnitudes 4.0 and 8.6. The primary is a yellow-hued supergiant 1000 light-years from Earth. 11 Cam is a star of 650 light-years from Earth. It is close to magnitude 6.1 12 Cam 650 light-years from Earth, but the two stars are not a true double star because of their separation. Σ 1694 is a binary star 300 light-years from Earth. Both components have a blue-white hue. CS Cam is the second brightest star, it is of magnitude 4.21 and is variable. Z Cam is observed as part of a program of AAVSO, it is the prototype of Z Camelopardalis variable stars. Other variable stars are U Camelopardalis, VZ Camelopardalis, Mira variables T Camelopardalis, X Camelopardalis, R Camelopardalis. RU Camelopardalis is one of the brighter Type II Cepheids visible in the night sky. In 2011 a supernova was discovered in the constellation. Camelopardalis is in the part of the celestial sphere facing away from the galactic plane. Accordingly, many distant galaxies are visible within its borders.
NGC 2403 is a galaxy in the M81 group of galaxies, located 12 million light-years from Earth with a redshift of 0.00043. It is classified as being between an elliptical and a spiral galaxy because it has faint arms and a large central bulge. NGC 2403 was first discovered by the 18th century astronomer William Herschel, working in England at the time, it has an integrated magnitude of 8.0 and is 0.25° long. NGC 1502 is a magnitude 6.9 open cluster about 3,000 light years from Earth. It has about 45 bright members, features a double star of magnitude 7.0 at its center. NGC 1502 is associated with Kemble's Cascade, a simple but beautiful asterism appearing in the sky as a chain of stars 2.5° long, parallel to the Milky Way and is pointed towards Cassiopeia. NGC 1501 is a planetary nebula located 1.4° south of NGC 1502. IC 342 is one of the brightest two galaxies in the IC 342/Maffei Group of galaxies; the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 is a magnitude 11.9 starburst galaxy, about 11 million light years away.
NGC 2655 is a large lenticular galaxy with visual magnitude 10.1. MS0735.6+7421 is a galaxy cluster with a redshift of 0.216, located 2.6 billion light-years from Earth. It is unique for its intracluster medium, which emits X-rays at a high rate; this galaxy cluster features two cavities 600,000 light-years in diameter, caused by its central supermassive black hole, which emits jets of matter. MS0735.6 +7421 is one of the most distant examples of this phenomenon. Tombaugh 5 is a dim open cluster in Camelopardalis, it is located 5,800 light-years from Earth. It is a Shapley class c and Trumpler class III 1 r cluster, meaning that it is irregularly shaped and appears loose. Though it is detached from the star field, it is not concentrated at its center at all, it has more than 100 stars which do not vary in brightness being of the 15th and 16th magnitude. NGC 2146 is an 11th magnitude barred spiral starburst galaxy conspicuously warped by interaction with a neighbour. MACS0647-JD, one of the possible candidates for the farthest known galaxies in the universe, is in Camelopardalis.
The annual May meteor shower Camelopardalids from comet 209P/LINEAR have a radiant in Camelopardalis. The space probe Voyager 1 is moving in the direction of this constellation, though it will not be nearing any of the stars in this constellation for many thousands of years, by which time its power source will be long dead. Camelopardalis is not one of Ptolemy's 48 constellations in the Almagest, it was created by Petrus Plancius in 1613. It first appeared in a globe produced by Pieter van den Keere. One year Jakob Bartsch featured it in his atlas. Johannes Hevelius depicted this constellation in his works which were so influential that it was referred to as Camelopardali Hevelii or abbreviated as Camelopard. Hevel. Part of the constellation was hived off to form the constellation Sciurus Volans, the Flying Squirrel, by William Croswell in 1810; however this was not taken up by cartographers. In Chinese astronomy, the stars of Camelopardalis are located within a group of circumpolar stars called the Purple Forbidden Enclosure.
Camelopardalis Citations References The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations: Camelopardalis Star Tales – Camelopardalis NASA – Voyager Interstellar Mission Characteristics