Japanese tea ceremony
The Japanese tea ceremony called the Way of Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea. In Japanese, it is called chanoyu or sadō, chadō, while the manner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, is called temae. Zen Buddhism was a primary influence in the development of the Japanese tea ceremony. Much less Japanese tea practice uses leaf tea sencha, in which case it is known in Japanese as senchadō as opposed to chanoyu or chadō. Tea gatherings are classified as a formal tea gathering chaji. A chakai is a simple course of hospitality that includes confections, thin tea, a light meal. A chaji is a much more formal gathering including a full-course kaiseki meal followed by confections, thick tea, thin tea. A chaji can last up to four hours. Chadō is counted as one of the three classical Japanese arts of refinement, along with kōdō for incense appreciation, kadō for flower arrangement; the first documented evidence of tea in Japan dates to the 9th century, when it was taken by the Buddhist monk Eichū on his return from China.
The entry in the Nihon Kōki states that Eichū prepared and served sencha to Emperor Saga, on an excursion in Karasaki in the year 815. It was practiced by Japanese nobles. By imperial order in the year 816, tea plantations began to be cultivated in the Kinki region of Japan. However, the interest in tea in Japan faded after this. In China, tea had been known, according to legend, for more than a thousand years; the form of tea popular in China in Eichū's time was "cake tea" or "brick tea" —tea compressed into a nugget in the same manner as pu-erh. This would be ground in a mortar, the resulting ground tea mixed together with various other herbs and flavourings; the custom of drinking tea, first for medicinal, largely for pleasurable reasons, was widespread throughout China. In the early 9th century, Chinese author Lu Yu wrote The Classic of Tea, a treatise on tea focusing on its cultivation and preparation. Lu Yu's life had been influenced by Buddhism the Zen–Chán school, his ideas would have a strong influence in the development of the Japanese tea.
Around the end of the 12th century, the style of tea preparation called "tencha", in which powdered matcha was placed into a bowl, hot water added, the tea and hot water whipped together, was introduced to Japan by Eisai, another monk, on his return from China. He took tea seeds back with him, which produced tea, considered to be the most superb quality in all of Japan; this powdered green tea was first used in religious rituals in Buddhist monasteries. By the 13th century, when the Kamakura Shogunate ruled the nation and tea and the luxuries associated with it became a kind of status symbol among the warrior class, there arose tea-tasting parties wherein contestants could win extravagant prizes for guessing the best quality tea—that was grown in Kyoto, deriving from the seeds that Eisai brought from China; the next major period in Japanese history was the Muromachi Period, pointing to the rise of Kitayama Culture, centered around the gorgeous cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and his villa in the northern hills of Kyoto, during this period, the rise of Higashiyama Culture, centered around the elegant cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimasa and his retirement villa in the eastern hills of Kyoto.
This period 1336 to 1573, saw the budding of what is regarded as Japanese traditional culture as we know it today. The use of Japanese tea developed as a "transformative practice", began to evolve its own aesthetic, in particular that of "sabi" and "wabi" principles. "Wabi" represents the spiritual, experiences of human lives. Its original meaning indicated quiet or sober refinement, or subdued taste "characterized by humility, simplicity, profundity and asymmetry" and "emphasizes simple, unadorned objects and architectural space, celebrates the mellow beauty that time and care impart to materials." "Sabi", on the other hand, represents the outer, or material side of life. It meant "worn", "weathered", or "decayed". Among the nobility, understanding emptiness was considered the most effective means to spiritual awakening, while embracing imperfection was honoured as a healthy reminder to cherish our unpolished selves and now, just as we are—the first step to "satori" or enlightenment. Murata Jukō is known in chanoyu history as an early developer of tea as a spiritual practice.
He studied Zen under the monk Ikkyū, who revitalized Zen in the 15th century, this is considered to have influenced his concept of chanoyu. By the 16th century, tea drinking had spread to all levels of society in Japan. Sen no Rikyū and his work Southern Record the best-known—and still revered—historical figure in tea, followed his master Takeno Jōō's concept of ichi-go ichi-e, a philosophy that each meeting should be treasured, for it can never be reproduced, his teachings perfected many newly developed forms in architecture and gardens and the full development of the "way of tea". The principles he set forward—harmony, respect and tranquility —are still central to tea. Sen no Rikyū was the leading teamaster of the regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who supported him in codifying and spreading the way of tea as a mea
Shinagawa is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself as Shinagawa City in English; the ward is home to ten embassies. As of 1 April 2016, the ward has an estimated population of 380,293, a population density of 16,510 persons per km²; the total area is 22.84 km². It should be noted that Shinagawa is commonly used to refer to the business district around Shinagawa Station, not part of the Shinagawa ward; this Shinagawa is in Konan neighborhoods of Minato, directly north of Kita-Shinagawa. Shinagawa includes natural lowlands, as well as reclaimed land; the uplands are the eastern end of the Musashino Terrace. They include Shiba-Shirokanedai north of the Meguro River, Megurodai between the Meguro and Tachiai Rivers, Ebaradai south of the Tachiai River; the ward lies on Tokyo Bay. Its neighbors on land are all special wards of Tokyo: Kōtō to the east, Minato to the north, Meguro to the west, Ōta to the south; the ward consists of five districts: Shinagawa District, including the former Shinagawa-juku on the Tōkaidō.
Ōsaki District a town of that name, stretching from Ōsaki Station to Gotanda and Meguro Stations. Ebara District a town of that name. Ōi District a town of that name. Yashio District, consisting of reclaimed land, including Higashiyashio on Odaiba. Most of Tokyo east of the Imperial Palace is reclaimed land. A large portion of reclamation happened during the Edo period. Following the Meiji Restoration and the Abolition of the han system, Shinagawa prefecture was instituted in 1869; the prefectural administration was planned to be set up in present-day Shinagawa in the Ebara District. In 1871, Shinagawa prefecture was integrated into Tokyo Prefecture; the ward was founded on March 15, 1947 through the administrative amalgamation of the former Ebara Ward with the former Shinagawa Ward. Both Ebara Ward and Shinagawa Ward had been created in 1932, with the outward expansion of the municipal boundaries of the Tokyo City following the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. In the Edo period, Shinagawa-juku was the first shukuba in the "53 Stations of the Tōkaidō" a traveler would reach after setting out from Nihonbashi on the Tōkaidō highway from Edo to Kyoto.
The post-town function is retained today with several large hotels near the train station offering 6,000 hotel rooms, the largest concentration in the city. The Tokugawa shogunate maintained the Suzugamori execution grounds in Shinagawa; the Tōkaidō Shinkansen high-speed rail line began serving Shinagawa Station in 2003. Shinagawa is run by a city assembly of 40 elected members; the mayor as of 2007 is an independent. Liberal Democratic Party together with New Komeito forms government. Shinagawa local election, 2007 Shinagawa mayoral election, 2006 Many companies are headquartered in Shinagawa. Isuzu, an auto manufacturer. Marza Animation Planet has its headquarters in Shinagawa. Japan Airlines, the head office of its subsidiary JAL Hotels, registered offices of JAL Express and JALways are located in the Tennōzu Isle area. In addition, Jalux, a subsidiary, has its head office in the I·S Building. One group of employees moved into the building on July 26, 2010, one on August 2, 2010. Other companies maintain branch offices or research facilities in Shinagawa.
Sony operates the Osaki East Technology Center in Shinagawa. Sony used to have its headquarters in Shinagawa. Sony moved to Minato, Tokyo around the end of 2006 and closed the Osaki West Technology Center in Shinagawa around 2007. Adobe Systems maintains its Japan headquarters on the 19th Floor of Gate City Ohsaki near Ōsaki Station, while Siemens AG has its Japan offices in Takanawa Park Tower. Phoenix Technologies operates its Japan office on the 8th floor of the Gotanda NN Building in Gotanda. Siemens Japan and Philips have offices in Shinagawa. Microsoft and ExxonMobil have their Japanese headquarters in Konan, near Shinagawa. Prior to its dissolution, JAL subsidiary Japan Asia Airways was headquartered in the JAL Building. GEOS, an English language school company, once had its headquarters in Shinagawa. At one time Air Nippon had its headquarters in Shinagawa. Museums Hara Museum of Contemporary Art O Art Museum Kume Museum of Art Shinagawa Historical Museum The Museum of Maritime Science Sugino Costume Museum ARCHI-DEPOT Museum SHINAGAWA AQUARIUM The Shiki Theatre Natsu The CATS Theatre The Galaxy Theatre Ohi Racecourse Site of Suzugamori Execution Grounds Site of Hamakawa Gun Battery Togoshi Ginza Shopping District Musashi Koyama Shopping District "PALM" Parks Ōmori Shell Mounds Park Rinshi no Mori Park Shinagawa Kumin Park Ikedayama Park – site of a daimyō's villa Togoshi Park – site of a daimyō's villa Ebara Shichi-Fuku-Jin Buddhist temples Honsen-ji Tōkai-ji Hōren-ji Tōkō-ji Shintō shrines Shinagawa Shrine Shimo-Shimmei Tenso Shrine Ebara Shrine Kashima Shrine Churches Meguro Catholic Church (St. Anselm's Ch
Suzuki Harunobu was a Japanese designer of woodblock print artist in the Ukiyo-e style. He was an innovator, the first to produce full-color prints in 1765, rendering obsolete the former modes of two- and three-color prints. Harunobu used many special techniques, depicted a wide variety of subjects, from classical poems to contemporary beauties. Like many artists of his day, Harunobu produced a number of shunga, or erotic images. During his lifetime and shortly afterwards, many artists imitated his style. A few, such as Harushige boasted of their ability to forge the work of the great master. Much about Harunobu's life is unknown. Though some scholars assert that Harunobu was from Kyoto, pointing to possible influences from Nishikawa Sukenobu, much of his work, in particular his early work, is in the Edo style, his work shows evidence of influences from many artists, including Torii Kiyomitsu, Ishikawa Toyonobu, the Kawamata school, the Kanō school. However, the strongest influence upon Harunobu was the painter and printmaker Nishikawa Sukenobu, who may have been Harunobu's direct teacher.
Little is known of Harunobu's early life. It is said he was forty-six at his death in 1770. Unlike most ukiyo-e artists, Harunobu used his real name rather than an artist name, he was from a samurai family, had an ancestor, a retainer of Tokugawa Ieyasu in Mikawa Province. Harunobu's grandfather Shigemitsu and father Shigekazu were stripped of their hatamoto status when they were found to be involved in financing of gambling and other activities. At some point, Harunobu became a student of the ukiyo-e master Nishikawa Sukenobu. Harunobu began his career in the style of the Torii school, creating many works which, while skillful, were not innovative and did not stand out, it was only through his involvement with a group of literati samurai that Harunobu tackled new formats and styles. In 1764, as a result of his social connections, he was chosen to aid these samurai in their amateur efforts to create e-goyomi. Calendars prints of this sort from prior to that year are not unknown but are quite rare, it is known that Harunobu was close acquaintances or friends with many of the prominent artists and scholars of the period, as well as with several friends of the shōgun.
Harunobu's calendars, which incorporated the calculations of the lunar calendar into their images, would be exchanged at Edo gatherings and parties. These calendar would be the first nishiki-e; as a result of the wealth and connoisseurship of his samurai patrons, Harunobu created these prints using only the best materials he could. Harunobu experimented with better woods for the woodblocks, using cherry wood instead of catalpa, used not only more expensive colors, but a thicker application of the colors, in order to achieve a more opaque effect; the most important innovation in the creation of nishiki-e was the ability of Harunobu, again due to the wealth of his clients, to use as many separate blocks as he wished for a single image. The new technique depended on using notches and wedges to hold the paper in place and keep the successive color printings in register. Harunobu was the first ukiyo-e artist to use more than three colors in each print. Nishiki-e, unlike their predecessors, were full-color images.
As the technique was first used in a calendar, the year of their origin can be traced to 1765. In the late 1760s Harunobu thus became one of the primary producers of images of bijinga and kabuki actors of Edo, of similar and related subjects for the Edo print connoisseur market. In a few special cases, notably his famous set of eight prints entitled Zashiki hakkei, the patron's name appears on the print along with, or in place of, Harunobu's own; the presence of a patron's name or seal, the omission of that of the artist, was another novel development in ukiyo-e of this time. Between 1765 and 1770, Harunobu created over twenty illustrated books and over one thousand color prints, along with a number of paintings, he came to be regarded as the master of ukiyo-e during these last years of his life, was imitated until, a number of years after his death, his style was eclipsed by that of new artists, including Katsukawa Shunshō and Torii Kiyonaga. In addition to the revolutionary innovations that came with the introduction of nishiki-e, Harunobu's personal style was unique in a number of other respects.
His figures are all thin and light. However, it is these same young girls. Richard Lane describes this as "Harunobu's special province, one in which he surpassed all other Japanese artists - eternal girlhood in unusual and poetic settings". Though his compositions, like most ukiyo-e prints, may be said to be simple overall, it is the overall composition that concerned Harunobu. Unlike many of his predecessors, he did not seek to have the girls' kimono dominate the viewer's attention. Harunobu is acclaimed as being one of the greatest artists of this period in depicting ordinary urban life in Edo, his subjects are not restricted to courtesans, kabuki actors, sumo wrestlers, but include street vendors, errand boys, others who help to fill in the gaps in des
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
Edo romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of Tokyo. It was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. During this period, it grew to become one of the largest cities in the world and home to an urban culture centered on the notion of a "floating world". From the establishment of the Tokugawa bakufu headquarters at Edo, the town became the de facto capital and center of political power, although Kyoto remained the formal capital of the country. Edo grew from what had been a small, little-known fishing village in 1457 into the largest metropolis in the world with an estimated population of 1,000,000 by 1721. Edo was devastated by fires, with the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657 being the most disastrous. An estimated 100,000 people died in the fire. During the Edo period, there were about 100 fires begun by accident and quickly escalating and spreading through neighborhoods of wooden machiya which were heated with charcoal fires. Between 1600 and 1945, Edo/Tokyo was leveled every 25 -- 50 years or so by fire, war.
In 1868, when the shogunate came to an end, the city was renamed Tokyo. The emperor moved his residence to Tokyo, making the city the formal capital of Japan: Keiō 4: On the 17th day of the 7th month, Edo was renamed Tokyo. Keiō 4: On the 27th day of the 8th month, Emperor Meiji was crowned in the Shishin-den in Kyoto. Keiō 4: On the eighth day of the ninth month, the nengō was formally changed from Keiō to Meiji and a general amnesty was granted. Meiji 2: On the 23rd day of the 10th month, the emperor went to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace. Ishimaru Sadatsuga was the magistrate of Edo in 1661. During the Edo period, Roju were senior officials. Machi-bugyō were in charge of protecting the citizens and merchants of Edo, Kanjō-bugyō were responsible for the financial matters of the Shogunate; the city was laid out as a castle town around Edo Castle. The area surrounding the castle known as Yamanote consisted of daimyō mansions, whose families lived in Edo as part of the sankin kōtai system.
It was this extensive samurai class which defined the character of Edo in contrast to the two major cities of Kyoto and Osaka neither of which were ruled by a daimyō or had a significant samurai population. Kyoto's character was defined by the Imperial Court, the court nobles, its Buddhist temples and its history. Areas further from the center were the domain of the chōnin; the area known as Shitamachi, northeast of the castle, was a center of urban culture. The ancient Buddhist temple of Sensō-ji still stands in Asakusa, marking the center of an area of traditional Shitamachi culture; some shops in the streets near the temple have existed continuously in the same location since the Edo period. The Sumida River called the Great River, ran along the eastern edge of the city; the shogunate's official rice-storage warehouses, other official buildings and some of the city's best-known restaurants were located here. The "Japan Bridge" marked the center of the city's commercial center, an area known as Kuramae.
Fishermen and other producers and retailers operated here. Shippers managed ships known as tarubune to and from Osaka and other cities, bringing goods into the city or transferring them from sea routes to river barges or land routes such as the Tōkaidō; this area remains the center of Tokyo's financial and business district. The northeastern corner of the city was considered a dangerous direction in traditional onmyōdō, is protected from evil by a number of temples including Sensō-ji and Kan'ei-ji. Beyond this were the districts of the eta or outcasts, who performed "unclean" work and were separated from the main parts of the city. A path and a canal, a short distance north of the eta districts, extended west from the riverbank leading along the northern edge of the city to the Yoshiwara pleasure districts. Located near Ningyocho, the districts were rebuilt in this more-remote location after the Great Fire of Meireki in 1657, as the city expanded. See Tokyo for photographs of the modern city.
Edo period Edo society Fires in Edo 1703 Genroku earthquake Edokko History of Tokyo Iki Asakusa Forbes, Andrew. 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY Gordon, Andrew.. A Modern History of Japan from Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511060-9/ISBN 978-0-19-511060-9. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Kyoto: the Old Capital, 794–1869. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: 1615–1867. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0527-5/ISBN 978-0-8047-0527-1. Akira Naito, Kazuo Hozumi. Edo, the City that Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History. Kodansha International, Tokyo. ISBN 4-7700-2757-5 Alternate spelling from 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article. A Trip to Old Edo Fukagawa Edo Museum Map of Bushū Toshima District, Edo from 1682
Niigata is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture located in the Chūbu region of Japan. It faces the Sea of Sado Island; as of 1 June 2016, the city had an estimated population of 807,450, a population density of 1,110 persons per km2. The total area is 726.45 square kilometres. Greater Niigata, Niigata Metropolitan Employment Area, has a GDP of US$43.3 billion as of 2010. With a long history as a port town, Niigata became a free port following the Meiji Restoration. Niigata's city government was established in 1889. Mergers with nearby municipalities in 2005 allowed the city's population to jump to 810,000; the annexation of the surrounding area has given the city the greatest rice paddy field acreage in Japan. On April 1, 2007, it became the first government-designated city on the Japan Sea coast of Honshu; the place name "Niigata" was first recorded in 1520. Its name in kanji can be translated as 新 "new", 潟 "lagoon", 市 "city". However, as there is no record about the origin of the name, this had led to several theories.
First "Niigata" was a large lagoon at the mouth of the Shinano river. Second it was an inland bay at the river's entrance. Third it was the name of a village. Fourth it referred to another island settlement that relocated to the Furumachi district and that in turn gave its name to a nearby lagoon. People have inhabited the Niigata area since the Jōmon period, though much of the current land was still beneath the sea at the time. According to the Nihon Shoki, a fortress was built in the area in AD 647. In the 16th century, a port called Niigata was established at the mouth of the Shinano River, while a port town with the name Nuttari developed at the mouth of the Agano River; the area prospered beneath the rule of Uesugi Kenshin during the Sengoku Period. A system of canals was constructed on the main island of Niigata in the 17th century. During this period, the courses of the Shinano and Agano rivers changed until they poured into the Sea of Japan at the same location; as a result, Niigata prospered as a port town, serving as a port of call for Japanese trade ships traversing the Sea of Japan.
The Matsugasaki Canal was constructed in 1730 to drain the Agano River area, but in 1731, flooding destroyed the canal and caused it to become the main current of the Agano River. As a result, the volume of water flowing into the port of Niigata decreased, which in turn allowed land reclamation efforts and the development of new rice fields to proceed. In 1858, Niigata was designated as one of the five ports to be opened for international trade in the Japan–U. S. Treaty of Amity and Commerce. However, the shallow water level in the port delayed the actual opening to foreign ships until 1869; the port served as a valuable base for fishermen who roamed as far north as the Kamchatka Peninsula to catch salmon and other fish. In 1886, the first Bandai Bridge was built across the Shinano River to connect the settlements of Niigata on the east and Nuttari on the west. Niigata annexed Nuttari in 1914. During World War II, Niigata's strategic location between the capital of Tokyo and the Sea of Japan made it a key point for the transfer of settlers and military personnel to the Asian continent, including Manchukuo.
In 1945, near the end of the war, Niigata was one of four cities, together with Hiroshima and Nagasaki, picked as targets for the atomic bomb if Japan did not surrender. The governor of Niigata Prefecture ordered the people to evacuate as rumors of an impending bombing spread, the city was deserted for days. Poor weather conditions and its distance from B-29 bases in the Mariana Islands meant that it was removed from the list of targets during deliberations. In 1950, construction of Niigata Station was completed, extending the downtown area from Bandai Bridge. A devastating fire in 1955 destroyed much of the downtown area, but the city recovered. In 1964, the old canals that flowed throughout the city were filled in to make way for more roads. On June 16, 1964, at 13:23 Japan Standard Time an earthquake of 7.5 Richter scale struck the city, killing 29 people and causing large-scale property damage, with 1,960 destroyed buildings, 6,640 destroyed buildings, 15,298 inundated by liquefaction. In 1965, the Agano River running through Niigata was polluted with methylmercury from the chemical plant of the Showa Electrical Company.
Over 690 people exhibited symptoms of Minamata disease and the outbreak became known as Niigata Minamata disease. In 1982, Shinkansen service on the Jōetsu Shinkansen line began between Niigata and Omiya, with service to Ueno added in 1985; the line was extended all the way to Tokyo in 1991. Big Swan Stadium in Niigata City hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup; the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake did not cause any significant damage in Niigata City itself, allowing the city to work as a relief base. The size and the population of Niigata city increased over the four-year period between 2001 and 2005, due to a series of municipal mergers. On April 1, 2007, Niigata City became first city on the west coast of Honshu to become a government-designated city. In July 2007, the Chūetsu offshore earthquake, measuring 6.9 on Richter scale, rocked Niigata Prefecture. Though the earthquake was felt in the city, there was little damage, which allowed Niigata City to provide aid to the devastated areas.
In May 2008, the city hosted the 2008 G8 Labor Ministers Meeting. On March 12, 2011, several hours after the massive 9.0 Tohoku earthquake struck off the east coast of Honshu and Nagano Prefectures experienced an estimated magnitude 6.6 earthquake. On April 1, 1889 - the village of Sekiya
Ōsu is a popular area located in the Naka ward of Nagoya, central Japan. Ōsu is a historic area which has many small shops offering everything from Japanese traditional food to handicrafts. A large department store is OSU301, it is popular amongst fashionable young people as well. The Ōsu Street Performer's Festival is held every year in October; the highlight is the parade of the oiran. There are religious institutions in this area; the most important ones are Banshō-ji and not far away is Hongan-ji Betsuin temple. Ōsu Kannon Station is located at Ōsu. Ryukasui was said to be one of three of the highest quality water springs in Owari Province, it was supplied from a well in front of the gate of Seijuin, abolished around 1870 during the religious reforms of the Meiji era. Ryukasui was used as an offering and when the Shōgun stopped there on his way to Kyoto, it was presented to him as drinking water. Media related to Ōsu at Wikimedia Commons Homepage of Ōsu ooooosu fashion