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Okfuskee County, Oklahoma

Okfuskee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, its population was 12,191, its county seat is Okemah. The county is named for a former Muscogee town in present Cleburne County, that in turn was named for the Okfuskee, a Muscogee tribe; the area now covered by Okfuskee County was occupied by the Quapaw and Osage tribes until 1825, when they ceded the land to the United States government. The Creeks moved here in the early 1830s and built two towns and Thlopthlocco. During the Civil War, Thlopthlocco served as headquarters for Confederate Col. Douglas H. Cooper. Greenleaf was where Chief Opothleyahola camped while he tried to retain unity among the Creeks, before leading over 5000 Creeks to Kansas to avoid the war. After the war, the Creeks were required to free their African American slaves. Many of these people founded all-black communities; these towns included Boley, Clearview and Rusk. Okfuskee, a Creek town, grew up around Samuel Checote's trading post after the Civil War.

The St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built a north-south line through this area during 1901-03; the Fort Smith and Western Railroad constructed an east-west line in 1903. Okfuskee County was created at statehood from the former Creek Nation, Okemah was designated as the county seat. Oil and gas production began in the county in 1914, when the Prairie Oil and Gas Company completed a well near Paden. Other wells followed elsewhere in the county, creating a population boom that peaked in 1930. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 629 square miles, of which 619 square miles are land and 10 square miles are covered by water; the county lies within the Sandstone Hills physiographic region. The northeastern part is drained by the Deep Fork of the Canadian River, while the southern part is drained by the North Canadian River. Interstate 40 U. S. Highway 62 U. S. Highway 75 State Highway 48 State Highway 56 Creek County Okmulgee County McIntosh County Hughes County Seminole County Pottawatomie County Lincoln County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,191 people living in the county.

64.4% were White, 19.7% Native American, 8.3% Black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% of some other race and 6.5% of two or more races. 2.9 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,814 people, 4,270 households, 2,971 families living in the county; the population density was 7/km². There were 5,114 housing units at an average density of 3/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 65.46% White, 10.41% Black or African American, 18.20% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.57% from other races, 5.27% from two or more races. 1.64 % of the population were Latino of any race. 92.5 % spoke 3.5 % Muskogee, 2.1 % Spanish and 1.3 % German as their first language. There were 4,270 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 106.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,324, the median income for a family was $30,325. Males had a median income of $24,129 versus $17,819 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,746. About 17.30% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 17.50% of those age 65 or over. The following sites in Okfuskee County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Boley Historic District, Boley Okemah Armory, Okemah Okfuskee County Courthouse, Okemah Weleetka Town Hall and Jail, Weleetka Okfuskee was the home county of American folk icon Woody Guthrie, born in Okemah.

Guthrie refers to Okfuskee in one of his lost lyrics, "Way Over Yonder In the Minor Key." The lyrics were set to music by Billy Wilco for their 1998 collaboration, Mermaid Avenue. Lynching of Laura and L. D. Nelson


Hurden is a village in the municipality of Freienbach in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. First mentioned in 1217, the name "de Hurden" was used for the peninsula and for the fish traps made of woven work, called "Hürden" or "Hurden", which were used by the locals; the village of Hurden is located on a peninsula protruding from the southern shore of Lake Zürich at its narrowest point. The peninsula has its origin in the retreat of the Linth glacier at the end of the last glacial period when Lake Zürich was formed; this retreat left. The higher southern section of this moraine extends above the lake's water level and forms the peninsula, whilst the lower northern section forms a shallow section in the otherwise deep lake. Together these separate Lake Zürich into two parts, the larger lower lake to the north-west, the smaller upper lake to the east; the artificial Seedamm uses a combination of artificial causeways and bridges to cross the shallow water between the tip of the peninsula to Rapperswil on the northern shore of the lake, carries both road and rail links.

To the west of the Seedamm, there is a wooden bridge for pedestrians, built in 2001 as a reconstruction of the first bridge between eastern and western lakesides. Since the construction of the Hurden ship canal, across the base of the peninsula, the natural peninsula has been transformed into an artificial island; the Sternenbrücke bridge carries both railway across the ship canal. At Hurden the Frauenwinkel protected area is situated, its name origins from a donation by the emperor Otto I in 965 AD to the pin Unserer lieben Frau to the Einsiedeln Abbey. The village is transited by the Rapperswil–Pfäffikon railway line and by a major road, both of which cross the Seedamm. Hurden railway station, in the village, is served by Zürich S-Bahn lines S5 and S40. In 1943 southern Hurden was divided by the construction of the Hurden ship canal, which connected the upper to the lower Lake Zürich. Now the ships of the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft were able to pass from Lake Zürich to the upper Lake Zürich, the peninsula was a real island, cut off from the mainland.

The Sternenbrücke bridge, across the Hurden ship canal, was renewed between March 15 and November 2010 to allow 40 ton trucks to cross the Seedamm. Archaeological relicts have been found at the Technikum island settlement, the remains of a first wooden bridge to Hurden located on the Obersee lakeshore nearby the so-called Heilig Hüsli at the northwestern part of the Seedamm area; the four neighbouring Prehistoric settlements, as well as the early lake crossings, are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, including the settlements Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn and Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld. Around 1523 BC the first lake crossings on Obersee between Rapperswil and Hurden were discovered in 2001, followed by several reconstructions at least until the late 2nd century AD when the Roman Empire built 6 meters wide wooden bridge under Empire Marcus Aurelius. Historians mention a 10th-century ferry station assumably at the so-called Einsiedlerhaus in Rapperswil – in 981 AD as well as the vineyard on the Lindenhof hill – between Kempraten on lake shore, Lützelau and Ufenau island and assumably present Hurden, which allowed the pilgrims towards Einsiedeln to cross the lake before the prehistoric bridge at the Seedamm isthmus was re-built.

By 1358, ferry services between Rapperswil and Hurden are mentioned. Between 1358 and 1360, Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, built a wooden bridge across the lake, used to 1878 – measuring 1,450 meters in length and 4 meters wide. A small wooden bridge from Ufenau island to Hurden is mentioned around 1430, so-called «Kilchweg in die Uffnow», meaning chorchgoing to the Ufnau island. During Old Zürich War in 1443 the bridge was set on fire, as a result of the Second Battle of Villmergen in 1712, Hurden was reigned by the Protestant cantons of Zürich and Glarus. During the Helvetic Republic, in 1798, Hurden became part of the new established Distrikt Rapperswil in the Canton of Linth, in 1803 it was part of the new established Pfäffikon. In 1873 the Swiss federal parliament approved the construction of the today's stone bridge. Beginning in 1990, luxurious villas were built in Hurden, which in part on newly reclaimed area created for and with a private harbour. In 2001 a new wooden footbridge was opened alongside the dam for the first 840 meters meters of the crossing.

It was built in quite the same place as the original bridge linking Rapperswil with the nearby bridge chapel. Located on Obersee lakeshore in Hurden and situated at the Seedamm isthmus between the Zürichsee and the Obersee lake area, the area was in close vicinity to the prehistoric lake crossings, neighbored by four Prehistoric pile dwelling settlements: Freienbach–Hurden Rosshorn, Freienbach–Hurden Seefeld and Rapperswil-Jona–Technikum; because the lake has grown in size over time, the original piles are now around 4 metres to 7 metres under the water level of 406 metres. As well as being part of the 56 Swiss sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, the settlements are listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance as Class A objects of national importance. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps Official website Hurden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Advocates for Children in Therapy

Advocates for Children in Therapy is a U. S. advocacy group opposed to attachment therapy and related treatments. The organization opposes a number of psychotherapeutic techniques which it considers or harmful to children who undergo treatment; the group's mission is to provide advocacy by "raising general public awareness of the dangers and cruelty" of practices related to attachment therapy. According to the group, "ACT works to mobilize parents, professionals and governmental regulators, prosecutors and legislators to end the physical torture and emotional abuse, Attachment Therapy." Attachment therapy is an ambiguous term with no precise professional meaning but popularly used to describe controversial, non-mainstream "treatments" for children suffering from attachment disorder, in itself an ambiguous term. 2006, p78) There are many variants, for example “holding therapy,” “compression therapy,“ “corrective attachment therapy,” “the Evergreen model,” “holding time,” “rage-reduction therapy”, somewhat erroneously, “rebirthing therapy.”.

ACT states that attachment therapy involves "the imposition of boundary violations — most coercive restraint — and verbal abuse on a child for hours at a time … the child is put in a lap hold with the arms pinned down, or alternatively an adult lies on top of a child lying prone on the floor" and as "a growing, underground movement for the'treatment' of children who pose disciplinary problems to their parents or caregivers." The group further notes that attachment therapy "almost always involves confrontational hostile confrontation of a child by a therapist or parent. Restraint of the child by more powerful adult is considered an essential part of the confrontation" and refers to attachment therapy as "the worst quackery in our nation today."ACT has listed seven criteria for operationally defining attachment therapy: "For our purposes, we have identified several distinguishing characteristics, any one of which qualifies a practice to be called Attachment Therapy: "Practices, teaches or recommends restraint for an therapeutic purpose.

The things mentioned are deliberately confrontational and intrusive. "Principally treats, or is concerned with, a condition of'Attachment Disorder', assesses for that condition using unvalidated diagnostic tools, or uses no tools at all for objective assessment. "Practices or recommends treatment based on a belief in the efficacy of any of the following: re-traumatization. "Adheres to unvalidated notions about child development or attachment the so-called'Attachment Cycle'. Though reference may be made to the Attachment Theory, pioneered by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Attachment Therapy shares little with that empirical work. "Claims that AT practices are safe and efficacious when there is a near complete lack of scientific support. "Practices or teaches harsh parenting and respite methods, based principally upon combinations of deprivation, isolation or humiliation for the child. "Uncritically recommends materials which do any of the above."ACT challenges the diagnosis of attachment disorder, stating, "A large fringe element of pseudoscientific psychotherapists — Attachment Therapists — have invented the dubious, unrecognized diagnosis of'Attachment Disorder' and its cure.

AD is thought to be a child's inability to form a close, loving relationship with his caregiver because of early childhood abuse or neglect. Many, if not most, undesirable behaviors seen in childhood stem from AD." ACT has advocated for the elimination of attachment therapy and criticizes the referral of children for government-funded attachment therapy by courts and state workers, referring to such practices as "state-sponsored torture." The group reports that some of its members had been directly involved in prosecution of those responsible for the death of Candace Newmaker in 2001 before the group's formation the following year. In 2003, a book on that case was published, Attachment Therapy on Trial: The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker. ACT entered a statement into the record of a Congressional hearing into a child starvation case; the ACT website reports on cases which it identifies as involving elements of attachment therapy, including some for which its members assisted authorities.

Attachment therapy Attachment disorder Reactive attachment disorder Candace Newmaker Official website

Monrepos Palace

Monrepos is a lakeside schloss in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Although quite far and separate from Favorite Palace and Ludwigsburg Palace, it is connected to the rest of the grounds by way of pedestrian paths, it is one of the two minor palaces on the estate, along with the main one. The smaller ones were used as hunting lodges. Of all three, this is the only one, still owned by the royal family of Württemberg after its overthrow in 1918. Much of the owned land surrounding Monrepos is now an 18-hole golf course, unlike the state-owned part, made up of parks and museums. Since the 16th century, the Dukes of Württemberg enjoyed hunting along the Eglosheimer Lake. In 1714, Duke Eberhard Ludwig had an octagonal pavilion, the Seehäuslein, constructed on the northern shore. Lustschloss Schloss Favorite, Ludwigsburg Media related to Schloss Monrepos at Wikimedia Commons Monrepos – information webpage

Cornelius H. Charlton

Cornelius H. Charlton was a soldier in the United States Army during the Korean War. Sergeant Charlton posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his actions near Chipo-ri, South Korea on June 2, 1951. Born to a coal mining family in West Virginia, Charlton enlisted in the Army out of high school in 1946, he was transferred to the segregated 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, fighting in the Korean War. During a battle for Hill 543 near the village of Chipo-ri, Charlton took command of his platoon after its commanding officer was injured, leading it on three successive assaults of the hill. Charlton continued to lead the attack until the Chinese position was destroyed, at the cost of his life. For these actions, Charlton was awarded the medal. In the following years, Charlton was honored numerous times, but was controversially not given a spot in Arlington National Cemetery, which his family claimed was due to racial discrimination; the controversy attracted national attention before Charlton was reburied in Arlington in 2008.

Cornelius H. Charlton was born in East Gulf, West Virginia on July 24, 1929, he was the eighth of 17 children born to Van Charlton, a coal miner, Clara Charlton, a housewife. Cornelius moved to Coalwood, West Virginia in 1940 to live with his brother, Arthur. In 1944, the family moved to The Bronx in New York City, New York as Van Charlton became the superintendent of an apartment building. Cornelius Charlton enrolled in James Monroe High School. Friends and family knew Charlton as "Connie."Charlton indicated a desire to join the United States Army from a young age. When Charlton graduated from high school in 1946, he remained committed to joining the Army, so his parents signed the papers allowing 17-year-old Charlton to enlist. Charlton left for Basic Combat Training in November 1946; as an African American, he entered the Army at a time. In 1948, U. S. president Harry S. Truman ordered the desegregation of the U. S. military with Executive Order 9981. However, many units remained de facto segregated, with African Americans being pooled into service units and non-combat duties.

It would be several years before troops were integrated. Upon graduating from basic training, Charlton was assigned to Allied-occupied Germany, where he served out his whole enlistment. Charlton opted to re-enlist, his next assignment was with a military engineering battalion at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Aberdeen, Maryland. In 1950, Charlton was assigned to the Occupation of Japan, was given an administrative job on Okinawa with an engineering group of the Eighth United States Army. However, Charlton indicated a desire to fight in the Korean War, so he requested transfer to a front line unit in South Korea, he was subsequently assigned to C Company, 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment, part of the 25th Infantry Division. The regiment was one of the de facto segregated units, made up entirely of African American men led by white officers. From its arrival in September 1950, the regiment had been plagued by poor performance and accusations of cowardice. Division commander Major General William B. Kean had requested the unit be disbanded, finding the regiment "untrustworthy."Charlton arrived at C Company of the regiment's 1st Battalion in early 1951, at first was regarded with suspicion by officers and leaders in his unit.

A sergeant, he was made a squad leader in the 3rd Platoon, impressed his unit's company commander with his natural leadership ability, soon his squad was considered a model unit. In May 1951, Charlton was made the platoon sergeant and his commander recommended him for a battlefield commission. In late May and early June 1951, the Eighth Army launched Operation Piledriver, a concentrated effort to push Chinese and North Korean troops further north and out of South Korea; the 25th Infantry Division advanced as part of this operation. The 24th Infantry saw a slow advance during this operation, attempting to advance on Kumwha but encountering strong resistance. On July 1, the 2nd Battalion, 24th Infantry took heavy casualties and was forced to withdraw to reserve positions, the 1st and 3rd Battalions moved up to continue the advance. On June 2, C Company moved to capture Hill 543 near the village of Chipo-ri; the hill was protected by entrenched Chinese infantry as well as mortars at the top of the hill.

During their first attempt to advance up the hill, the company took heavy casualties, the 3rd Platoon leader was mortally wounded. Charlton reorganized it for another attack. Heavy fire forced the company back down the hill. Three times, Charlton led the platoon up the hill in the face of intense Chinese mortar and infantry fire. In spite of mounting casualties, the platoon made slow progress. Charlton single-handedly destroyed two Chinese positions and killed six Chinese soldiers with rifle fire and grenades. During one advance, Charlton was wounded in the chest, but he refused medical treatment and pushed the company forward. Charlton continued to lead the attack from the front of the platoon, several times was separated from the unit. Subsequent accounts noted Charlton continued the advance "holding his chest wound with one hand and an M1 carbine with the other."Under Charlton's leadership, the platoon managed to overcome the Chinese infantry positions, but it spotted a Chinese bunker on the far side of the top of the hill, from which the mortars were firing on them.

As recounted by Private First Class Ronald Holmes, one of the men in the platoon, Charlton decided to destroy the bunker, with his last known words, "Let's go

Jason Gonzalez

Jason Gonzalez is an attorney in Tallahassee, Florida. He is credited with reshaping the Florida Supreme Court while serving as General Counsel to the Governor of Florida, he was the chief advisor to the Governor on the appointment of four Florida Supreme Court Justices. He handles civil and administrative litigation and government affairs. Jason Gonzalez was born in Tallahassee, the son of Larry Gonzalez and Jean Gonzalez. A seventh generation Floridian, Gonzalez is the great-great-grandson of Captain Manuel A. Gonzalez, who founded the City of Ft. Myers, Florida in 1866, the great-grandson of Florida Pioneer and Explorer Alfonso Fernando Gonzalez and the great-great-great-great-grandson of Evander Lee, who founded the City of Leesburg, Florida in 1857. Gonzalez attended the University of Florida where he graduated Cum Laude with a bachelor's degree in Business Administration and a Juris Doctorate degree, he became an attorney and Florida Bar member in 1998. While in law school, he married his high school sweetheart Sara Hicks Gonzalez.

Jason and Sara are the parents of three boys. Gonzalez practices in the areas of trial and administrative litigation and represents clients before the Florida Legislature and all State Executive branch agencies as a partner with Shutts & Bowen LLP, he has served two terms as General Counsel to the Republican Party of Florida, a term as General Counsel to the Governor of Florida. Gonzalez has served two terms as General Counsel to the Republican Party of Florida, has attended four Republican National Conventions with the Florida delegation. In 2010 following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon, the vessel's owner, Transocean Ltd. selected Gonzalez to serve as its lead counsel for litigation and state regulatory matters in the Florida Panhandle. Over a two-year period, Mr. Gonzalez obtained orders dismissing or removing every one of the more than 70 individual and class action lawsuits filed against Transocean in Florida. In 2007 the Florida Governor appointed Gonzalez to the Judicial Nominating Commission for the Florida Supreme Court.

Gonzalez served terms as Chairman of the Judicial Nominating Commission for the First District Court of Appeal of Florida and Chairman of the Judicial Nominating Commission for the Second Judicial Circuit of Florida. Jason Gonzalez was appointed General Counsel to the Governor of Florida in 2008; as General Counsel he was the chief advisor to the Governor on all legal matters and served as the Governor's Chief Ethics Officer and chief advisor on judicial appointments. In 2008-2009 Gonzalez was the chief advisor to the Governor on the appointments of four Florida Supreme Court Justices; the four appointments marked the first time in Florida history in which a Governor appointed a majority of the Court in less than a year