Old Bailey

The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales is a court in London and one of a number of buildings housing the Crown Court. Part of the present building stands on the site of the medieval Newgate gaol, on a road named Old Bailey that follows the line of the City of London's fortified wall, which runs from Ludgate Hill to the junction of Newgate Street and Holborn Viaduct; the Old Bailey has been housed in several structures near this location since the sixteenth century, its present building dates from 1902, designed by Edward William Mountford. The Crown Court sitting at the Central Criminal Court deals with major criminal cases from within Greater London and in exceptional cases, from other parts of England and Wales. Trials at the Old Bailey, as at other courts, are open to the public; the court originated as the sessions house of the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs of the City of London and of Middlesex. The original medieval court was first mentioned in 1585, it was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and rebuilt in 1674, with the court open to the weather to prevent the spread of disease.

In 1734, it was refronted, enclosing the court and reducing the influence of spectators: this led to outbreaks of typhus, notably in 1750 when 60 people died, including the Lord Mayor and two judges. It was rebuilt again in 1774 and a second courtroom was added in 1824. Over 100,000 criminal trials were carried out at the Old Bailey between 1674 and 1834. In 1834, it was renamed as the Central Criminal Court and its jurisdiction extended beyond that of London and Middlesex to the whole of the English jurisdiction for trials of major cases, her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service manages the courts and administers the trials but the building itself is owned by the City of London Corporation, which finances the building, the running of it, the staff and the maintenance out of their own resources. The court was intended as the site where only criminals accused of crimes committed in the City and Middlesex were tried. However, in 1856, there was public revulsion at the accusations against the doctor William Palmer that he was a poisoner and murderer.

This led to fears. The Central Criminal Court Act 1856 was passed to enable his trial to be held at the Old Bailey. In the 19th century, the Old Bailey was a courtroom adjacent to Newgate Prison. Hangings were a public spectacle in the street outside until May 1868; the condemned would be led along Dead Man's Walk between the prison and the court, many were buried in the walk itself. Large, riotous crowds would gather and pelt the condemned with rotten fruit and vegetables and stones. After 28 people were crushed to death when a pie-seller's stall overturned, a secret tunnel was created between the prison and St Sepulchre's church opposite, to allow the chaplain to minister to the condemned man without having to force his way through the crowds; the present Old Bailey building dates from 1902 but it was opened on 27 February 1907. It was designed by E. W. Mountford and built on the site of the infamous Newgate Prison, demolished to allow the court buildings to be constructed. Above the main entrance is inscribed the admonition: "Defend the Children of the Poor & Punish the Wrongdoer".

King Edward VII opened the courthouse. On the dome above the court stands a gilt bronze statue of Lady Justice, executed by the British sculptor F. W. Pomeroy in 1905–1906, she holds the scales of justice in her left. The statue is popularly supposed to show blind Justice, but the figure is not blindfolded: the courthouse brochures explain that this is because Lady Justice was not blindfolded, because her "maidenly form" is supposed to guarantee her impartiality which renders the blindfold redundant. During the Blitz of World War II, the Old Bailey was bombed and damaged, but reconstruction work restored most of it in the early 1950s. In 1952, the restored interior of the Grand Hall of the Central Criminal Court was once again open; the interior of the Great Hall is decorated with paintings commemorating the Blitz, as well as quasi-historical scenes of St Paul's Cathedral with nobles outside. Running around the entire hall are a series of axioms, some of biblical reference, they read: The Great Hall is decorated with many busts and statues, chiefly of British monarchs, but of legal figures, those who achieved renown by campaigning for improvement in prison conditions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

This part of the building houses the shorthand-writers' offices. The lower level hosts a minor exhibition on the history of the Old Bailey and Newgate featuring historical prison artefacts. In 1973, the Belfast Brigade of the Provisional IRA exploded a car bomb in the street outside the courts, killing one and injuring 200 people. A shard of glass is preserved as a reminder, embedded in the wall at the top of the main stairs. Between 1968 and 1972, a new South Block, designed by the architects Donald McMorran and George Whitby, was built to accommodate more modern courts. There are 18 courts in use at present. Court 19 is now used variously as a press overflow facility, as a registration room for first-day jurors or as a holding area for serving jurors; the original ceremonial gate to the 1907 part of the building in Warwick Square, on the western side of the complex, is the "Lord Mayor's Entrance" and only used by t

Clarkston railway station

Clarkston railway station is a suburban side platform railway station in the town of Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, Scotland. The station is managed by Abellio ScotRail and is on the East Kilbride branch of the Glasgow South Western Line, it was opened in 1866 by the Busby Railway. The station was opened by the Busby Railway on 1 January 1866. Services were subsequently extended through to East Kilbride by the Caledonian Railway two years and to High Blantyre, though the section beyond East Kilbride closed back in the 1940s. A further pair of connections to the Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Railway were subsequently constructed around 1903-4 by the latter company, though only the south to west one saw regular traffic and then for just a few months. Proposals put forward by British Rail in the early 1980s would have seen the former south to east curve reinstated to allow East Kilbride trains to be re-routed via Muirend and Mount Florida to Glasgow Central; the scheme would have seen the branch electrified but the Clarkston to Busby Junction portion closed, along with Giffnock and Thornliebank stations.

The plans were not well received and were dropped. The station has a half-hourly service in each direction to East Kilbride. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. RAILSCOT on Busby Railway Historical timetables and satellite imagery for Clarkston railway station. See Timetable World - The online collection of historical transport timetables and maps from around the world

Ian Murray (Scottish politician)

Ian Murray is a British Labour Party politician. He has been the Member of Parliament for Edinburgh South since the 2010 general election, he served as an Edinburgh City Councillor for Liberton & Gilmerton Ward from 2003 to 2010. From 2015 to 2017 and since December 2019, Murray has been the only Labour Party MP representing a Scottish constituency in the House of Commons. Murray was born in Edinburgh, to a cooper father and shop assistant mother in 1976. Brought up in the Wester Hailes area of Edinburgh, he attended Dumbryden Primary School Wester Hailes High School. Upon completing his secondary school education, Murray read Social Policy and Law at the University of Edinburgh's Academy of Government, he graduated with an honours degree aged twenty. While studying at university, he had a part-time job in a local fish & chip shop before setting up and running a pizza delivery service. After graduation, Murray worked for Royal Blind in pensions management, before being head-hunted by an Edinburgh-based internet television station during the dot-com boom where he helped to build a new online TV station.

Despite his efforts, the company ran out of funding and he was made redundant. Murray organised a student exchange programme in Nepal to fund school buildings and staff. In 2003, Murray stood in the council elections for Liberton winning the seat for Labour at the age of 27. Murray was returned for the seat of Edinburgh South at the 2010 general election, he served on the Business and Skills Select Committee and the Environmental Audit Select Committee. In 2011, he was appointed to the Official Opposition frontbench. At the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Murray campaigned against independence, he claimed to have encountered hostility from independence activists and reported that his office premises had been plastered with pro-independence "Yes" stickers, which were removed. Murray was re-elected as MP for Edinburgh South at the 2015 general election, with an increased share of the vote and an increased majority, he was the only Labour MP returned for a Scottish constituency. He was appointed as Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland on 11 May 2015 by Acting Labour Party Leader Harriet Harman.

He was re-appointed to the same role by newly-elected Labour Party Leader Jeremy Corbyn in September 2015. Days after the EU referendum, on 26 June 2016, he resigned around the same time as some other members of the Shadow Cabinet, citing a lack of confidence in Corbyn's leadership ability to win a general election, he nominated Owen Smith in his failed leadership challenge against Corbyn. After Corbyn's successful re-election as Labour leader with an increased majority, Murray said he would only return to Corbyn's frontbench if he reinstated Shadow Cabinet elections and stopped using the threat of deselection to enforce loyalty. Murray has accused Corbyn of being "all over the place" on potential Labour Party co-operation with the SNP, his replacement as Shadow Scottish Secretary Dave Anderson refused to rule out a deal with the SNP at Westminster. Prior to the 2019 general election, Murray faced the threat of deselection when Unite the Union announced it would vote to trigger an open selection.

Local members refused to back such a contest. Following the election, he again became Labour's only MP in Scotland, as the party's vote share decreased by 8.5%. On 7 January 2020, Murray announced that he would run for deputy leader of the Labour Party in the deputy leadership election, he has received the backing of former Prime Ministers Gordon Tony Blair. Murray is a member of Progress, he supports Edinburgh-based football team Hearts and was Chair of the Foundation of Hearts, a bid by a fans' group to buy-out the club from administration. He stepped down in May 2015 in order to focus on his parliamentary duties, was duly replaced by the current Chair, Brian Cormack. Official website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Party profile