William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Campus of the University of Arkansas
There are many buildings on the University of Arkansas campus. Most of the historic structures are part of the University of Arkansas Campus Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places; this article focuses on the non-listed buildings. Gand mein danda David W. Mullins Library is located in the center of campus, it is the second largest library in the state of Arkansas next to the Clinton Presidential Library. It contains 4 floors of information in every kind of modern medium; this includes several special archives related to Arkansas history. It is named after David Wiley Mullins, the president of the university from 1960 to 1974, helped create the University of Arkansas System, brokering a series of mergers; the Arkansas Union, is at the center of student life. It contains a large computer lab with over 70 computers, coffee shop that hosts various cultural events, movie theater, ball room, food court, text book & regular book store, Razorback paraphernalia shop, bus station, post office, student run radio station, KXUA 88.3FM, several other small stores and offices.
The entire building has wireless internet access and a student technology center that loans laptops out to students, free of charge. This building serves as the home for the music department and contains faculty studios, music classrooms and practice spaces, administrative offices, it was constructed in 1976 as an addition to the Fine Arts Building, designed by Edward Durell Stone in 1950. The existing music building was renamed in 2000 by the University of Arkansas Board of Trustees in honor for George and Boyce Billingsley, of Bella Vista Arkansas, for the establishment of the Billingsley Music Fund to support programs within the department. Ferritor Hall is the current home of 31 research laboratories and nine environmental rooms supporting the study of biological and biochemistry. Construction began in 1997 and the facility opened in August 2000; the official dedication ceremony was held March 2, 2001. The building is dedicated to Daniel E. Ferritor, sociology professor and Chancellor Emeritus of the University of Arkansas.
Bell Engineering Center was built in 1987. Donald W. Reynolds Stadium is the main home field of the Arkansas Razorbacks football team; the actual field of play is named "Frank Broyles Field". The stadium has an approximate seating capacity of 76,000; the Frank Broyles Athletics Center, home to the Razorback Athletic Department and named after Frank Broyles, was located at the north end of the Stadium. It featured the Jerry Jones/Jim Lindsey Hall of Champions, a museum to University of Arkansas sports; the Bev Lewis Center for Women's Athletics was funded with a gift from Bob and Marilyn Bogle, named for the University's longtime coach and Women's AD Bev Lewis. The facility was opened in 2003. Bud Walton Arena is the home of the Arkansas Razorbacks and Lady'Backs basketball teams, it is located in the far west of the campus. The arena seats 19,368 patrons, it is named for James "Bud" Walton, co-founder of Wal-Mart, who donated half of the 30 million price tag for the construction of the arena. The 1993–94 Arkansas Razorbacks men's basketball team won the national championship in the arena's first year.
After an international search that produced more than 100 applicants, the University of Arkansas commissioned sculptor Gretta Bader to create a statue of Senator J. William Fulbright to be displayed outside Old Main, home of the J. William Fulbright School of Arts and Sciences; the 7-foot-3 statue faces the Fulbright Peace Fountain and was dedicated in 2002. Former United States President and University of Arkansas faculty member Bill Clinton, Chancellor John White, poet Miller Williams, Fulbright College Dean Donald Bobbitt, Harriet Fulbright, widow of the late senator all spoke at the dedication ceremony; the Fulbright Peace Fountain is located between Vol Walker Old Main. It was completed in 1998, dedicated on October 24, 1998, it was constructed in honor of J. William Fulbright, his belief that "education study abroad, has the power to promote tolerance and understanding among nations." The fountain had water coming up through the middle. Spoofer's Stone, according to legend, was to be used for construction of the oldest building on campus, Old Main, under construction from 1873 to 1875.
Limestone was used for the lintels among other places. One of the large pieces of limestone being hauled by oxcart to the building site of Old Main slipped off the cart, landing on the ground in front of the building site, it was left there after cleanup. During the 1880s, the university's authorities forbade the male and female students from being together at most times, requiring them to sit on opposite sides of a classroom, line up on opposite sides of the hallways and avoid each other in social situations; the Spoofer's Stone became a location for lovers to leave notes for one another. It became a popular location for men to propose marriage to women; the stone's ragged appearance is due to the tradition of breaking off a piece of the stone after a proposal, a practice, forbidden. The origin of the name "Spoofer" or who Spoofer was, is unknown. Courage to Lead is a bronze statue depicting Native Americans by Potawatomi sculptor Denny Haskew dona
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones and concrete masonry units and seal the irregular gaps between them, sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls. In its broadest sense mortar includes pitch and soft mud or clay, such as used between mud bricks. Mortar comes from Latin mortarium meaning crushed. Cement mortar becomes hard. Mortars are made from a mixture of sand, a binder, water; the most common binder since the early 20th century is Portland cement but the ancient binder lime mortar is still used in some new construction. Lime and gypsum in the form of plaster of Paris are used in the repair and repointing of buildings and structures because it is important the repair materials are similar to the original materials; the type and ratio of the repair mortar is determined by a mortar analysis. There are several types of cement additives; the first mortars were made of clay. Because of a lack of stone and an abundance of clay, Babylonian constructions were of baked brick, using lime or pitch for mortar.
According to Roman Ghirshman, the first evidence of humans using a form of mortar was at the Mehrgarh of Baluchistan in Pakistan, built of sun-dried bricks in 6500 BCE. The ancient sites of Harappan civilization of third millennium BCE are built with kiln-fired bricks and a gypsum mortar. Gypsum mortar called plaster of Paris, was used in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and many other ancient structures, it is made from gypsum. It is therefore easier to make than lime mortar and sets up much faster which may be a reason it was used as the typical mortar in ancient, brick arch and vault construction. Gypsum mortar is not as durable as other mortars in damp conditions. In early Egyptian pyramids, which were constructed during the Old Kingdom, the limestone blocks were bound by mortar of mud and clay, or clay and sand. In Egyptian pyramids, the mortar was made of either gypsum or lime. Gypsum mortar was a mixture of plaster and sand and was quite soft. In the Indian subcontinent, multiple cement types have been observed in the sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as the Mohenjo-daro city-settlement that dates to earlier than 2600 BCE.
Gypsum cement, "light grey and contained sand, traces of calcium carbonate, a high percentage of lime" was used in the construction of wells, drains and on the exteriors of "important looking buildings." Bitumen mortar was used at a lower-frequency, including in the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro. Building with concrete and mortar next appeared in Greece; the excavation of the underground aqueduct of Megara revealed that a reservoir was coated with a pozzolanic mortar 12 mm thick. This aqueduct dates back to c. 500 BCE. Pozzolanic mortar is a lime based mortar, but is made with an additive of volcanic ash that allows it to be hardened underwater; the Greeks obtained the volcanic ash from the Greek islands Thira and Nisiros, or from the Greek colony of Dicaearchia near Naples, Italy. The Romans improved the use and methods of making what became known as pozzolanic mortar and cement; the Romans used a mortar without pozzolana using crushed terra cotta, introducing aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide into the mix.
This mortar was not as strong as pozzolanic mortar, because it was denser, it better resisted penetration by water. Hydraulic mortar was not available in ancient China due to a lack of volcanic ash. Around 500 CE, sticky rice soup was mixed with slaked lime to make an inorganic−organic composite sticky rice mortar that had more strength and water resistance than lime mortar, it is not understood how the art of making hydraulic mortar and cement, perfected and in such widespread use by both the Greeks and Romans, was lost for two millennia. During the Middle Ages when the Gothic cathedrals were being built, the only active ingredient in the mortar was lime. Since cured lime mortar can be degraded by contact with water, many structures suffered from wind blown rain over the centuries. Ordinary Portland cement mortar known as OPC mortar or just cement mortar, is created by mixing powdered Ordinary Portland Cement, fine aggregate and water, it was invented in 1794 by Joseph Aspdin and patented on 18 December 1824 as a result of efforts to develop stronger mortars.
It was made popular during the late nineteenth century, had by 1930 became more popular than lime mortar as construction material. The advantages of Portland cement is that it sets hard and allowing a faster pace of construction. Furthermore, fewer skilled workers are required in building a structure with Portland cement; as a general rule, Portland cement should not be used for the repair or repointing of older buildings built in lime mortar, which require the flexibility and breathability of lime if they are to function correctly. In the United States and other countries, five standard types of mortar are used for both new construction and repair. Strengths of mortar change based on the ratio of cement and sand used in mortar; the ingredients and the mix ratio for each type of mortars are specified under the ASTM standards. These premixed mortar products are designated by one of the five letters, M, S, N, O, K. Type M mortar is the strongest, Type K the weakest; these type
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
The cornerstone is the first stone set in the construction of a masonry foundation, important since all other stones will be set in reference to this stone, thus determining the position of the entire structure. Over time a cornerstone became a ceremonial masonry stone, or replica, set in a prominent location on the outside of a building, with an inscription on the stone indicating the construction dates of the building and the names of architect and other significant individuals; the rite of laying a cornerstone is an important cultural component of eastern architecture and metaphorically in sacred architecture generally. Some cornerstones include time capsules from, or engravings commemorating, the time a particular building was built; the ceremony involved the placing of offerings of grain and oil on or under the stone. These were the people of the land and the means of their subsistence; this in turn derived from the practice in still more ancient times of making an animal or human sacrifice, laid in the foundations.
Frazer in The Golden Bough charts the various propitiary sacrifices and effigy substitution such as the shadow, states that: Nowhere does the equivalence of the shadow to the life or soul come out more than in some customs practised to this day in South-eastern Europe. In modern Greece, when the foundation of a new building is being laid, it is the custom to kill a cock, a ram, or a lamb, to let its blood flow on the foundation-stone, under which the animal is afterwards buried; the object of the sacrifice is to give stability to the building. But sometimes, instead of killing an animal, the builder entices a man to the foundation-stone, secretly measures his body, or a part of it, or his shadow, buries the measure under the foundation-stone, it is believed. The Roumanians of Transylvania think that he whose shadow is thus immured will die within forty days. Not long ago there were still shadow-traders whose business it was to provide architects with the shadows necessary for securing their walls.
In these cases the measure of the shadow is looked on as equivalent to the shadow itself, to bury it is to bury the life or soul of the man, deprived of it, must die. Thus the custom is a substitute for the old practice of immuring a living person in the walls, or crushing him under the foundation-stone of a new building, in order to give strength and durability to the structure, or more in order that the angry ghost may haunt the place and guard it against the intrusion of enemies. Ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira, in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks. A VIP of the organization, or a local celebrity or community leader, will be invited to conduct the ceremony of figuratively beginning the foundations of the building, with the person's name and official position and the date being recorded on the stone; this person is asked to place their hand on the stone or otherwise signify its laying.
Still, until the 1970s, most ceremonies involved the use of a specially manufactured and engraved trowel that had a formal use in laying mortar under the stone. A special hammer was used to ceremonially tap the stone into place; the foundation stone has a cavity into, placed a time capsule containing newspapers of the day or week of the ceremony plus other artifacts that are typical of the period of the construction: coins of the year may be immured in the cavity or time capsule. Freemasons sometimes perform the public cornerstone laying ceremony for notable buildings; this ceremony was described by The Cork Examiner of 13 January 1865 as follows:... The Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster, applying the golden square and level to the stone said. After this, Bishop Gregg spread cement over the stone with a trowel specially made for the occasion by John Hawkesworth, a silversmith and a jeweller, he gave the stone three knocks with a mallet and declared the stone to be'duly and laid'. The Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Munster poured offerings of corn and wine over the stone after Bishop Gregg had declared it to be'duly and laid'.
The Provincial Grand Chaplain of the Masonic Order in Munster read out the following prayer:'May the Great Architect of the universe enable us as to carry out and finish this work. May He protect the workmen from danger and accident, long preserve the structure from decay. So mote it be.' The choir and congregation sang the Hundredth Psalm. In Freemasonry, which grew from the practice of stonemasons, the initiate is placed in the north-east corner of the Lodge as a figurative foundation stone; this is intended to signify the unity of the North associated with darkness and the East associated with light. A cornerstone will sometimes be referred to as a "foundation-stone", is symbolic of Christ, whom the Apostle Paul referred to as the "head of the corner" and is the "Chief Cornerstone of the Church". A chief or head cornerstone is placed above two wall
Benton County, Arkansas
Benton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas; the county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U. S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location. Benton County is part of the Northwest Arkansas region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 884 square miles, of which 847 square miles is land and 37 square miles is water. Most of the water is in Beaver Lake. Barry County, Missouri Carroll County Madison County Washington County Adair County, Oklahoma Delaware County, Oklahoma McDonald County, Missouri Logan Cave National Wildlife Refuge Ozark National Forest Pea Ridge National Military Park As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 153,406 people, 58,212 households, 43,484 families residing in the county.
The population density was 181 people per square mile. There were 64,281 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.87% White, 0.41% Black or African American, 1.65% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 4.08% from other races, 1.82% from two or more races. 8.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of 2005 Benton County's population was 81.7% non-Hispanic white, while the percentage of Latinos grew by 60 percent in the time period. Latinos are attracted to the growth of light industrial jobs, home construction and service sector in the county. 1.1% of the population was African-American. 1.6% reported two or more races not black-white due to a minuscule African-American population. And 12.8% was Latino, but the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce believed the official estimate is underreported and Latinos could well be 20 percent of the population. There were 58,212 households out of which 34.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.00% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families.
21.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.60% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 21.10% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,281, the median income for a family was $45,235. Males had a median income of $30,327 versus $22,469 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,377. About 7.30% of families and 10.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 7.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 221,339; the racial makeup of the county was 76.18% Non-Hispanic white, 1.27% Black or African American, 1.69% Native American, 2.85% Asian, 0.30% Pacific Islander.
15.49 % of the population was Latino. Politically, Benton County is arguably one of the most Republican-Leaning Counties in Arkansas. Benton County has not voted Democrat in a Presidential election since 1948 when a former senator from bordering Missouri, Harry S. Truman won Benton County along with winning Arkansas as a whole. Walmart corporate headquarters is located in Bentonville. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, is headquartered in Rogers. JB Hunt Transport Services corporate headquarters is located in Lowell. Tyson Foods, based in nearby Springdale, has a distribution center located in Rogers; the historic Trail of Tears is on US highways 62 and 71 and connects with U. S. Route 412 in nearby Washington County. Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located near Highfill. Rogers Municipal Airport serves surrounding communities; the Arkansas and Missouri Railroad parallels US Highways 71 in the county. Like all of the conservative Bible Belt of the Ozarks and Ouachitas, Benton County is Republican.
It voted Republican in 1928 and 1944, the last Democratic presidential nominee to carry the county was Harry S. Truman in 1948, along with nearby Sebastian County it was one of the few counties in Arkansas to resist the appeal of southern “favorite sons” George Wallace, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. Avoca Garfield Gateway Highfill Springtown Cherokee City Hiwasse Lost Bridge Village Maysville Prairie Creek Note: Most Arkansas counties have names for their townships. Benton County, has numbers instead of names. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town o