In art history, "Old Master" refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print made by an artist in the same period; the term "old master drawing" is used in the same way. In theory, "Old Master" applies only to artists who were trained, were Masters of their local artists' guild, worked independently, but in practice, paintings produced by pupils or workshops are included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the term was understood as having a starting date of 1450 or 1470; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as "A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern. A pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries." The first quotation given is from 1696, in the diary of John Evelyn: "My L: Pembroke..shewed me divers rare Pictures of many of the old & best Masters that of M: Angelo..& a large booke of the best drawings of the old Masters."
The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master, a usage datable to 1824. There are comparable terms in Dutch and German. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is used in French; the famous collection in Dresden at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister is one of the few museums to include the term in its actual name, although many more use it in the title of departments or sections. The collection in the Dresden museum stops at the Baroque period; the end date is vague – for example, Goya is an Old Master, though he was still painting and printmaking at his death in 1828. The term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but is not; the term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague when discussing paintings, although the terms "Old Master Prints" and "Old Master drawings" are still used. It remains current in the art trade. Auction houses still divide their sales between, for example, "Old Master Paintings", "Nineteenth-century paintings" and "Modern paintings".
Christie's defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century". Artists, most from early periods, whose hand has been identified by art historians, but to whom no identity can be confidently attached, are given names by art historians such as Master E. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein. Cimabue, frescoes in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi Giotto di Bondone, first Renaissance fresco painter Duccio, Sienese painter Simone Martini, Gothic painter of the Sienese School Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Gothic painter Pietro Lorenzetti, Sienese school Gentile da Fabriano, International gothic painter Lorenzo Monaco, International gothic style Masolino, Goldsmith trained painter Pisanello, International gothic painter and medallist Sassetta, Sienese International Gothic painter Paolo Uccello, schematic use of foreshortening Fra Angelico, noted for San Marco convent frescoes Masaccio, first to use linear perspective thereby giving sense of three-dimensionality plus developed new realism Fra Filippo Lippi, father of Filippino Andrea del Castagno Piero della Francesca, painter who pioneered linear perspective Benozzo Gozzoli Alesso Baldovinetti Vincenzo Foppa Antonello da Messina, painter who pioneered oil painting Cosimo Tura Andrea Mantegna, master of perspective and detail Antonio Pollaiuolo Francesco Cossa Melozzo da Forli Luca Signorelli Perugino, Raphael was his pupil Verrocchio Sandro Botticelli, great Florentine master Domenico Ghirlandaio, prolific Florentine fresco painter Pinturicchio Filippino Lippi, son of Filippo Cima da Conegliano Piero di Cosimo Francesco Francia Leonardo da Vinci, acclaimed oil painter and draughtsman Lorenzo Costa Fra Bartolommeo Michelangelo, acclaimed sculptor and architect Bernardino Luini Raphael, acclaimed painter Il Garofalo Ridolfo Ghirlandaio Andrea del Sarto Correggio, painter from Parma noted for illusionistic frescoes and altarpiece oils Giulio Romano Domenico Veneziano, Early Renaissance Jacopo Bellini (
The A. H. Beach House known as the Bergman House is an historic Queen Anne style mansion, considered late American Queen Anne style, located in San Diego County, in the city of Escondido, California; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in San Diego County on December 30, 1993. The corner lot, in the Stanley Heights Addition, was owned by the Escondido Land and Town Company before being purchased by A. H. Beach in 1887; the house, built in Queen Anne style architecture, was finished in 1896. Beach did not live there long and the house was purchased by Henry W. Putnam in 1900. Putnam was a businessman and manufacturer, he invented a fence wire barbing machine, improvements, Putnam was from Bennington, Vermont. Putnam retired to San Diego in 1905 and William Jereslaw lived at the residence with his nieces Suzette and Miriam Kuhn from 1905 until 1909. From 1909 until 1914 Appleton Shaw and Amelia Timken Bridges lived in the mansion. Amelia was the daughter of Fredericka Timken.
Henry was the founder of Timken Roller Bearing Company. W. H. Baldridge and drugstore owner, was a resident of Escondido since 1887. W. H. and his wife Fannie bought the house in 1914 and lived there until 1917. Matthew and Martha Cassou owned the estate from 1917 until 1945. Bernard and Irene Cesmat bought the residence in 1945 and lived there until selling it to Virgil and Natalie Bergman in 1968; the Bergman's restored the home with some modern updates. Art dealer and collector Harry Parashis and his wife, bought the home in 1997, spent several years bringing it to its "original Victorian ornate grandeur.". In 2016 the house and property sold for $1,200,000.00. The NRHP lists the house as Late Victorian as a sub of Queen Anne, it is a two-and-a-half story multi-gable house with a wood and shingle roof and fish scale siding
Return to the 36 Chambers: The Dirty Version is the solo debut album of American rapper and Wu-Tang Clan member Ol' Dirty Bastard, released March 28, 1995 on Elektra Records in the United States. It was the second solo album, after Method Man's Tical, to be released from the nine-member Wu-Tang clan, following the release of their debut album. Return to the 36 Chambers was produced by RZA, with additional production from Ol' Dirty Bastard, affiliates True Master and 4th Disciple; the album features guest appearances from Wu-Tang members GZA, RZA, Method Man, Ghostface Killah and Masta Killa, as well as several Wu-Tang affiliates and Brooklyn Zu. Return to the 36 Chambers: The Dirty Version peaked at number seven on the Billboard 200 and number two on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart; the album sold 81,000 copies in its first week, was certified gold in sales by the Recording Industry Association of America on June 21, 1995. Upon its release, the album received positive reviews from most music critics, with many complimenting Ol' Dirty Bastard's bizarre lyrical delivery and RZA's eerie production.
The album was nominated for Best Rap Album at the 1996 Grammy Awards. Select gave the album a negative review of two out of five; the review found the album inferior to Method Man's album Tical, stating that "From the long and unfunny – intro skit, it's obvious ideas are spread wafer thin across the 15 tracks."The Dirty Version was nominated for the 1996 Grammy Award for Best Rap Album, but lost to Naughty by Nature's Poverty's Paradise. In 1998, the album was selected as one of The Source's 100 Best Rap Albums. Rolling Stone – 4 Stars – "With his raspy, lisp-punctuated voice and half-sung, half-rapped style, may well be the most original vocalist in hip-hop history." Entertainment Weekly – "This solo effort by a second member of the near-platinum Wu-Tang Clan showcases the raw, innovative talent of their illest member... The RZA's signature dissonant piano loops behind Dirty's delirious, reverberating delivery." – Rating: A- Vibe – "Ol' Dirty's catchy sing-along... is paired with subtle keyboards and the Rza's murky beats, yielding a mystic's brew, like all Wu-related fare, defiantly flies in the face of conventions... the aural pleasures are... convincing."
The Source – 4 Stars – "The third shot fired in the Wu-Tang revolution spotlights the crazy drunken flow of the Ol' Dirty Bastard... a must-have for every real hardcore head... hardcore lyrics kicked live over a non-stop assault of that addictive Shao-lin funk." Melody Maker – "... an hour of cruel hard and frighteningly funny hip hop. Ol' Dirty Bastard – assistant engineer, producer, vocals RZA – producer, vocals Ghostface Killah, GZA, Masta Killa, Method Man, Killah Priest, Sunz Of Man, Brooklyn Zu – vocals Buddha Monk – vocals, mixing Big Dore – producer vocals Big Dore – producer True Master – producer Ethan Ryman – producer, engineer John Wydrycs, Tim Latham – engineer, mixing Jimmie Lee, Jack Hersca – engineer, assistant engineer Deden Sumandani – mixing Martin Czembor – assistant engineer, mixing David Sealy, Jay Nicholas – assistant engineer Alli – art direction Danny Clinch – photography The information regarding accolades is adapted from acclaimedmusic.net signifies unordered lists Return To The 36 Chambers: The Dirty Version at Discogs