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Old Ursuline Convent, New Orleans

Ursuline Convent was a series of historic Ursuline convents in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1726, nuns from the Ursuline Convent of Rouen went to New Orleans to found a convent, run a hospital, take care of educating young girls; the first building for the Ursuline nuns in New Orleans was designed by Ignace François Broutin in 1727 when the nuns arrived in New Orleans. Michael Zeringue, the King's Master Carpenter from Franconia and progenitor of all "Zeringue" families in Louisiana was the builder. Planning, collecting material, construction took years. Existing drawings show the building in 1733, although it was not finished until the following year. Colombage or briquette-entre-poteaux was the major form of French Colonial construction in the colony during the 18th century; the exterior walls were given a protective covering of stucco or wooden boards. Such construction proved to be inappropriate for the humid climate of New Orleans, in addition to being a fire hazard. In 1745 plans for a new building of brick and protected colombage were prepared by Ignace Broutin.

The contractor was Contractor of Public Works for the King. His wife, Marie Payen de Noyan, was Bienville's niece; this structure was completed in 1751. It is that Alexandre de Batz took part in the design because several payments are listed to him for work on the new building; the new building was laid out adjacent to the site of the older structure, some materials from the older building were used in the construction of the newer one. Built of stucco-covered brick, the new building known as Old Ursuline Convent, is typical for the French neoclassical architecture, it is a formal, symmetrical building designed in its lack of ornamentation. No applied orders of pilasters or columns relieved the plain walls. Only the arched window set in shallow moldings, the rusticated quoins at the corners and narrow central pedimented pavilion break the rhythm of the fenestration; the broad plain hipped roof, broken only by small low-set dormers contrasts well with the multi-windowed façade and completes the austere but not unpleasant, finely proportioned building.

The ground floor was used for the dormitory, classrooms and infirmary of the orphanage, maintained by the nuns. The second floor contained cells for the nuns, a library and storerooms; the winding stairway visible from the main entrance hallway is believed to be from the original convent, installed in the new building. "This is the finest surviving example of French colonial public architecture in the country," states the National Park Service. It is by some accounts the oldest structure in New Orleans, built between 1748 and 1752, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. The convent and its associated school, Ursuline Academy, moved downriver to a site on Dauphine Street in the 9th Ward in 1824, turning over the original convent to the Bishop of New Orleans, it was referred to as the "Archbishop's Palace". In 1912 the convent moved uptown to State Street; the entrance portico was added by the Bishop, who constructed the gatehouse around 1825-1830 and reoriented the building, which faced the river, to have the main entrance on what had been the back side.

The Ursuline property covered two city squares. An old ground plan shows a chapel at the corner of Ursulines and Decatur Streets, dedicated to Our Lady of Victory. Near the entrance to the grounds, along the levee, were a reception house for visitors, the day school, a residence for the chaplain. Between these buildings and the convent were gardens. To the right, moving up from the riverside entrance, were the hospital buildings, beyond them military barracks. Despite great interior alterations and decay, the Convent is considered one of the most important historical and religious landmarks in the United States and is one of the few remaining physical links with the French colonial period in Louisiana. In 1824 the nuns moved to a new larger convent in the city's 9th Ward, the present structure was turned over to the Bishop of New Orleans as a residence, for a while came to be called "the Archbishop's Palace". After 1899 it continued in use as offices for the Archdiocese and still as a rectory for the adjacent St. Mary's Church.

French Colonial architecture History of the Ursulines in New Orleans Ursuline Academy List of National Historic Landmarks in Louisiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Orleans Parish, Louisiana CLARK Emily, Voices from an early American convent: Marie Madeleine Hachard and the New Orleans Ursulines, 1727 1760, Baton Rouge Editions, Louisiana State University Press, 2007 Official website

Bang Sao Thong District

Bang Sao Thong is a district of Samut Prakan Province in central Thailand. Neighboring districts are Bang Bo to the east and Bang Phli to the west. Bang Phli New Town was established between 1992 and 1993 as a residential area for high-income families; the area around the new town, comprising three tambons, was split off from Bang Phli District and formed the new minor district, becoming effective on 1 April 1995. The Thai government, on 15 May 2007, upgraded all 81 minor districts to full districts. On 24 August 2007 the upgrade became official. Nissan has an automobile factory in the district. Nissan produces hybrid electric vehicles there based on its e-Power technology as well as batteries for electric vehicles, it has a production capacity of 370,000 vehicles a year. The district is divided into three sub-districts. Bang Sao Thong is a township which covers parts of Sisa Chorakhe Yai; each of the tambons has a tambon administrative organization responsible for non-municipal areas.


Siegendorf is a town in the district of Eisenstadt-Umgebung in the Austrian state of Burgenland. During World War II, a forced labor camp staffed by Hungarian Arrow Cross guards forced Jewish men from northern Transylvania located in Hungarian-occupied Romania, was located in Siegendorf. Nearly all of the inmates were executed by the Hungarian guards as the Soviet liberation forces were approaching when the guards pretended to want to march the Jewish inmates to an unknown location. Few prisoners survived. None of them documented their experience at this camp except one former inmate who incorrectly claims to be the "sole" survivor. Bear in mind, many survivors were not articulate and did not care to memorialize this experience in writing, but they grandchildren. The Jewish slaves at the Siegendorf Camp were enslaved in a local gold mine

Nice Guys (album)

For the 2005 film of the same name, see Nice GuysNice Guys is a 1979 album by the Art Ensemble of Chicago, their first to appear on the ECM label. The Allmusic review by Al Campbell awarded the album 4½ stars noting that "Nice Guys was the first Art Ensemble of Chicago album released after a five-year recording hiatus and the group's first for the ECM label. During those five years, the Art Ensemble toured Europe and continued to expand its compositional and theatrical jazz fundamentals, captured abundantly on Nice Guys... the album reveals how the AEC managed to turn individual compositions into a realized accessible, avant garde group collective". Down Beat critic Art Lange writes that Nice Guys, while not the Art Ensemble's best album, "is their most representative, a variegated showcase illustrating much of what they do best."The Penguin Guide to Jazz awarded the album 3 stars out of 4 stating "'much of the music seems formulaic, the improvisation limited". "Ja" – 8:43 "Nice Guys" – 1:45 "Folkus" – 11:03 "597–59" – 6:46 "CYP" – 4:53 "Dreaming of the Master" – 11:40 Lester Bowie: trumpet, bass drum Malachi Favors Maghostut: bass, percussion instruments, melodica Joseph Jarman: saxophones, percussion instruments, vocal Roscoe Mitchell: saxophones, flute, percussion instruments Don Moye: drums, vocal

Media in Peoria, Illinois

This is a listing of the broadcasters and published media targeted at Peoria, Illinois. TV information includes cities where Peoria TV has been dominant, including Bloomington/Normal full-power TV, LaSalle/Peru TV before cable TV. Start dates are for the frequency/station license, not for callsign or programming that may have moved from license to license. ^ displays artist and title on Radio Data System ^ FM translator: repeats another station's program Nighttime power of 0 denotes daytime-only stations, traditionally to protect clear-channel stations at night: WPEO protecting KDKA Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1580 WWXL Peoria — sister to 94.1 WWXL-FM. C. Productions, 1101 S. "Mathew" St. and 1923 W. Lincoln Ave. 61605. Construction permit granted 1993-09-28. 15 WBLN Bloomington — sold by Cecil W. Roberts to Worth S. Rough's WBLN TV Inc. on 13 July 1955. By March 1965, LaSalle, Spring Valley, Peru had CATV systems owned by The Television Transmission Company. 35 WEEQ LaSalle — LaSalle's only full-power allocation, channel 35, started as WEEQ, a co-owned satellite of WEEK-TV Peoria.

Channel allocation used by WWTO since 1 December 1986. 71 W71AE — This carried co-owned 31 WMBD-TV Peoria. License granted 15 November 1962. Started around 1964. Renewed November 1971. WMBD-TV still shown as having "1 trans." in 1975 Yearbook. Guessed as deleted in 1979 in W9WI translator listing. 78 W78AC — This carried 19 WTVH Peoria in the early 1960s. Listed in September 1962 TV Guide. License granted 18 February 1963, it was no longer in TV Guide by the end of 1964. The Community Word — monthly community newspaper that covers neighborhoods and local politics Numero — monthly entertainment guide Peoria Journal Star — daily newspaper Peoria Magazines group — includes Peoria Progress Plays, Art & Society, InterBusiness Issues, the Peoria Woman Newspapers Published in Peoria County from the Illinois Newspaper Project of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign – includes over 150 past and present newspaper titles Tazewell County and Woodford County from same source

Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty

Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty CSI was an Indian merchant, Indian independence activist and political activist who founded one of the earliest Indian political associations, the Madras Native Association and the first Indian-owned newspaper in Madras, The Crescent. He was the second Indian to be appointed a member of the Madras Legislative Council, succeeding V. Sadagopacharlu on his death. Lakshminarasu Chetty was born in 1806 to a wealthy indigo merchant Sidhulu Chetty in Madras and was related to T. R. A. Thumboo Chetty. On completion of his initial education, Lakshminarasu entered the family trade and succeeded as a businessman, he entered devoted money for social and philanthropic causes. Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty was born in Madras, his father, Sidhulu Chetty owned a large indigo and cloth business and was the first Indian member of the Madras Chamber of Commerce. Due to the poor schooling facilities available in India at the time, Lakshminarasu Chetty had little formal education; however as a boy, Lakshminarasu Chetty was interested in politics and took part in Debating Societies.

On completion of his education, Lakshminarasu worked as an apprentice under his father whose business was soon afterwards renamed Sidhulu Chetty and Co. The firm dealt in handkerchiefs and soon grew into a thriving corporation. After Sidhulu Chetty's death, Lakshminarasu expanded its network; when the American Civil War broke out, cotton trade was temporarily suspended between the United States of America and other countries. Lakshminarasu Chetty took advantage of the situation and made huge profits by speculating on the price of cotton. During the mid-19th century, Christian missionaries indulged in open proselytisation in public institutions in the Madras Presidency, their proselytisation activities were favoured by officials of the British government who preferred native Christians to Hindus in higher appointments in order to entice Hindu Indians to embrace Christianity. The religious stance of the Madras government was condemned by the Hindu population. Lakshminarasu launched agitations against conversions.

On October 2, 1844, Lakshminarasu Chetty founded the Crescent, the first Indian-owned newspaper in the Madras Presidency for the "amelioration of the condition of Hindus". But right from the beginning, the newspaper faced strict government opposition. An advertisement sent to the Madras government for insertion into the government publication Fort St George Gazette was rejected. Further, the government resolved to enact a law wherein a Hindu convert to Christianity would not lose his ancestral right to own property; this was condemned by the Hindu community of Madras who under the leadership of Lakshminarasu Chetty, presented a memorial to the Governor on April 9, 1845. The government withdrew its plans after prolonged discussions with the agitators. Around this time, the Madras government tried to introduce the Bible as a standard textbook for the students of the Madras University. Students were questioned on points connected to Christian theology and were denied government posts if their knowledge of Christian texts was found wanting.

Hindus of the Madras Presidency protested against these measures. Lakshminarasu Chetty presided over a protest meeting at the Pachaiyappa's College on October 7, 1846 in which it was resolved to send a memorandum to the Court of Directors of the British East India Company, their efforts were successful and moves to introduce Christian theology in the curriculum were disbanded. In 1853, the government, once again tried to introduce the Bible into the educational curriculum but its efforts were thwarted by George Norton, John Bruce Norton and Lakshminarasu Chetty. Peasants in various parts of the Madras Presidency were subjected to cruel punishments and made to carry heavy loads on their backs if they failed to pay taxes on time. In 1854, with the assistance of Danby Seymour, a member of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Lakshminarasu Chetty tried to induce the British authorities to investigate the methods of torture inflicted by these revenue collectors. In July 1854, Seymour tried to introduce a motion in the British Parliament.

Sir C. Wood, President of the India Board, responded by appointing a Torture Commission in September 1854, to investigate the conduct of revenue officials. Further pressure was put by a petition signed by Lakshminarasu Chetty and other Indians, presented in the House of Lords on April 14, 1856. Lakshminarasu established Madras Native Association as a platform for educated Indians to protest against any injustice on the part of the British, it was the first Indian political organization in the Madras Presidency. Lakshminarasu, the founder, served as its first President, his plans had been to establish a branch of the British Indian Association in Madras but he decided in favour of a separate organization. P. Somasundaram Chettiar, a close associate of Lakshminarasu, served as the Secretary of the organization; the organization locked horns with Christian missionaries. In 1852, the Madras Native Association presented a detailed list of grievances to the British Parliament, it was read out at the House of Lords on February 25, 1853 by the Earl of Ellenborough along with a petition from the inhabitants of Manchester that a minister and council for India be appointed and that they be made responsible directly to the British monarch.

Lakshminarasu Chetty followed it up with another petition in 1855. This petition signed by over 14,000 people beseached the British Crown to take the administration of India directly under its control; these petitions resulted in the curtailment of the powers of the British East India Company cul