Lorraine Lois Foster is an American mathematician. In 1964 she became the first woman to receive a Ph. D. in mathematics from California Institute of Technology. Her thesis advisor at Caltech was Olga Taussky-Todd. Born Lorraine Lois Turnbull, she attended Occidental College, she was admitted to Caltech after receiving a Woodrow Wilson Foundation fellowship. In 1964 she joined the faculty of Northridge, she works in the theory of mathematical symmetry. Foster, L.. On the characteristic roots of the product of certain rational integral matrices of order two. Pacific Journal of Mathematics, 18, 97–110. Http://doi.org/10.2140/pjm.1966.18.97 Brenner, J. L. & Foster, L. L.. Exponential diophantine equations. Pacific Journal of Mathematics, 101, 263–301. Alex, L. J. & Foster, L. L.. On diophantine equations of the form $1 + 2^a = p^b q^c + 2^d p^e q^f$. Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics, 13, 321–332. Http://doi.org/10.1216/RMJ-1983-13-2-321 Alex, L. J. & Foster, L. L.. On the Diophantine equation $1 + p^a = 2 + 2^b + 2^c p^d$.
Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics, 15, 739–762. Http://doi.org/10.1216/RMJ-1985-15-3-739 L. Forster. Finite Symmetry Groups in Three Dimensions, CSUN Instructional Media Center, Jan. 1989. L. Foster. Archimedean and Archimedean Dual Polyhedra, CSUN Instructional Media Center, Feb. 1990. Https://www.worldcat.org/title/archimedean-and-archimedean-dual-polyhedra/oclc/63936926&referer=brief_results Foster, L. L.. On the symmetry group of the dodecahedron. Mathematics Magazine, 63, 106–107. Foster, L. L.. Convex Polyhedral Models for the Finite Three-Dimensional Isometry Groups; the Mathematical Heritage of CF Gauss, pp 267-281. L. Foster; the Alhambra Past and Present—a Geometer’s Odyssey Part 1, CSUN Instructional Media Center, December 1991. L. Foster; the Alhambra Past and Present—a Geometer’s Odyssey Part 2, CSUN Instructional Media Center, December 1991. Https://www.worldcat.org/title/alhambra-past-and-present-a-geometers-odyssey-parts-1-and-2/oclc/28680624?loc=94043&tab=holdings&start_holding=7 Foster, L. L..
Convex polyhedral models for the finite three-dimensional isometry groups. In G. M. Rassias, The Mathematical Heritage of C F Gauss. Singapore: World Scientific. L. Foster. Regular-Faced Polyhedra—an Introduction, CSUN Instructional Media Center, Dec. 1992 Alex, L. J. & Foster, L. L.. On the Diophantine equation $\bf 1+x+y=z$. Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics, 22, 11–62. Http://doi.org/10.1216/rmjm/1181072793 Alex, L. J. & Foster, L. L.. On the Diophantine equation $w+x+y=z$, with $wxyz=2\sp r3\sp s5\sp t$. Rev. Mat. Univ. Complut. Madrid, 8, 13–48
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. Founded as a Quaker institution in 1885, Bryn Mawr is one of the Seven Sister colleges and the Tri-College Consortium; the college has an enrollment of 450 graduate students. U. S. News & World Report lists Bryn Mawr College as the 32nd best liberal arts college in the United States in its 2017 rankings. In 2018, the college ranking site Niche listed Bryn Mawr as the 15th most diverse college in America. Bryn Mawr is known for being the first women's college to offer graduate education through a PhD. Bryn Mawr College is a private women's liberal arts college founded in 1885; the phrase bryn mawr means "large hill" in Welsh "hill large". The Graduate School is co-educational, it is named after the town of Bryn Mawr, in which the campus is located, renamed by a representative of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Bryn Mawr was the name of an area estate granted to Rowland Ellis by William Penn in the 1680s. Ellis's former home called Bryn Mawr, was a house near Dolgellau, Gwynedd, Wales.
The College was founded through the bequest of Joseph W. Taylor, its first president was James Evans Rhoads. Bryn Mawr was one of the first institutions of higher education in the United States to offer graduate degrees, including doctorates, to women; the first class included eight graduate students. Bryn Mawr was affiliated with the Religious Society of Friends, but by 1893 had become non-denominational. In 1912, Bryn Mawr became the first college in the United States to offer doctorates in social work, through the Department of Social Economy and Social Research; this department became the Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research in 1970. In 1931, Bryn Mawr began accepting men as graduate students, while remaining women-only at the undergraduate level. From 1921 to 1938 the Bryn Mawr campus was home to the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, founded as part of the labor education movement and the women's labor movement; the school taught women workers political economy and literature, as well as organizing many extracurricular activities.
A June 3, 2008, article in The New York Times discussed the move by women's colleges in the United States to promote their schools in the Middle East. The article noted that in doing so, the schools promote the work of alumnae of women's colleges such as Hillary Clinton, Emily Dickinson, Diane Sawyer, Katharine Hepburn and Madeleine Albright; the Dean of Admissions of Bryn Mawr noted, "We still prepare a disproportionate number of women scientists We’re about the empowerment of women and enabling women to get a top-notch education." The article contrasted the difference between women's colleges in the Middle East and "the American colleges for all their white-glove history and academic prominence, are liberal strongholds where students fiercely debate political action, gender identity and issues like'heteronormativity', the marginalizing of standards that are other than heterosexual. Middle Eastern students who attend these colleges tell of a transition that can be jarring."The College celebrated its 125th anniversary of "bold vision, for women, for the world" during the 2010–2011 academic year.
In September 2010, Bryn Mawr hosted an international conference on issues of educational access and opportunity in secondary schools and universities in the United States and around the world. Other festivities held for the anniversary year included publication of a commemorative book on 125 years of student life, and, in partnership with the Philadelphia Mural Arts Program, creation of a mural in West Philadelphia highlighting advances in women's education. On February 9, 2015, the Board of Trustees announced approval of a working group recommendation to expand the undergraduate applicant pool. Trans women and intersex individuals identifying as women may now apply for admission, while trans men identifying as such at time of application may not; this official decision made Bryn Mawr the fourth women's college in the United States to accept trans women. 1885–1894 James E. Rhoads 1894–1922 M. Carey Thomas 1922–1942 Marion Edwards Park 1942–1970 Katharine Elizabeth McBride 1970–1978 Harris L. Wofford 1978–1997 Mary Patterson McPherson 1997–2008 Nancy J. Vickers 2008–2013 Jane Dammen McAuliffe 2013–present Kimberly Wright Cassidy The campus was designed in part by noted landscape designers Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted, has subsequently been designated an arboretum.
In 2011, Travel+Leisure named Bryn Mawr as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States. The majority of Bryn Mawr students live on campus in residence halls. Many of the older residence halls were designed by Cope & Stewardson and are known for their Collegiate Gothic architecture, modeled after Cambridge University; each is named after a county town in Wales: Brecon, Denbigh and Radnor, Pembroke East and West. Rhoads North and South was named after James E. Rhoads. Erdman was opened in 1965, designed by architect Louis Kahn. In addition, students may choose to live in Batten House. Perry House, established as the Spanish language house in 1962, was redefined as the Black Cultural Center in the 1970s. In 2015, Perry House was relaunched by the college in the former French tower of Haffner, which had undergone renovations and reconstruction the previous year. Along with Perry, now known as
David Hilbert was a German mathematician and one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory, calculus of variations, commutative algebra, algebraic number theory, the foundations of geometry, spectral theory of operators and its application to integral equations, mathematical physics, foundations of mathematics. Hilbert warmly defended Georg Cantor's set theory and transfinite numbers. A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century. Hilbert and his students contributed to establishing rigor and developed important tools used in modern mathematical physics. Hilbert is known as one of the founders of proof theory and mathematical logic, as well as for being among the first to distinguish between mathematics and metamathematics.
Hilbert, the first of two children of Otto and Maria Therese Hilbert, was born in the Province of Prussia, Kingdom of Prussia, either in Königsberg or in Wehlau near Königsberg where his father worked at the time of his birth. In late 1872, Hilbert entered the Friedrichskolleg Gymnasium. Upon graduation, in autumn 1880, Hilbert enrolled at the University of Königsberg, the "Albertina". In early 1882, Hermann Minkowski, returned to Königsberg and entered the university. Hilbert developed a lifelong friendship with the gifted Minkowski. In 1884, Adolf Hurwitz arrived from Göttingen as an Extraordinarius. An intense and fruitful scientific exchange among the three began, Minkowski and Hilbert would exercise a reciprocal influence over each other at various times in their scientific careers. Hilbert obtained his doctorate in 1885, with a dissertation, written under Ferdinand von Lindemann, titled Über invariante Eigenschaften spezieller binärer Formen, insbesondere der Kugelfunktionen. Hilbert remained at the University of Königsberg as a Privatdozent from 1886 to 1895.
In 1895, as a result of intervention on his behalf by Felix Klein, he obtained the position of Professor of Mathematics at the University of Göttingen. During the Klein and Hilbert years, Göttingen became the preeminent institution in the mathematical world, he remained there for the rest of his life. Among Hilbert's students were Hermann Weyl, chess champion Emanuel Lasker, Ernst Zermelo, Carl Gustav Hempel. John von Neumann was his assistant. At the University of Göttingen, Hilbert was surrounded by a social circle of some of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century, such as Emmy Noether and Alonzo Church. Among his 69 Ph. D. students in Göttingen were many who became famous mathematicians, including: Otto Blumenthal, Felix Bernstein, Hermann Weyl, Richard Courant, Erich Hecke, Hugo Steinhaus, Wilhelm Ackermann. Between 1902 and 1939 Hilbert was editor of the Mathematische Annalen, the leading mathematical journal of the time. "Good, he did not have enough imagination to become a mathematician".
Around 1925, Hilbert developed pernicious anemia, a then-untreatable vitamin deficiency whose primary symptom is exhaustion. Those forced out included Hermann Weyl, Emmy Noether and Edmund Landau. One who had to leave Germany, Paul Bernays, had collaborated with Hilbert in mathematical logic, co-authored with him the important book Grundlagen der Mathematik; this was a sequel to the Hilbert-Ackermann book Principles of Mathematical Logic from 1928. Hermann Weyl's successor was Helmut Hasse. About a year Hilbert attended a banquet and was seated next to the new Minister of Education, Bernhard Rust. Rust asked whether "the Mathematical Institute suffered so much because of the departure of the Jews". Hilbert replied, "Suffered? It doesn't exist any longer, does it!" By the time Hilbert died in 1943, the Nazis had nearly restaffed the university, as many of the former faculty had either been Jewish or married to Jews. Hilbert's funeral was attended by fewer than a dozen people, only two of whom were fellow academics, among them Arnold Sommerfeld, a theoretical physicist and a native of Königsberg.
News of his death only became known to the wider world six months. The epitaph on his tombstone in Göttingen consists of the famous lines he spoke at the conclusion of his retirement address to the Society of German Scientists and Physicians on 8 September 1930; the words were given in response to the Latin maxim: "Ignoramus et ignorabimus" or "We do not know, we shall not know": Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen. In English: We mus
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Friederich Pius Philipp Furtwängler was a German number theorist. Furtwängler wrote an 1896 doctoral dissertation at the University of Göttingen on cubic forms, under Felix Klein. Most of his academic life, from 1912 to 1938, was spent at the University of Vienna, where he taught for example Kurt Gödel, who said that Furtwängler's lectures on number theory were the best mathematical lectures that he heard. Furtwängler was paralysed and, without notes, lectured from a wheelchair while his assistant wrote equations on the blackboard; some of Furtwängler's doctoral students were Wolfgang Gröbner, Nikolaus Hofreiter, Henry Mann, Otto Schreier, Olga Taussky-Todd. Through these and others, he has over 3000 academic descendants, he is now best known for his contribution to the principal ideal theorem in the form of his Beweis des Hauptidealsatzes für Klassenkörper algebraischer Zahlkörper. Philipp Furtwängler was a grandson of the organ builder Philipp Furtwängler and a second cousin of the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler.
With Helmut Hasse and W. Jehne: Allgemeine Theorie der algebraischen Zahlen. Vol. 8. Teubner, 1953. "Philipp Furtwängler". In: Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Vol. 1, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1957, p. 383. Nikolaus Hofreiter, "Furtwängler, Friedrich Pius Philipp", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 740–740 Literature by and about Philipp Furtwängler in the German National Library catalogue http://bibliothek.bbaw.de/kataloge/literaturnachweise/furtwaen/literatur.pdf
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
American Association for the Advancement of Science
The American Association for the Advancement of Science is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society, with over 120,000 members, is the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science, which had a weekly circulation of 138,549 in 2008; the American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20, 1848 at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Naturalists; the society chose William Charles Redfield as their first president because he had proposed the most comprehensive plans for the organization. According to the first constitution, agreed to at the September 20 meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientific collaboration.
By doing so the association aimed to use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate. The association sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science. There were only 78 members; as a member of the new scientific body, Matthew Fontaine Maury, USN was one of those who attended the first 1848 meeting. At a meeting held on Friday afternoon, September 22, 1848, Redfield presided, Matthew Fontaine Maury gave a full scientific report on his Wind and Current Charts. Maury stated that hundreds of ship navigators were now sending abstract logs of their voyages to the United States Naval Observatory, he added, "Never before was such a corps of observers known." But, he pointed out to his fellow scientists, his critical need was for more "simultaneous observations." "The work," Maury stated, "is not for the benefit of any nation or age." The minutes of the AAAS meeting reveal that because of the universality of this "view on the subject, it was suggested whether the states of Christendom might not be induced to cooperate with their Navies in the undertaking.
William Barton Rogers, professor at the University of Virginia and founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offered a resolution: "Resolved that a Committee of five be appointed to address a memorial to the Secretary of the Navy, requesting his further aid in procuring for Matthew Maury the use of the observations of European and other foreign navigators, for the extension and perfecting of his charts of winds and currents." The resolution was adopted and, in addition to Rogers, the following members of the association were appointed to the committee: Professor Joseph Henry of Washington. This was scientific cooperation, Maury went back to Washington with great hopes for the future. By 1860, membership increased to over 2,000; the AAAS became dormant during the American Civil War. The AAAS did not become a permanent casualty of the war. In 1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in New York City. Following the revival of the AAAS, the group had considerable growth.
The AAAS permitted all people, regardless of scientific credentials. The AAAS did, institute a policy of granting the title of "Fellow of the AAAS" to well-respected scientists within the organization; the years of peace brought the expansion of other scientific-oriented groups. The AAAS's focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization was in contrast to the many new science organizations founded to promote a single discipline. For example, the American Chemical Society, founded in 1876, promotes chemistry. In 1863, the US Congress established the National Academy of Sciences, another multidisciplinary sciences organization, it elects members based on the value of published works. Alan I. Leshner, AAAS CEO from 2001 until 2015, published many op-ed articles discussing how many people integrate science and religion in their lives, he has opposed the insertion of non-scientific content, such as creationism or intelligent design, into the scientific curriculum of schools.
In December 2006, the AAAS adopted an official statement on climate change, in which they stated, "The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, it is a growing threat to society.... The pace of change and the evidence of harm have increased markedly over the last five years; the time to control greenhouse gas emissions is now."In February 2007, the AAAS used satellite images to document human rights abuses in Burma. The next year, AAAS launched the Center for Science Diplomacy to advance both science and the broader relationships among partner countries, by promoting science diplomacy and international scientific cooperation. In 2012, AAAS published op-eds, held events on Capitol Hill and released analyses of the U. S. federal research-and-development budget, to warn that a budget sequestration would have severe consequences for scientific progress. AAAS covers various areas of sciences and engineering, it has twelve sections, each with a committee and its ch