Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell was an English general and statesman who led the Parliament of England's armies against King Charles I during the English Civil War and ruled the British Isles as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. He acted as head of state and head of government of the new republican commonwealth. Cromwell was born into the Cromwell family which became an English noble and aristocratic family from a modest middle gentry background descended from Katherine Cromwell the elder sister of Thomas Cromwell, King Henry VIII's chief minister and Principal Secretary. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life, as only four of his personal letters survive along with a summary of a speech that he delivered in 1628, he became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories.

He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments. He entered the English Civil Wars on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians, nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he demonstrated his ability as a commander and was promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role under General Sir Thomas Fairfax in the defeat of the Royalist forces. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament, he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, a substantial amount of their land was confiscated.

Cromwell led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England and Ireland from 16 December 1653; as a ruler, he executed an effective foreign policy. He was buried in Westminster Abbey; the Royalists returned to power along with King Charles II in 1660, they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, beheaded. Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, his tolerance of Protestant sects did not extend to Catholics. He was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Elizabeth Steward.

The family's estate derived from Oliver's great-great-grandfather Morgan ap William, a brewer from Glamorgan who settled at Putney near London, married Katherine Cromwell, the sister of Thomas Cromwell, the famous chief minister to Henry VIII. The Cromwell family acquired great wealth as occasional beneficiaries of Thomas's administration of the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Morgan ap William was a son of William ap Yevan of Wales; the family line continued through Richard Williams, Henry Williams to Oliver's father Robert Williams, alias Cromwell, who married Elizabeth Steward in 1591. They had ten children. Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a member of the landed gentry; as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes.

Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity". Cromwell was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, attended Huntingdon Grammar School, he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge a founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree after his father's death. Early biographers claim that he attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Antonia Fraser concludes that it was that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time, his grandfather, his father, two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647. Cromwell returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death; as his mother was widowed, his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family. Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier on 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, London. Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had st

Kevin Corby (cricketer)

Kevin Corby is a former English cricketer. Corby was a right-handed batsman, he was born in Newcastle upon Northumberland. Corby made his debut for Northumberland in the 1977 Minor Counties Championship against the Lancashire Second XI. Corby played Minor counties cricket for Northumberland from 1979 to 1991, which included 55 Minor Counties Championship appearances and 9 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches, he made his List A debut against Middlesex in the 1984 NatWest Trophy. He made 3 further List the last coming against Surrey in the 1989 NatWest Trophy. In his 4 List A matches, he scored 10 runs at an average of 5.00, with a high score of 7. Behind the stumps he took 6 catches. Kevin Corby at ESPNcricinfo Kevin Corby at CricketArchive

Elisu Sultanate

The Sultanate of Elisu known as Elisou or Ilisu, was one of the Khanates of the Caucasus in the 18th and 19th centuries. Located on the southern slope of the Caucasus Mountains in what is now northwest Azerbaijan, it extended from north of the mountain crest down to the Alazani River valley. Southeast in the lowlands was the Shirvan Khanate and northwest along the mountains were the Djaro-Belokani communities. Djaro-Belokan and Elisu were connected; the mountainous north was inhabited by the low country by Azerbaijanis and Ingiloys. The upper class was Azerbaijani. In local usage a Sultan was above a Bey; the Sultanate was hereditary and elected by a Jamaat or assembly of notables. He was confirmed by the Persian Shah. In a few cases he was imposed by. For a few purposes the Sultan was a member of the Djaro-Belokani league; the history of the Sultanate begins north of the mountains in the upper reaches of the Samur River with the Tsakhur people – a western branch of the Lezgians. They paid tribute to the Gazikumukh Shamkhalate.

In the 15th century the Tsakhurs began moving to south over the mountain crest toward the Alazani River. They settled in the province of Hereti of Kakheti kingdom. In the early 17th century, Shah Abbas I of Persia took these lands from the king of Kakheti and granted them to the Dagestani feudal clans who enjoyed a degree of autonomy; the area was an'ulka' of the Shirvan Khanate. The rulers were vassals of Persia and sometimes Ottoman Empire, depending on the relative power of each. At the beginning of the 18th century the capital moved south from the town of Tsakhur to İlisu and we now hear of the Elisu Sultanate; the Elisu Dynasty belonged to the Sunni Muslim denomination of Islam. The first ruler from was Sultan Adi Korklu Bey, who established the Elisu Sultante on March 8, 1563, he was of Tsakhur. In 1711 there was a widespread anti-Persian movement, a Sunni-Shia conflict. One of the leaders was Ali Sultan of Elisu, he captured the Turks made him beylerbeg of Shaki. Nadir Shah drove the Turks out in 1735.

When his army returned south Djaro-Belokani and Elisu rose again. Nadir's brother was killed suppressing it and Ali-Sultan was forcibly replaced by his son. At some point Nadir himself burned part of it; as soon as he left the Begs, who had fled to the mountains and replaced his puppet Sultan. The Russians took over Kartli-Kakheti kingdom in 1801 and in 1803-1806 Pavel Tsitsianov pushed east to the Caspian. In April General Gulyakov subdued the Djaro-Belokani area, they submitted and the Elisu Sultanate was included in their submission. In October the mountaineers were defeated. In January 1804 Gulyakov was killed; the Djaris did not pay tribute, blamed the Sultan and in 1805 he was replaced by Akhmed Khan who went to Tiflis to offer submission. During the Persian War in 1826 Akhmed Khan was replaced by Bala-Aga-Beg; the Russians restored Akhmed and took Bala-Aga away in chains. In 1830 the Djaris revolted and submitted when troops approached, they were placed under the Djari Oblast with the Sultanate attached.

The same year Daniyal Bek became Sultan. In 1842, when the Murid War was going poorly for the Russians, the Sultanate was placed under the Djaro-Belokani Military Okrug under General Schwartz. By 1844 Daniyal Sultan was either pulled into the arms of Shamil. Schwartz took Elisu by storm and the Sultanate was abolished. Daniyal became one of Shamil's best officers, his daughter married Shamil's son. When Shamil's movement collapsed he submitted for a full pardon; this last Sultan of Elisu died in the Ottoman Empire in 1873 at Istanbul. His descendants lives today in Azerbaijan, in the Cities: Qakh, Azerbaijan, Nəbiağalı, Ganja and Baku, take the surename Sultanov as male and Sultanova as female. In Turkey lives descendants in the Citys: Istanbul, Izmir and Babaeski, take the surename Sultansoylu; this was abstracted from the Russian and Azerbaijani Wikipedia, there being no obvious source in English