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Oliver Twist

Oliver Twist. The story centres on orphan Oliver Twist, born in a workhouse and sold into apprenticeship with an undertaker. After escaping, Oliver travels to London, where he meets the "Artful Dodger", a member of a gang of juvenile pickpockets led by the elderly criminal Fagin. Oliver Twist is notable for its unromantic portrayal of criminals and their sordid lives, as well as for exposing the cruel treatment of the many orphans in London in the mid-19th century; the alternative title, The Parish Boy's Progress, alludes to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress, as well as the 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, A Rake's Progress and A Harlot's Progress. In this early example of the social novel, Dickens satirises the hypocrisies of his time, including child labour, the recruitment of children as criminals, the presence of street children; the novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of working as a child labourer in a cotton mill was read in the 1830s.

It is that Dickens's own experiences as a youth contributed as well. Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous adaptations for various media, including a successful musical play, Oliver!, the multiple Academy Award-winning 1968 motion picture. Disney put its spin on the novel with the animated film called Oliver & Company in 1988; the novel was published in monthly instalments in the magazine Bentley's Miscellany, from February 1837 to April 1839. It was intended to form part of Dickens's serial, The Mudfog Papers. George Cruikshank provided one steel etching per month to illustrate each instalment; the novel first appeared in book form six months before the initial serialisation was completed, in three volumes published by Richard Bentley, the owner of Bentley's Miscellany, under the author's pseudonym, "Boz". It included 24 steel-engraved plates by Cruikshank; the first edition was titled: Oliver Twist, or, The Parish Boy's Progress. Serial publication dates: I – February 1837 II – March 1837 III – April 1837 IV – May 1837 V – July 1837 VI – August 1837 VII – September 1837 VIII – November 1837 IX – December 1837 X – January 1838 XI – February 1838 XII – March 1838 XIII – April 1838 XIV – May 1838 XV – June 1838 XVI – July 1838 XVII – August 1838 XVIII – October 1838 XIX – November 1838 XX – December 1838 XXI – January 1839 XXII – February 1839 XXIII – March 1839 XXIV – April 1839 Oliver Twist is born into a life of poverty and misfortune, raised in a workhouse in the fictional town of Mudfog, located 70 miles north of London.

He is orphaned by his father's mysterious absence and his mother Agnes' death in childbirth, welcomed only in the workhouse and robbed of her gold name locket. Oliver is meagerly provided for under the terms of the Poor Law and spends the first nine years of his life living at a baby farm in the'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Oliver is brought up with few comforts. Around the time of Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking and weaving oakum at the main workhouse. Oliver, who toils with little food, remains in the workhouse for six months. One day, the hungry boys decide to draw lots; this task falls to Oliver himself, who at the next meal comes forward trembling, bowl in hand, begs Mr. Bumble for gruel with his famous request: "Please, sir, I want some more". A great uproar ensues; the board of well-fed gentlemen who administer the workhouse hypocritically offer £5 to any person wishing to take on the boy as an apprentice.

Mr. Gamfield, a brutal chimney sweep claims Oliver. However, when Oliver begs despairingly not to be sent away with "that dreadful man", a kindly magistrate refuses to sign the indentures. Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker employed by the parish, takes Oliver into his service, he treats Oliver better and, because of the boy's sorrowful countenance, uses him as a mourner at children's funerals. Mr. Sowerberry is in an unhappy marriage, his wife looks down on Oliver and misses few opportunities to underfeed and mistreat him, he suffers torment at the hands of Noah Claypole, an oafish and bullying fellow apprentice and "charity boy", jealous of Oliver's promotion to mute, Charlotte, the Sowerberrys' maidservant, in love with Noah. Wanting to bait Oliver, Noah insults the memory of Oliver's biological mother, calling her "a regular right-down bad'un". Enraged, Oliver assaults the much bigger boy. Mrs. Sowerberry takes Noah's side, helps him to subdue and beat Oliver, compels her husband and Mr. Bumble, sent for in the aftermath of the fight, to beat Oliver again.

Once Oliver is sent to his room for the night he weeps. The next day Oliver escapes from the Sowerberrys' house and decides to run away to London to seek a better life. Nearing London, Oliver encounters Jack Dawkins, a pickpocket more known by the nickname the "Artful Dodger", his sidekick, a boy of a humorous nature named Charley Bates, but Oliver's innocent and trusting nature fails to see any dishonesty in their actions; the Dodger provides Oliver with a free meal and tells him of a gentleman in London who will "give him lodgings

Maurizio Zanolla

Maurizio Zanolla known as Manolo is an Italian rock climber and mountaineer. Manolo is one of the first Italian free climber who became world-famous young for his free solo ascents in the Dolomites, he is the first Italian to climb a route of the grade 8b in 1986 and of grade 8a in free solo on "Masala Dosa" on the wall of "San Silvestro" in 1992. He never took part to climbing contests. In 1981, with another climber, Alessandro Gogna, he climbed the Aguglia of Goloritzè in Sardinia, initiating the original development of the Selvaggio Blu trekking route. 1 route of 9a+ 2 routes of 9a 1 route of 8c+ 7 routes of 8c 1 8b+ on sights 1 8a in free solo 9a+/5.15a: Bimbaluna - Saint-Loup - 20 January 2008 - repeat of the route François Nicole opened in 2004 9a/5.14d: Eternit - Vette Feltrine/Baule - 24 August 2009 - first ascent, continue of O ce l'hai...o ne hai bisogno Bain de Sang - Saint-Loup - 2006 - repeat on route Fred Nicole opened in 1993 8c+/5.14c: Roby Present - Val Noana - 24 March 2012 - first ascent, route Roberto Bassi 8c/5.14b: Eroi Fragili - Val Noana - 5 March 2011 - first ascent Stramonio - Val Noana - 10 October 2010, first ascent Thin ice - Terlago - 25 April 2009 - route Nico Favresse, 2007 El sior Favonio - Fonzaso - 2006 - first ascent Diabloluna - Fonzaso - 2006 L'Arte di Salire in Alto - Celva - 2001 - route Rolando Larcher in 1992 The Dream - Val Noana - October 1991 - first ascent 8b+/5.14a: Appigli Ridicoli - Vette Feltrine/Baule - 1990 - nowadays graded as 9a Il Maratoneta - Paklenica - 1988 Malvasia - Dvigrad - 1988 8b/5.13d: O ce l'hai… o ne hai bisogno - Vette Feltrine/Baule - 1990 Ultimo Movimento - Totoga - 1986 - first ascent and first Italian 8b 8b+/5.14a: Rock and Blues - Kalymnos - 19 June 2009 8a/5.13b: Masala Dosa in Totoga, in San Silvestro cliff - 1992

Josh Ritchart

Josh Ritchart is an American professional basketball player for the Rockingham Flames of the State Basketball League. After five years at UC Davis, Ritchart began his professional career in Japan, before splitting the 2016–17 season in Greece and Sweden. In 2018, he joined the Flames. Ritchart played high school basketball in Auburn, California. Ritchart played college basketball at UC Davis from 2010 to 2015. In July 2015, Ritchart signed with Bambitious Nara of the Japanese bj league. In 49 games for Nara in 2016 -- 17, he averaged 6.9 rebounds per game. In August 2016, Ritchart signed with Koroivos Amaliadas of the Greek Basket League, he left the team in November 2016 after appearing in five games. In January 2017, Ritchart signed with Malbas of the Swedish Basketligan. In 11 games, he averaged 5.7 rebounds per game. In January 2018, Ritchart signed with the Rockingham Flames of the State Basketball League, he averaged 26.3 points, 7.3 rebounds, 2.1 assists and 1.5 blocks in 10 games before being ruled out for the rest of the season in early May with a foot injury.

On October 31, 2018, Ritchart re-signed with the Flames for the 2019 SBL season. In June 2019, he competed in the SBL All-Star Game; that month, he sustained a calf injury that saw him sit out for nearly two months. In 20 games, he averaged 6.8 rebounds and 1.75 assists per game. In January 2020, Ritchart re-signed with the Flames for the 2020 season. Josh Ritchart at Josh Ritchart at

Pierre Auguste Brahain Ducange

Pierre Auguste Brahain Ducange was a French journalist, minor diplomat, secret agent and author. He was the father of the French author Victor Henri Joseph Brahain Ducange, he played an important role in the coup d'état of 22 January 1798 in the Batavian Republic, by general Herman Willem Daendels, which brought the radical unitarist faction of Wybo Fijnje and Pieter Vreede to power, he helped write the Staatsregeling voor het Bataafse Volk of 1798. Little is known about Ducange's life before 1783, the year; as a matter of fact, the name "Ducange" seems to have been assumed, as Ducange calls himself around this time "Brahain, dit Ducange." Still, in many sources he is designated "Ducange," or "Brahain Ducange," so, the name that will be used here. In 1783 he published Oeuvres commentées du sieur Hadoux: expliquées et rendues intelligibles under the elaborate pseudonym André d'Acunenga Rhiba, an anagram of his name, he was secretary of the French ambassador to the Dutch Republic, Charles Olivier de Saint-Georges de Vérac until the ambassador discovered that he had leaked confidential information to a Dutch newspaper, dismissed him.

Before his employment at the embassy he was a French tutor in a Dutch family in Amsterdam, an occasional journalist. After his dismissal he took up journalism full-time, first in an Orangist newspaper, but after the Prussian intervention in the Patriot Revolt of 1787 he travelled for a time to Spain, where he reputedly earned a living as a swindler. Around 1790 he was back in the Netherlands, where he took up his journalistic work in Leiden as an editor of the French-language Gazette de Leyde, he published a newspaper there, entitled Le Batave, which agitated for war against the Dutch Republic. During the next few years he worked as a police spy for the French government during the Reign of Terror. After the fall of the Robespierre regime he had to go abroad for a while to Germany, again entering into a life of crime, until he emerged again in The Hague at the end of 1797 in the retinue of the new French ambassador to the Batavian Republic, Charles-François Delacroix, he was appointed secretary of the ambassador, but was charged with keeping a discreet eye on the ambassador for Barras.

At this time the politicians of the Batavian Republic were in the process of writing a Constitution amid much political strife. Speaking there were three political factions vying to get the upper hand: a group of "federalists," who wanted to maintain the decentralized structure of the old Dutch Republic, it was Delacroix' mission to impose a Constitution following the model of the Constitution of the Year III. However, in this task he was hindered by the fact. Ducange, on the other hand was fluent in Dutch, therefore able to act as Delacroix' trusted henchman in this projet d'une constitution pour la République batave. However, Ducange acted more as an intermediary with the radical faction of unitarists, thanks to him Delacroix in the course of January, 1798 accepted their version of the draft-Constitution in preference to the French draft; this official French endorsement encouraged the radicals to impose their will by force on their political opponents. On 22 January 1798 Dutch and French troops, commanded by generals Daendels and Joubert, surrounded The Hague, the political opponents of the radicals in the National Assembly were arrested.

The rump-Assembly next declared itself to be a Constituante, ready to promulgate a new constitution. A committee was charged with drafting this new constitution. Ducange took part in the deliberations of this committee on a daily basis, translated certain parts into French for the benefit of his French principals; the fact that he kept a watchful eye, that Delacroix had to trust his reports implicitly helped to smooth the acceptance of the draft by the French "sister republic," though it was not a slavish copy of the French model, contained some peculiarly Dutch elements. The draft-constitution came into force on 1 May. However, soon discontent with the high-handed policies of the radicals began to grow; this discontent was directed against Ducange, whose sometimes abrasive behavior and evident influential position were resented. He was blamed for the decision of the radicals on 4 May to continue the rump-Assembly in office and not to hold new elections. Soon intrigues back in Paris caused the Directoire to demand his recall to France.

Delacroix own recall soon followed. None too soon, as he had become identified with the radical regime, overthrown by a new coup d'état in June, 1798, again by general Daendels, who had now thrown in his lot with the moderate unitarists. After this we again lose sight of Ducange for a few years, but in 1803 the French government sent him as a secret agent to Vienna to spy on French émigrés; when the Austrian police caught wind of this intrigue, Ducange had to flee, first to Saxony, back to France, where he was locked up in the Temple prison for a few years. Released in 1806 he again was arrested in 1808 and convicted as a swindler. In years he seems to have taken up the pen again. In 1821 he published a children's book offering models for letter-writing, Le sécretaire des enfants, ou correspondence entre plusieurs enfants propre à les former au style épistolaire. At the time he worked as a copyist, he di

Ashley Hunter (cartoonist)

Ashley John Barsley Hunter was a New Zealand engineer, artist and cartoonist. Although principally employed as an engineer, he was one of the founders of the New Zealand Graphic and Ladies Journal in 1877, his cartoons appeared in the Graphic throughout the 1880s and 1890s appearing as full-page images on the front cover. Hunter was moved to New Zealand in 1871 with some of his family, he married Eliza Jane Halyday in 1878 and died in Auckland in 1932. After working as a photographer on arrival in New Zealand, he was appointed as an engineering cadet in the Public Works Department in Wellington in 1872, he continued to work for the Public Works Department until 1882 when he went into private practice in partnership with James Stewart. He was an engineer for the Westport Coal Company, the Paparoa Coal Company, the Waipa Coal Company and the Westport Stockton Coal Company. In 1918, he was responsible for laying out the Huntly Branch Railway, he was a member of the UK Institution of Civil Engineers and President of the New Zealand Society of Civil Engineers from 1922 to 1923.

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UAAP Season 70

UAAP Season 70 was the 2007-08 season of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines, hosted by the University of Santo Tomas. The theme of season 70 was "Winners All, Recreating the Value of Honesty through Sports" It opened on July 7, 2007 at the Araneta Coliseum. De La Salle University returned to active participation after being suspended in Season 69; the UAAP Season 70 basketball tournament began on July 7, 2007 at the Araneta Coliseum in Cubao, Quezon City. The tournament host was University of Santo Tomas and tournament commissioner was Edgardo "Ed" Cordero. Men's basketball games were held at the Ninoy Aquino Stadium, the Cuneta Astrodome and the Araneta Coliseum; the women's and juniors' games were held at the school gyms of Adamson University, Ateneo de Manila University and Far Eastern University. Most Valuable Player: JV Casio and Cholo Villanueva Most Valuable Player: Jervy Cruz Rookie of the Year: JR Cawaling. Most Valuable Player: Most Valuable Player: Rookie of the Year: Most Valuable Player: Samuel Marata Rookie of the Year: Dave Kurt De Guzman The UAAP Football tournament opened on January 12, 2008 at the Ateneo Erenchun Football Field of the Ateneo de Manila University in Katipunan Avenue, Loyola Heights Quezon City.

Tournament host was Ateneo de Manila. This year marked the introduction of high school football in the UAAP as a demonstration sport; the initial participating schools were Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle-Santiago Zobel School, University of Santo Tomas High School and FEU - Diliman. Three championship titles are disputed in UAAP football, one for each division, namely the men's, women's and juniors; the tournament is a double round robin elimination. A Team that sweeps both rounds automatically wins the championship. Otherwise, the number one and two ranked teams meet in the Finals round with the former having a twice-to-beat advantage over the number two team. Games in the Finals go into extra time; the extra time consists of two 15-minute periods. If there is still no winner after the extra time the game will go to a penalty shootout to decide the winner. Elimination round The UAAP volleyball tournament opened on December 1, 2007 at the Blue Eagle Gym hosted by University of the Philippines.

The Ateneo de Manila University Men's Volleyball Team took on University of the East Men's Volleyball as the opening game for the Season. Men's volleyball games were held at the Blue Eagle Gym and some at the Rizal Memorial Coliseum. Women's volleyball action meanwhile had its opening games at the Blue Eagle Gym and transferred to Ninoy Aquino Stadium in the succeeding games; the boys' and Girls' volleyball games were held at the University of the East Gymnasium with some games held at the University of the Philippines College of Human Kinetics Gym. Qualified to the semifinals with twice-to-beat advantage Qualified to the semifinals FEU defeated UST in 5 sets in the playoff for the first-seed. All the won games of De La Salle from January 15, 2008 up to the time it was discovered that one of its players, Jacqueline Alarca, continued playing despite her being on leave of absence were forfeited; the UAAP rule requires a player to be enrolled while playing. Qualified to the semifinals with twice-to-beat advantage Qualified to the semifinals The three-way tie for #1 was broken as follows: Teams were seeded by the number of sets won ratio.

Adamson held the advantage with a +2, while UST and FEU had each a -1. In the playoffs for the first seed, Adamson with a better win record drew a bye and waited for the winner of the UST versus FEU match. FEU gained the right to play Adamson for the number one seeding. UST was relegated to #3 seed. Adamson defeated FEU in 5 sets in their playoff for the first seed; the UAAP Beach Volleyball tournament started on September 8, 2007 at the University of the East Caloocan sand courts in Caloocan City, Metro Manila. The UAAP Softball tournament opened July 12, 2007. Games were played at the UST Open Field. University of the Philippines Lady Maroons clinched the title automatically after sweeping the elimination round. Three championship titles were disputed in the UAAP Chess tournament. Team standings The UAAP Taekwondo tournament started on September 15, 2007 at the University of Santo Tomas Gym in España Boulevard, Manila. Team standings |} The UAAP Table Tennis tournament started on September 18, 2007 at the Ateneo de Manila University Blue Eagle Gym in Katipunan Avenue, Loyola Heights, Quezon City.

Team standings The UAAP Season 70 Swimming Championships was held on September 20–23, 2007 at the Trace Aquatics Centre in Los Baños, Laguna. Team ranking is determined by a point system, similar to that of the overall championship; the points given are based on the swimmer's/team's finish in the finals of an event, which include only the top eight finishers from the preliminaries. The gold medalist receive 15 points, silver gets 12, bronze has 10; the following points: 8, 6, 4, 2 and 1 are given to the rest of the participating swimmers/teams according to their order of finish. The UAAP Judo tournament started on October 6, 2007 and ended on October 7, 2007 at the Blue Eagle Gym of the Ateneo de Manila University in Katipunan Avenue, Loyola Heights, Quezon City; the 2007 Cheerdance Competition was held on September 16, 2007 at the Araneta Coliseum, Araneta Center, Quezon City. Cheer dance competition is an exhibition event. Points for the general championship are not awarded to the participants.

The UP Pep Squad clinched their fourth UAAP cheerdance title after 5 years. UST settled for second place, the third place went to FEU. Athlete of the Year: Seniors: Michelle