Dame Olivia Mary de Havilland is a retired British-American actress. The major works of her cinematic career spanned from 1935 to 1988, she appeared in 49 feature films, was one of the leading actors of her time, is among the last surviving movie stars of Classical Hollywood cinema. Her younger sister was actress Joan Fontaine. De Havilland first came to prominence as a screen couple with Errol Flynn in adventure films such as Captain Blood and The Adventures of Robin Hood. One of her best-known roles is Melanie Hamilton in the film classic Gone with the Wind, for which she received her first of five Oscar nominations, the only one for Best Supporting Actress. De Havilland departed from ingénue roles in the 1940s and received acclaim for her performances in Hold Back the Dawn, To Each His Own, The Snake Pit, The Heiress, receiving nominations for Best Actress for each, winning for To Each His Own and The Heiress, she was successful in work on stage and television. De Havilland has lived in Paris since the 1950s, received honours such as the National Medal of the Arts, the Légion d'honneur, the appointment to Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
In addition to her film career, de Havilland continued her work in the theatre, appearing three times on Broadway, in Romeo and Juliet, A Gift of Time. She worked in television, appearing in the successful miniseries, Roots: The Next Generations, Anastasia: The Mystery of Anna, for which she received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress in a Television Movie or Series. During her film career, de Havilland collected two New York Film Critics Circle Awards, the National Board of Review Award for Best Actress, the Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup. For her contributions to the motion picture industry, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. De Havilland's father, Walter de Havilland, served as an English professor at the Imperial University in Tokyo before becoming a patent attorney, her mother, Lilian Fontaine, was educated at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London and became a stage actress. Lilian sang with the Master of the King's Music, Sir Walter Parratt, toured England with the composer Ralph Vaughan Williams.
Olivia's paternal cousin was Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, an aircraft designer and founder of the de Havilland aircraft company. Lilian and Walter married the following year. Olivia Mary de Havilland was born on July 1, 1916, they moved into a large house in Tokyo. Olivia's younger sister Joan —later known as actress Joan Fontaine—was born fifteen months on October 22, 1917. Both sisters became citizens of the United Kingdom automatically by birthright. In February 1919, Lilian persuaded her husband to take the family back to England for a climate better suited to their ailing daughters, they sailed aboard the SS Siberia Maru to San Francisco, where the family stopped to treat Olivia's tonsillitis. After Joan developed pneumonia, Lilian decided to remain with her daughters in California, where they settled in the village of Saratoga, 50 miles south of San Francisco, her father abandoned the family and returned to his Japanese housekeeper, who became his second wife. Olivia was raised to appreciate the arts, beginning with ballet lessons at the age of four and piano lessons a year later.
She learned to read before she was six, her mother, who taught drama and elocution, had her reciting passages from Shakespeare to strengthen her diction. During this period, her younger sister Joan first started calling her "Livvie", a nickname that would last throughout her life. De Havilland did well in her studies, she enjoyed reading, writing poetry, drawing, once represented her grammar school in a county spelling bee, coming in second place. In 1923, Lilian had a new Tudor-style house built. In April 1925, after her divorce was finalized, Lilian married George Milan Fontaine, a department store manager for O. A. Hale & Co. in San Jose. Fontaine was a good provider and respectable businessman, but his strict parenting style generated animosity and rebellion in both of his new stepdaughters. De Havilland continued her education at Los Gatos High School near her home in Saratoga. There she excelled in oratory and field hockey and participated in school plays and the school drama club becoming the club's secretary.
With plans of becoming a schoolteacher of English and speech, she attended Notre Dame Convent in Belmont. In 1933, a teenage de Havilland made her debut in amateur theatre in Alice in Wonderland, a production of the Saratoga Community Players based on the novel by Lewis Carroll, she appeared in several school plays, including The Merchant of Venice and Hansel and Gretel. Her passion for drama led to a confrontation with her stepfather, who forbade her from participating in further extracurricular activities; when he learned that she had won the lead role of Elizabeth Bennet in a school fund-raising production of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, he told her that she had to choose between staying at home, or appearing in the production and not being allowed home. Not wanting to let her school and classmates down, she left home. After graduating from high school in 1934, de Havilland was offered a scholarship to Mills College in Oakland to pursue her
The Emmental Alps are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps, in Switzerland. They are located north-west of the Brünig Pass in the cantons of Lucerne and Obwalden, with a small portion in the canton of Nidwalden; the highest summit of the range is the Brienzer Rothorn, the highest point in the canton of Lucerne. The range is named after the Emme valley. In the north-west corner one finds the low, but widespread, furrowed Napf; the Emmental Alps are separated from the Bernese Alps by the Aare valley to the south and connected to the Uri Alps by the four lakes Lungerersee, Sarnersee and Vierwaldstättersee to the east. Brienzer Rothorn Tannhorn Arnihaaggen Höch Gumme Hohgant Augstmatthorn Pilatus Schrattenfluh Widderfeld Burgfeldstand Sigriswiler Rothorn Fürstein Wilerhorn Schafmatt Niederhorn Sieben Hengste Haglere Mittaggüpfi Schimbrig Honegg Wachthubel Napf Charles Knapp, Maurice Borel, Victor Attinger, Heinrich Brunner, Société neuchâteloise de géographie: Geographisches Lexikon der Schweiz.
The Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum is a Latin history of the Goths from 265 to 624, written by Isidore of Seville. It is a condensed account and, due to its diverse sources, somewhat inconsistent; the history of the Vandals is appended after that of the Goths, followed by a separate history of the Suevi. Isidore begins his history with Laus Spaniae, praising the virtues of Spain, it is here. The rest of the work defends the Gothic identity of a unified Spain. Isidore uses the Spanish era for dating throughout; the main source for his early history was Jerome's continuation of Eusebius to the year 378. From there he used Orosius and, for Spain, Hydatius. For his history he relies on Prosper Tiro's continuation of Jerome. Victor of Tununa is his primary African witness for the years 444 to 566 and John of Biclar for recent Spanish history. Isidore made use of a lost chronicle of Maximus of Zaragoza. For events in Spain between 590 and 624 Isidore is the modern historian's primary source.
The Historia was composed in both surviving. The first, completed in 619, the year of the death of king Sisebut, is shorter; the longer version was completed in 624, in the fifth year of the reign of Suinthila. Only the longer version contains the Laus Spaniae and the Laus Gothorum, a eulogy of the Goths, which divides the Goths' history from that of the Vandals; the edition of the longer version by Theodor Mommsen is the standard and was the basis of the first English translation. The Historia was translated into German