The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula 2SiO4. Thus, it is a type of orthosilicate; the primary component of the Earth's upper mantle, it is a common mineral in Earth's subsurface, but weathers on the surface. The ratio of magnesium to iron varies between the two endmembers of the solid solution series: forsterite and fayalite. Compositions of olivine are expressed as molar percentages of forsterite and fayalite. Forsterite's melting temperature is unusually high at atmospheric pressure 1,900 °C, while fayalite's is much lower — about 1,200 °C. Melting temperature varies smoothly between the two endmembers. Olivine incorporates only minor amounts of elements other than oxygen, silicon and iron. Manganese and nickel are the additional elements present in highest concentrations. Olivine gives its name to the group of minerals with a related structure —which includes tephroite, monticellite and kirschsteinite. Olivine's crystal structure incorporates aspects of the orthorhombic P Bravais lattice, which arise from each silica unit being joined by metal divalent cations with each oxygen in SiO4 bound to three metal ions.
It has a spinel-like structure similar to magnetite but uses one quadrivalent and two divalent cations M22+ M4+O4 instead of two trivalent and one divalent cations. Olivine gemstones are called chrysolite. Olivine rock is harder than surrounding rock and stands out as distinct ridges in the terrain; these ridges are dry with little soil. Drought resistant scots pine is one of few trees. Olivine pine forest is unique to Norway, it found on dry olivine ridges in the fjord districts of Sunnmøre and Nordfjord. Olivine rock is base-rich. Olivine is named for its olive-green color, thought to be a result of traces of nickel, though it may alter to a reddish color from the oxidation of iron. Translucent olivine is sometimes used as a gemstone called peridot, it is called chrysolite. Some of the finest gem-quality olivine has been obtained from a body of mantle rocks on Zabargad Island in the Red Sea. Olivine occurs in both mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and as a primary mineral in certain metamorphic rocks.
Mg-rich olivine crystallizes from magma, rich in magnesium and low in silica. That magma crystallizes to mafic rocks such as basalt. Ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and dunite can be residues left after extraction of magmas, they are more enriched in olivine after extraction of partial melts. Olivine and high pressure structural variants constitute over 50% of the Earth's upper mantle, olivine is one of the Earth's most common minerals by volume; the metamorphism of impure dolomite or other sedimentary rocks with high magnesium and low silica content produces Mg-rich olivine, or forsterite. Fe-rich olivine fayalite is much less common, but it occurs in igneous rocks in small amounts in rare granites and rhyolites, Fe-rich olivine can exist stably with quartz and tridymite. In contrast, Mg-rich olivine does not occur stably with silica minerals, as it would react with them to form orthopyroxene. Mg-rich olivine is stable to pressures equivalent to a depth of about 410 km within Earth; because it is thought to be the most abundant mineral in Earth's mantle at shallower depths, the properties of olivine have a dominant influence upon the rheology of that part of Earth and hence upon the solid flow that drives plate tectonics.
Experiments have documented that olivine at high pressures can contain at least as much as about 8900 parts per million of water, that such water content drastically reduces the resistance of olivine to solid flow. Moreover, because olivine is so abundant, more water may be dissolved in olivine of the mantle than is contained in Earth's oceans. Mg-rich olivine has been discovered in meteorites, on the Moon and Mars, falling into infant stars, as well as on asteroid 25143 Itokawa; such meteorites include collections of debris from the early Solar System. The spectral signature of olivine has been seen in the dust disks around young stars; the tails of comets have the spectral signature of olivine, the presence of olivine was verified in samples of a comet from the Stardust spacecraft in 2006. Comet-like olivine has been detected in the planetesimal belt around the star Beta Pictoris. Minerals in the olivine group crystallize in the orthorhombic system with isolated silicate tetrahedra, meaning that olivine is a nesosilicate.
In an alternative view, the atomic structure can be described as a hexagonal, close-packed array of oxygen ions with half of the octahedral sites occupied with magnesium or iron ions and one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites occupied by silicon ions. There are two distinct metal sites and only one distinct silicon site. O1, O2, M2 and Si all lie on mirror planes. O3 lies in a general position. At the high temperatures and pressures found at depth within the Earth the olivine structure is no longer stable. Below depths of about 410 km (250 m
Von Roll Holding AG is a Swiss industrial group that operates worldwide. As one of Switzerland’s longest-established industrial companies, Von Roll focuses today on products and systems for electrical applications such as power generation and storage as well as e-mobility and industrial applications. Von Roll has its roots in the Eisenwerke der Handelsgesellschaft der Gebrüder Dürholz & Co., established in 1803. This firm was taken over in 1810 by Von Roll & Cie, newly formed by Ludwig Freiherr von Roll and Jakob von Glutz. In May 1823, Ludwig von Roll founded the Gesellschaft der Ludwig von Roll'schen Eisenwerke which benefited from industrialization and railroad construction that demanded a lot of iron. Following this, the business developed into one of the most important industrial groups in Switzerland with more than 10,000 employees in the 1970s. Like other Swiss companies, Von Roll suffered during the oil crisis of 1973; the company underwent financial restructuring after financial restructuring without end.
As as 2003, Von Roll had to fight for its survival. At the end of 2002, following the accumulated losses of previous years, Von Roll’s equity capital had shrunk to 10.3 million. In 2004 the company initiated a new strategy to focus on the insulation business, beginning its turnaround; the main shareholder is in early 2019 August von Finck Jr. family with above 65% of the quotes. After the conversion of some convertible bonds in December 2018 the composition of shareholders became unclear. In 2019 the company is involved in law case for some salaries paid in €. Von Roll Seilbahnen AG was the aerial tramway and cableway division, sold to Austrian manufacturer Doppelmayr in 1996. Von Roll's best-known product was the type 101 sky ride or "VR101" that operated in many amusement parks. A total of over 100 were installed. On December 30, 1954, Felseneggbahn was opened, it was built by Von Roll in seven months for one million Swiss francs. It still runs, on March 31, 2010, it carried its 10 millionth passenger.
The Disneyland Skyway was Von Roll's first aerial ropeway in the United States. It opened on June 23, 1956, closed on November 9, 1994; the first Von Roll VR101 was built in Flims, in 1944, replaced in 1986. The Mk II and Mk III monorail automated people mover systems were installed in a variety of locations before the technology was sold to Adtranz, which continues to supply the parts for the monorail systems. AirTrain Newark is a Von Roll system; the AirTrain Newark system was extended to connect with Amtrak and NJ Transit in 2001. The monorail cars at Alton Towers theme park in England were built for Expo 86 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Von Roll manufactured the old Sentosa Monorail in Sentosa Island, Singapore in 1982, which closed down in March 2005; the Jurong Bird Park Panorail in Jurong Bird Park, Singapore is a four-car straddle-beam monorail that began operation in 1991 and ceased operations in 2012. Australia has had a total of four Von Roll Monorail systems one is still in operation.
A Von Roll MkII system is in operation at Sea World theme park on the Gold Coast. A MkIII Monorail system in nearby Broadbeach linking a shopping centre to a casino opened in 1989, but closed on January 29, 2017 due to life-expired equipment and declining patronage. Another MkIII Monorail system, the Metro Monorail, operated in Sydney, Australia linking the City Centre to Darling Harbour, however monorail services ceased on 30 June 2013. A MkII Monorail system was in operation during World Expo 88 held in Brisbane, with a loop around the expo site at Southbank. There is no trace of the monorail system at the site. Cedar Point's Space Spiral, AstroWorld's Astroneedle and Coney's Space Tower were built by Willy Bühler Space Towers Company of Berne, Switzerland with cabins by Von Roll. In 1971 Intamin contracted these same companies to build them. Willy Bühler Space Towers was acquired by Von Roll. Falls Incline Railway, Niagara Falls, Canada 1966 Von Roll rack system http://www.vonroll.com/
Days of Magic, Nights of War is the second book in a series of five by author Clive Barker, called The Books of Abarat. This volume contains the adventures of Candy Quackenbush an ordinary girl from Minnesota, in the strange fantasy world of Abarat. Abarat: Days of Magic, Nights of War is followed by, Absolute Midnight, which will be followed by a fourth and fifth book to complete the saga; the book tied with Steve Burt's Oddest Yet for the 2004 Bram Stoker Award for Best Work for Young Readers. The entire book is spread out over eight weeks of time, compared to the two or three in Book 1, titled Abarat; the book picks up several weeks. Christopher Carrion's whereabouts are revealed only in the second quarter of the book, wherein he plots with the Sacbrood in the Pyramids of Xuxux. Sacbrood are terrifying insects of all shapes and sizes which Christopher Carrion has been breeding in order to help him create Absolute Midnight. Under the cover produced by the Sacbrood, he expects, the destroyers called the Requiax will emerge from under the Sea of Izabella and annihilate everything they see, giving Carrion the opportunity to re-organize the world according to his will.
Candy begins to develop powers of great magic, with which she frees the mysterious beings called Totemix from their imprisonment in the Twilight Palace on the island of Scoriae. Malingo, separated from her on the carnival island of Babilonium, joins with others of Candy's acquaintance to form a force of resistance against the armies of Midnight. Candy is captured by Letheo, the lizard-boy servant of Christopher Carrion, taken to the island Efreet; the enchantress Diamanda, having died of an encounter with a monster, travels as a ghost to the human world, where she finds her ghostly husband Henry and with him works to prepare Candy's home town for the flood resulting from its imminent meeting with the Abarat. When this meeting occurs, Henry's opening of the factory farm, the town's only industrial outlet is used as a comment on the variety-deprived lives of chickens raised in such factories; this book introduces readers to new characters including Finnegan Hob, the would-be husband of Princess Boa, discovered by other characters in search of himself.
Having persuaded him to give up his vendetta against the Abaratian dragons, whom he blames for his fianceé's death, the seekers travel to Efreet, where Candy is held prisoner by Christopher Carrion. They rescue Candy and at her request return her to the human world, where she intends to hide from the Abarat's perils; the two worlds meet in a dramatic climax, wherein it is revealed by the magician Kaspar Wolfswinkel that Princess Boa's soul is contained within Candy's body, having been placed there by the Fantomaya in obedience to the belief that Princess Boa, or her reincarnation, could halt the Abarat's progressive degradation and revitalize the Abarat as a whole. Christopher Carrion clashes with his grandmother Mater Motley, having learned that she had concealed Candy's dual nature from him, is wounded in the process. Candy and most of the major characters return to the Abarat when it is withdrawn from the human world. There, Mater Motley assumes control of Gorgossium Island, where she executes all of Christopher Carrion's living supporters.
The remains of Kaspar Wolfswinkel's six hats, the source of his power, are left in the human world. The Beautiful Moment - The Official Clive Barker Website for All Ages - Official site celebrating the work of Clive Barker for younger readers - features Abarat and The Thief of Always. Revelations - The Official Clive Barker Online Resource - Includes a full bibliography and updated news