Eugénie de Montijo
Doña María Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox y KirkPatrick, 16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales, known as Eugénie de Montijo, was the last Empress Consort of the French as the wife of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. The last Empress of the French was born in Granada, Spain, to Don Cipriano de Palafox y Portocarrero, whose titles included 8th Count of Ablitas, 9th Count of Montijo, 15th Count of Teba, 8th Count of Fuentidueña, 14th Marquess of Ardales, 17th Marquess of Moya and 13th Marquess of la Algaba and his half-Scottish, quarter-Belgian, quarter-Spanish wife, María Manuela Enriqueta Kirkpatrick de Closbourn y de Grevigné, a daughter of the Scots-born William Kirkpatrick of Closeburn, who became United States consul to Málaga, was a wholesale wine merchant, his wife, Marie Françoise de Grevigné, daughter of Liège-born Henri, Baron de Grevigné and wife Doña Francisca Antonia de Gallegos. Eugenia's older sister, María Francisca de Sales de Palafox Portocarrero y Kirkpatrick, nicknamed "Paca", who inherited most of the family honours and was 12th Duchess of Peñaranda Grandee of Spain and 9th Countess of Montijo, title ceded to her sister, married the 15th Duke of Alba in 1849.
Until her own marriage in 1853, Eugénie variously used the titles of Countess of Teba or Countess of Montijo, but some family titles were inherited by her elder sister, through which they passed to the House of Alba. After the death of her father, Eugenia became the 9th Countess of Teba, is named as such in the Almanach de Gotha. After Eugenia's demise all titles of the Montijo family came to the Fitz-Jameses. On 18 July 1834, María Manuela and her daughters left Madrid for Paris, fleeing a cholera outbreak and the dangers of the First Carlist War; the previous day, Eugenia had witnessed a riot and murder in the square outside their residence, Casa Ariza. Eugénie de Montijo, as she became known in France, was formally educated in Paris, beginning at the fashionable, traditionalist Convent of the Sacré Cœur from 1835 to 1836. A more compatible school was the progressive Gymnase Normal, Civil et Orthosomatique, from 1836 to 1837, which appealed to her athletic side. In 1837, Eugénie and Paca attended a boarding school for girls on Royal York Crescent in Clifton, Bristol, to learn English.
Eugénie was teased as "Carrots", for her red hair, tried to run away to India, making it as far as climbing on board a ship in Bristol docks. In August 1837 they returned to school in Paris. However, much of the girls' education took place at home, under the tutelage of English governesses Miss Cole and Miss Flowers, family friends such as Prosper Mérimée and Henri Beyle. In March 1839, on the death of their father in Madrid, the girls left Paris to rejoin their mother there. In Spain, Eugénie grew up into a headstrong and physically daring young woman, devoted to horseriding and a range of other sports, she was rescued from drowning, twice attempted suicide after romantic disappointments. She was interested in politics, became devoted to the Bonapartist cause, under the influence of Eleanore Gordon, a former mistress of Louis Napoléon. Thanks to her mother's role as a lavish society hostess, Eugénie became acquainted with Isabel II and the prime minister Ramón Narváez. María Manuela was anxious to find a husband for her daughter, took her on trips to Paris again in 1849 and England in 1851.
She first met Prince Louis Napoléon after he had become president of the Second Republic, with her mother, at a reception given by the "prince-president" at the Élysée Palace on 12 April 1849. Her beauty attracted Louis Napoleon, who, as was his custom, tried to seduce her, but Eugénie told him to wait for marriage. "What is the road to your heart?" Napoleon demanded to know. "Through the chapel, Sire", she answered. In a speech on 22 January 1853, Napoleon III, after having become emperor, formally announced his engagement, saying, "I have preferred a woman whom I love and respect to a woman unknown to me, with whom an alliance would have had advantages mixed with sacrifices", they were wed, on 29 January 1853, in a civil ceremony at the Tuileries, on the 30th there was a much grander religious ceremony at Notre Dame. The marriage had come after considerable activity with regard to who would make a suitable match toward titled royals and with an eye to foreign policy; the final choice was opposed in many quarters and Eugénie considered of too little social standing by some.
In the United Kingdom The Times made light of the latter concern, emphasizing that the parvenu Bonapartes were at least marrying into established Spanish nobility: "We learn with some amusement that this romantic event in the annals of the French Empire has called forth the strongest opposition, provoked the utmost irritation. The Imperial family, the Council of Ministers, the lower coteries of the palace or its purlieus, all affect to regard this marriage as an amazing humiliation..."Eugénie found childbearing extraordinarily difficult. An initial miscarriage in 1853, after a three-month pregnancy and soured her. On 16 March 1856, after a two-day labor that endangered mother and child and from which Eugénie made a slow recovery, the empress gave birth to an only son, Napoléon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph Bonaparte, styled Prince Impérial. After marriage, it didn't take long for her husband to str
Béarnese is a dialect of Gascon spoken in Béarn. As a written language, it benefited from the fact that Béarn was an independent state from the mid-14th century to 1620. Béarnese was used in legal and administrative documents long after most other Gascon provinces were incorporated into France.. Béarnese is the most prominent variety of Gascon, it is used in the normativization attempts to reach a standard Gascon and is the most dialect to succeed, due to the stronger cultural identity and output of this area. A 1982 survey of the inhabitants of Béarn indicated that 51% of the population spoke Béarnese, 70% understood it, 85% were in favor of preserving the language. However, use of the language has declined over recent years as Béarnese is transmitted to younger generations within the family. There is a revival of focus on the language which has improved the situation, leading children to be taught the language in school; the majority of the cultural associations consider Gascon an Occitan dialect.
However, other authorities consider them to be distinct languages, including Jean Lafitte, publisher of Ligam-DiGam, a linguistic and lexicography review of Gascon. A detailed sociolinguistic study presenting the current status of the language has been made in 2004 by B. Moreux: the majority of native speakers have learned it orally, tend to be older. On the other hand, the proponents for its maintenance and revival are classified into three groups: Béarnists and Occitanists, terms which summarize the regional focus they give to their language of interest: Béarn, Gascony or Occitania. Concerning literature and poems, the first important book was a Béarnese translation of the Psalms of David by Arnaud de Salette, at the end of the 16th century, contemporary with the Gascon translation of these Psalms by Pey de Garros. Both translations were ordered by Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre and mother of Henry IV of France, to be used at Protestant churches. Henri IV was first Enric III de Navarra, the king of this independent Calvinist and Occitan-speaking state.
The Béarnese dialect was his native language that he used in letters to his subjects. During the 17th century, the Béarnese writer Jean-Henri Fondeville composed plays such as La Pastorala deu Paisan and his anti-Calvinist Eglògas. Cyprien Despourrins is one of the main 18th-century Béarnese poets. From the 19th century we can mention poet Xavier Navarrot and Alexis Peyret, who emigrated to Argentina for political reasons where he edited his Béarnese poetry. After the creation of the Felibrige, the Escole Gastoû Fèbus was created as the Béarnese part of Frédéric Mistral's and Joseph Roumanille's academy. Simin Palay, one of its most prominent members, published a dictionary. Anatole, Cristian - Lafont, Robert. Nouvelle histoire de la littérature occitane. París: P. U. F. 1970. Molyneux R-G. Grammar and Vocabulary of the language of Bearn. For Beginners. Pyremonde/PrinciNegue. ISBN 978-2-84618-095-5. Moreux, B.. Bearnais and Gascon today: language behavior and perception; the International Journal of the Sociology of Language,169:25-62.
The Ostau Bearnés
Estos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Goès is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE
Bayonne is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. It is located at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers in the northern part of the cultural region of the Basque Country, as well as the southern part of Gascony where the Aquitaine basin joins the beginning of the Pre-Pyrenees. Together with nearby Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz, several smaller communes, Bayonne forms an urban area with 288,359 inhabitants at the 2012 census, 45,855 of whom lived in the city of Bayonne proper; the site on the left bank of the Nive and the Adour was occupied before ancient times as a fortified enclosure was attested in the 1st century at the time when the Tarbelli occupied the territory. Archaeological studies have confirmed the presence of a Roman castrum, a stronghold in Novempopulania at the end of the 4th century before the city was populated by the Vascones. In 1023 Bayonne was the capital of Labourd and, in the 12th century, extended to and beyond the Nive.
At that time the first bridge was built over the Adour. The city came under the domination of the English in 1152 through the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine: it became militarily and, above all, commercially important thanks to maritime trade, it was separated from the Viscount of Labourd in 1177 by Richard the Lion Heart. In 1451 the city was taken by the Crown of France after the Hundred Years' War; the loss of trade with the English and the silting up of the river as well as the movement of the city towards the north weakened it. The district of Saint-Esprit developed anyway thanks to the arrival of a Jewish population fleeing the Spanish Inquisition. From this community Bayonne gained its reputation for chocolate; the course of the Adour was changed in 1578 under the direction of Louis de Foix and the river returned to its former mouth, returning business lost to Bayonne for over a hundred years. In the 17th century the city was fortified by Vauban. In 1814 Bayonne and its surroundings were the scene of fighting between the Napoleonic troops and the Spanish-Anglo-Portuguese coalition led by the Duke of Wellington: the city underwent its final siege.
In 1951 the Lacq gas field was discovered whose extracted sulphur and associated oil are shipped from the port of Bayonne. During the second half of the 20th century many housing estates were built forming new districts on the periphery and the city was extended to form a conurbation with Anglet and Biarritz: this agglomeration became the heart of a vast Basque-Landes urban area. Bayonne was, in 2014, a commune with over 45,000 inhabitants, the heart of the urban area of Bayonne and of the Agglomeration Côte Basque-Adour which includes Anglet and Biarritz, it is an important part of the Basque Bayonne-San Sebastián Eurocity and it plays the role of economic capital of the Adour basin. Modern industry—metallurgy and chemicals—are established to take advantage of procurement opportunities and sea shipments through the harbour, it is now business services which today represent the largest source of employment. Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences and a rich historical past.
Its heritage lies in its architecture, the diversity of collections in museums, its gastronomic specialties, traditional events such as the famous Fêtes de Bayonne. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bayonnaises. Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony, it developed at the confluence of the Adour and tributary on the left bank, the Nive, 6 km from the Atlantic coast. The commune was part of the Basque province of Labourd. Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to raise towards the south and east; the city has developed at the confluence of the Nive 6 kilometres from the ocean. The meeting point of the two rivers coincides with a narrowing of the Adour valley. Above this the alluvial plain extends for nearly thirty kilometres towards both Tercis-les-Bains and Peyrehorade, is characterized by swampy meadows called barthes which are influenced by floods and high tides.
Downstream from this point the river has shaped a large bed in the sand dunes creating a significant bottleneck at the confluence. The occupation of the hill that dominates this narrowing of the valley developed through a gradual spread across the lowlands by building embankments and the aggradation from flood soil; the Nive has played a leading role in the development of the Bayonne river system in recent geological time by the formation of alluvial terraces that form the sub-soil of Bayonne beneath the surface accumulations of silt and aeolian sands. The drainage network of the western Pre-Pyrenees evolved from the Quaternary from south-east to northwest oriented east-west; the Adour was captured by the gaves and this system, together with the Nive, led to the emergence of a new alignment of the lower Adour and the Adour-Nive confluence. This capture has been dated to the early Quaternary. Before this capture the Nive had deposited pebbles from the Mindel glaciation of medium to large sizes that slowed erosion of the hills causing the bottleneck at Bayonne.
After the deposit of the lowest alluvial terrace, the course of the Adour became fixed in its lower reaches. Subsequent to these deposits there was a rise in sea level in the Holocene period which explains the invasion of the lower valleys with fine sand and mud with a thickness of m
Précilhon is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file
The Gave d'Oloron is a river of south-western France near the border with Spain. It takes its name from the city Oloron-Sainte-Marie, where it is formed from the rivers Gave d'Aspe and Gave d'Ossau, it joins the Gave de Pau in Peyrehorade to form a tributary of the Adour. The Gave d'Oloron is used for fishing; the Gave d'Oloron flows through the following départements and towns: Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Sauveterre-de-Béarn. Landes: Peyrehorade. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Gave d'Oloron at the Sandre database