One Direction shortened to 1D, was a English-Irish pop boy band formed in London, England in 2010. The band is composed of Niall Horan, Liam Payne, Harry Styles and Louis Tomlinson; the group signed with Simon Cowell's record label Syco Records after forming and finishing third in the seventh series of the British televised singing competition The X Factor in 2010. Propelled to global success by social media, One Direction's five albums, Up All Night, Take Me Home, Midnight Memories and Made in the A. M. topped charts in most major markets, generated hit singles including "What Makes You Beautiful", "Live While We're Young", "Best Song Ever", "Story of My Life" and "Drag Me Down". The group has won nearly 200 awards including seven Brit Awards, four MTV Video Music Awards, six Billboard Music Awards, seven American Music Awards, 28 Teen Choice Awards, they have embarked on four world tours. In 2013, they earned an estimated $75 million, becoming the second highest earning celebrity under 30 according to Forbes.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry honoured them as the Global Recording Artist of 2013. Forbes ranked them as the fourth highest-earning celebrities in the world in 2015, second in 2016. After the release of Four, One Direction became the first band in the U. S. Billboard 200 history to have their first four albums debut at number one, their third album, Midnight Memories, was the best-selling album worldwide in 2013 with 4 million copies sold globally. The band's Where We Are Tour, in support of Midnight Memories, was the highest-grossing concert tour in 2014, the highest-grossing tour by a vocal group in history, the 15th highest-grossing concert tour of all time, grossing $290.2 million. In 2014, Billboard named One Direction Artist of the Year; the band went on hiatus in January 2016. As of 2020, the band has sold a total of 50 million records worldwide. In 2010, Niall Horan, Zayn Malik, Liam Payne, Harry Styles, Louis Tomlinson auditioned as solo candidates for the seventh series of the British televised singing competition The X Factor.
They all failed to progress in the "Boys" category at the bootcamp stage of the competition, but were instead put together to form a five-piece boy band, thus qualifying for the "Groups" category. Nicole Scherzinger, a guest judge, Simon Cowell have both claimed to have come up with the idea of forming the band. In 2013, Cowell said that it "took him 10 minutes to put them together as a group". Subsequently, the group got together for two weeks to get to practice. Styles came up with the name One Direction. For their qualifying song at "judges' houses", their first song as a group, One Direction sang an acoustic version of "Torn". Cowell commented that their performance convinced him that they "were confident, like a gang of friends, kind of fearless as well." Within the first four weeks of the live shows, they were his final act in the competition. The group gained popularity in the UK. One Direction achieved third place in the competition and after the final, their song "Forever Young", which would have been released if they had won The X Factor, was leaked onto the internet.
Shortly afterwards it was confirmed that One Direction had been signed by Cowell to a reported £2 million Syco Records record contract. Recording for their debut album began in January 2011, as they flew to Los Angeles to work with RedOne, a record producer. A book licensed by One Direction, One Direction: Forever Young, was published by HarperCollins in February 2011, subsequently topping The Sunday Times Best Seller list; the same month, the boy band and other contestants from the series participated in the X Factor Live Tour. During the tour, the group performed for 500,000 people throughout the UK. After the tour concluded in April 2011, the group continued working on their debut album. Recording took place in Stockholm and Los Angeles, as One Direction worked with producers Carl Falk, Savan Kotecha, Steve Mac, Rami Yacoub, among others. Released in September 2011, One Direction's debut single, "What Makes You Beautiful", was a commercial and international success, it reached number one on the UK Singles Chart, after becoming the most pre-ordered Sony Music Entertainment single in history.
Subsequent singles, "Gotta Be You" and "One Thing", peaked in the UK Singles Chart top ten. In November 2011, they signed a record deal with Columbia Records in North America. Steve Barnett, the co-chairman of Columbia Records, said it was not a difficult decision to sign One Direction; that same month, they released Up their debut studio album, in the UK and Ireland. Critically commended for its appeal to the teenage audience, it became the UK's fastest-selling debut album of 2011. In December 2011, they embarked on the Up All Night Tour; the tour was set to end in January 2012. Upon One Direction's arrival in the US in February 2012, the group embarked on a radio promotion spree, as well as their first North American concert tour as an opening act for Big Time Rush, opening 16 shows after they had completed the first leg of the Up All Night Tour; that month, they announced. They made their first US television appearance at the Rockefeller Center. "What Makes You Beautiful" was released in the United States that
Killing Critics is the third book in the Kathleen Mallory series written by Carol O'Connell. Mallory investigates the murder of an artist killed in the middle of an exhibition; the killer made. Mallory and her partner, Sergeant Riker, find links to a double murder that occurred 12 years ago in an art gallery owned by the same man. Mallory's late father, was on that case and although he got a confession and a conviction, he never for a minute believed that he had the right man; the NYPD considers the old case closed, will not allow them to investigate. Many of the same characters are involved in both killings J. L. Quinn, art critic whose niece was one of the first victims Avril Koozeman, gallery owner Emma Sue Halloran, former art critic, now a "culturecrat"The New York City art world is a key character in the novel; the book expands on Mallory's troubled childhood. Kiiling Critics was first published in 1995 as a limited edition of 85 numbered, signed copies by Scorpion Press in the UK, before more general publication the following year
The culture of Bahrain is part of the historical region of Eastern Arabia. Thus, Bahrain's culture is similar to that of its Arab neighbours in the Persian Gulf region. Bahrain is known for its cosmopolitanism, Bahraini citizens are ethnically diverse. Though the state religion is Islam, the country is tolerant towards other religions: Catholic and Orthodox churches, Hindu temples as well as a Jewish synagogue are present on the island. Bahraini people are ethnically diverse. There are at least 8–9 different ethnic groups of Bahraini citizens. Shia Bahraini citizens are divided into two main ethnic groups: Ajam. Most Shia Bahrainis are ethnic Baharna, the Baharna being descendants of the original pre-Islamic inhabitants of Bahrain; the Baharna speak a variety of Arabic known as Bahrani Arabic. The Ajam are ethnic Persian Shias. Bahraini Persians maintain a distinct culture and language, but have long since assimilated into Bahraini culture. Among Sunni Bahraini citizens, there are many different ethnic groups.
Sunni Bahrainis are divided into two main ethnic groups: urban Arabs and Huwala. The urban Arabs are descendants of Sunni Arabs from central Arabia who were traditionally pearl-divers, sailors and fishermen in the pre-oil era; the Huwala are descendants of Sunni Iranians. In addition to these native Bahraini ethnic groups, there are ethnic Afro-Arabs, Balochis and ethnic tribal people. Bahraini Balochis are descendants of ethnic Baloch from Iran. Most Bahrainis of African origin come from east Africa and have traditionally lived in Muharraq island and Riffa. Indian Bahrainis are descendants of wealthy Indian merchants from the pre-oil era, known as the Bania. A smaller group of Sunni Bahraini citizens are descendants of naturalized Palestinian refugees and other Levant Arab immigrants. Just around half of the population are Arabs. Foreign-born inhabitants, comprising more than half of the population, are from Iran, Pakistan, Philippines and the United States. About three-fifths of the Asian labor force is foreign.
The population is Muslim and includes both the Sunni and Shia sects. Bahrain is the only Arab state in the Persian Gulf with an active Jewish population, has the largest Christian minority within the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. Thousand Christians hold Bahraini citizenship, with the next closest GCC country, only having 400 Christian citizens. Arabic is the official language of Bahrain, English is used as a lingua franca; the Ajami dialect of Persian is spoken by Persian Bahraini citizens Ajam. Many Bahrainis Urdu as well. Football is the most popular modern sport, while traditional pastimes such as horse riding, gazelle and hare hunting are still practiced by wealthier Bahrainis. Traditional handicraft industries enjoy state and popular support; the Bahrain National Museum in Manama contains local artifacts dating from antiquity, such as ivory figurines, copper articles, gold rings, many of which reflect various cultural influences from outside Bahrain. There is a small but flourishing avant-garde art community.
The traditional Bahraini woman dress is an abaya, a long loose-fitting black gown, worn along with a black cloth on the head called the hijab. Bahraini men's traditional dress is the thobe and the traditional headdress which includes the keffiyeh and agal; the thobe is a long-sleeved, ankle-length garment. Summer thobes are white and made of wool; the ghutra is a square scarf, made of cotton, is folded in a triangle and worn over the keffiyeh. In Bahrain, it is red and white checked or all white. There is no significance placed on which kind the man wears in Bahrain, although this selection has implications in other Persian Gulf countries; the keffiyeh is a white knitted skull cap worn under the Ghutra. The agal is a thick, black cord, worn on the top of the ghutra to hold it in place. In some occasions, Bahrainis wear a bisht, a cloak made of wool, over the thobe. Unlike the thobe, the bisht is soft, it is black, brown, or grey. Qarqe'an is a biannual celebration observed in Bahrain and rest of Eastern Arabia, that takes place on the 15th night of the Islamic month of Sha'ban and on the 15th night of Ramadan.
Gerga'oon is marked with children dressing in traditional attire and going door-to-door to receive nuts and sweets from neighbours, whilst singing traditional songs. The tradition has existed for hundreds of years and rooted in Gulf culture. Although the celebration of Qarqe'an shares superficial similarities with the Halloween custom of trick-or-treating, practiced in some Western countries, Qarqe'an has no connection with horror and no associated origin with Halloween. Several weekly and daily papers are published in Arabic: Akhbar Al Khaleej, Al Ayam, Al Waqt to name a few. Al-Wasat daily Arabic newspaper is thought to have become the country's most popular newspaper by 2011 with a daily circulation of 15,000 and readership of 45,000 to 60,000. A small number of newspapers appear in English: Daily Tribune. Most of the press is owned and is not subject to censorship as long as it refrains from criticizing the ruling family; the state television and radio stations broadcast most programs in Arabic: there are channels in English and Hindi as well.
A new digital publishing company, gaining attention with touris