Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, two miles west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet high, seven feet wide and weighing around 25 tons; the stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds. Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC; the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC. One of the most famous landmarks in the United Kingdom, Stonehenge is regarded as a British cultural icon, it has been a protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first introduced in Britain. The site and its surroundings were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986.
Stonehenge is managed by English Heritage. Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, continued for at least another five hundred years; the Neolithic Britons who built the monument are genetically distinct from the Modern British. There is evidence to suggest that over 90% of the Neolithic British DNA was overturned by a population from the Lower Rhine characterized by the Bell Beaker culture, who spoke an Indo-European language, it is not known if warfare, disease or just continuous large scale immigration caused their replacement. The Oxford English Dictionary cites Ælfric's tenth-century glossary, in which henge-cliff is given the meaning "precipice", or stone, thus the stanenges or Stanheng "not far from Salisbury" recorded by eleventh-century writers are "supported stones". William Stukeley in 1740 notes, "Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire...
I doubt not, Stonehenge in Saxon signifies the hanging stones." Christopher Chippindale's Stonehenge Complete gives the derivation of the name Stonehenge as coming from the Old English words stān meaning "stone", either hencg meaning "hinge" or henen meaning "hang" or "gallows" or "instrument of torture". Like Stonehenge's trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today; the "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch; as happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use. Because its bank is inside its ditch, Stonehenge is not a henge site. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithic henges and stone circles, Stonehenge is in many ways atypical—for example, at more than 24 feet tall, its extant trilithons' lintels, held in place with mortise and tenon joints, make it unique.
Mike Parker Pearson, leader of the Stonehenge Riverside Project based at Durrington Walls, noted that Stonehenge appears to have been associated with burial from the earliest period of its existence: Stonehenge was a place of burial from its beginning to its zenith in the mid third millennium B. C; the cremation burial dating to Stonehenge's sarsen stones phase is just one of many from this period of the monument's use and demonstrates that it was still much a domain of the dead. Stonehenge evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of large-scale construction on and around the monument that extends the landscape's time frame to 6500 years. Dating and understanding the various phases of activity is complicated by disturbance of the natural chalk by periglacial effects and animal burrowing, poor quality early excavation records, a lack of accurate, scientifically verified dates; the modern phasing most agreed to by archaeologists is detailed below. Features mentioned in the text are shown on the plan, right.
Archaeologists have found four, or five, large Mesolithic postholes, which date to around 8000 BC, beneath the nearby old tourist car-park in use until 2013. These held pine posts around two feet six inches in diameter, which were erected and rotted in situ. Three of the posts were in an east-west alignment. Another Mesolithic astronomical site in Britain is the Warren Field site in Aberdeenshire, considered the world's oldest Lunar calendar, corrected yearly by observing the midwinter solstice. Similar but sites have been found in Scandinavia. A settlement that may have been contemporaneous with the posts has been found at Blick Mead, a reliable year-round spring one mile from Stonehenge. Salisbury Plain was still wooded, but 4,000 years during the earlier Neolithic, people built a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs in the surrounding landscape. In 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 2,300 feet north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees and develop the area.
A number of other overlooked stone or wooden structures and burial mounds may date as far back as 4000 BC. Charcoal from the ‘Blick Mead’ camp 1.5 miles from Stonehenge has been dated
Citizen Kane is a 1941 American mystery drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-screenwriter and star. The picture was Welles's first feature film. Nominated for Academy Awards in nine categories, it won an Academy Award for Best Writing by Herman J. Mankiewicz and Welles. Considered by many critics and fans to be the greatest film made, Citizen Kane was voted as such in five consecutive British Film Institute Sight & Sound polls of critics, it topped the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movies list in 1998, as well as its 2007 update. Citizen Kane is praised for Gregg Toland's cinematography, Robert Wise's editing, its music, its narrative structure, all of which have been considered innovative and precedent-setting; the quasi-biographical film examines the life and legacy of Charles Foster Kane, played by Welles, a character based in part upon the American newspaper magnates William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, Chicago tycoons Samuel Insull and Harold McCormick, aspects of the screenwriters' own lives.
Upon its release, Hearst prohibited mention of the film in any of his newspapers. Kane's career in the publishing world is born of idealistic social service, but evolves into a ruthless pursuit of power. Narrated principally through flashbacks, the story is told through the research of a newsreel reporter seeking to solve the mystery of the newspaper magnate's dying word: "Rosebud". After the Broadway successes of Welles's Mercury Theatre and the controversial 1938 radio broadcast "The War of the Worlds" on The Mercury Theatre on the Air, Welles was courted by Hollywood, he signed a contract with RKO Pictures in 1939. Unusually for an untried director, he was given the freedom to develop his own story, to use his own cast and crew, to have final cut privilege. Following two abortive attempts to get a project off the ground, he wrote the screenplay for Citizen Kane, collaborating on the effort with Herman Mankiewicz. Principal photography took place in 1940 and the film received its American release in 1941.
While a critical success, Citizen Kane failed to recoup its costs at the box office. The film faded from view after its release, but was subsequently returned to the public's attention when it was praised by such French critics as André Bazin and given an American revival in 1956; the film was released on Blu-ray on September 2011, for a special 70th anniversary edition. In a mansion in Xanadu, a vast palatial estate in Florida, the elderly Charles Foster Kane is on his deathbed. Holding a snow globe, he utters a word, "Rosebud", dies. A newsreel obituary tells the life story of an enormously wealthy newspaper publisher. Kane's death becomes sensational news around the world, the newsreel's producer tasks reporter Jerry Thompson with discovering the meaning of "Rosebud". Thompson sets out to interview associates, he tries to approach Susan Alexander Kane, now an alcoholic who runs her own nightclub, but she refuses to talk to him. Thompson goes to the private archive of the late banker Walter Parks Thatcher.
Through Thatcher's written memoirs, Thompson learns that Kane's childhood began in poverty in Colorado. In 1871, after a gold mine is discovered on her property, Kane's mother Mary Kane sends Charles away to live with Thatcher so that he would be properly educated, it is implied that Kane's father could be violent towards his son and, another reason she wants to send him away. While Thatcher and Charles' parents discuss arrangements inside, the young Kane plays with a sled in the snow outside his parents' boarding-house and protests being sent to live with Thatcher. Furious at the prospect of exile from his own family to live with a man he does not know, the boy strikes Thatcher with his sled and attempts to run away. Years after gaining full control over his trust fund at the age of 25, Kane enters the newspaper business and embarks on a career of yellow journalism, he takes control of the New York Inquirer and starts publishing scandalous articles that attack Thatcher's business interests.
After the stock market crash in 1929, Kane is forced to sell controlling interest of his newspaper empire to Thatcher. Back in the present, Thompson interviews Mr. Bernstein. Bernstein recalls. Kane rose to power by manipulating public opinion regarding the Spanish–American War and marrying Emily Norton, the niece of a President of the United States. Thompson interviews Jedediah Leland, in a retirement home. Leland recalls how Kane's marriage to Emily disintegrates more and more over the years, he begins an affair with amateur singer Susan Alexander while he is running for Governor of New York. Both his wife and his political opponent discover the affair and the public scandal ends his political career. Leland asks to be transferred to a newspaper in Chicago. Kane marries Susan and forces her into a humiliating operatic career for which she has neither the talent nor the ambition building a large opera house for her. Leland begins to write a negative review of Susan's opera debut. Back in the present, Susan now consents to an interview with Thompson and recalls her failed opera career.
Kane allows her to abandon her singing career after she attempts suicide. After years spent dominated by Kane and living in isolation at Xanadu, Susan leaves Kane. Kane's butler Raymond recounts that, after Susan leaves him, Kane begins violently destroying the contents of her bedroom, he calms down when he sees a snow globe and says, "R
Once Upon a Time (1944 film)
Once Upon a Time is a 1944 fantasy film involving a dancing caterpillar who lives in a small box. Cary Grant plays a conniving showman who needs money to save his theater. Jerry Flynn has to come up with $100,000 within a week to keep his theater. By chance, youngster Arthur "Pinky" Thompson shows him "Curly", a caterpillar that gets up on its tail and dances when Pinky plays "Yes Sir, That's My Baby" on his harmonica. Pinky refuses to let Jerry buy his friend, so they become partners; the boy is an orphan being raised by his showgirl sister Jeannie, so he soon becomes attached to Jerry, as does his sister. Jerry is soon managing to generate a nationwide sensation. Brandt, a suspicious reporter, feuding with Jerry, brings in scientists to examine Curly. To his great disappointment, the caterpillar turns out to be genuine; when the scientists want to keep Curly for further research, it causes a national uproar, with people divided in their opinions. Meanwhile, behind Pinky's back, Jerry negotiates to sell Curly to Walt Disney getting his price of $100,000.
Jerry orders his assistant, the "Moke", to steal Curly while Pinky is asleep, but the boy wakes up and takes Curly home. Jerry confronts a heartbroken Pinky and gets the insect, but is so ashamed of himself that he leaves the apartment without Curly. Curly goes missing. Meanwhile, knowing that Jerry and Pinky miss each other, the Moke arranges with the boys of the various Curly fan clubs that have sprung up to get them back together. After their happy reconciliation, Jerry discovers. Cary Grant as Jerry Flynn Janet Blair as Jeannie Thompson James Gleason as McGillicuddy / the "Moke" Ted Donaldson as Arthur "Pinky" Thompson William Demarest as Brandt Emory Parnell as Radio Cart Cop The film's working titles were Curly, My Friend Curly, My Client Curly and Yes Sir, That's My Baby. One Froggy Evening, a 1955 Warner Bros. cartoon about a frog that both sings and dances Sametka, a 1967 animated short by Zdeněk Miler based on the film. Sametka on IMDb Once Upon a Time on IMDb Once Upon a Time at the TCM Movie Database Once Upon a Time at AllMovie Once Upon a Time at the American Film Institute Catalog
Cary Grant was an English-born American actor, known as one of classic Hollywood's definitive leading men. He began a career in Hollywood in the early 1930s and became known for his transatlantic accent, debonair demeanor, light-hearted approach to acting, sense of comic timing, he became an American citizen in 1942. Grant was born in Bristol, he became attracted to theater at a young age and began performing with a troupe known as "The Penders" at age six. He attended Bishop Road Primary School and Fairfield Grammar School in Bristol toured the country as a stage performer, he established a name for himself in vaudeville in the 1920s and toured the United States before moving to Hollywood in the early 1930s. He appeared in crime films or dramas such as Blonde Venus and She Done Him Wrong, but gained renown for his appearances in romantic comedy and screwball comedy films such as The Awful Truth, Bringing Up Baby, His Girl Friday, The Philadelphia Story; these films are cited among the greatest comedy films.
He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for Penny Serenade and None but the Lonely Heart. In the 1940s and 1950s, Grant forged a working relationship with director Alfred Hitchcock, appearing in films such as Suspicion, Notorious, To Catch a Thief, North by Northwest. Hitchcock admired Grant and considered him the only actor that he had loved working with. Towards the end of his film career, Grant was praised by critics as a romantic leading man, he received five nominations for Golden Globe Award for Best Actor, including Indiscreet with Ingrid Bergman, That Touch of Mink with Doris Day, Charade with Audrey Hepburn, he is remembered by critics for his unusually broad appeal as a handsome, suave actor who did not take himself too able to play with his own dignity in comedies without sacrificing it entirely. Grant was married five times, three of them elopements with actresses Virginia Cherrill, Betsy Drake, Dyan Cannon, he retired from film acting in 1966 and pursued numerous business interests, representing cosmetics firm Fabergé and sitting on the board of MGM.
He was presented with an Honorary Oscar by his friend Frank Sinatra at the 42nd Academy Awards in 1970, he was accorded the Kennedy Center Honors in 1981. In 1999, the American Film Institute named him the second greatest male star of Golden Age Hollywood cinema. Grant was born Archibald Alec Leach on January 18, 1904 at 15 Hughenden Road in the northern Bristol suburb of Horfield, he was the second child of Elsie Maria Leach. His father worked as a tailor's presser at a clothes factory, while his mother worked as a seamstress, his older brother John died of tuberculous meningitis. Grant considered himself to be Jewish, he had an unhappy upbringing. Grant's mother taught him song and dance when he was four, she was keen on him having piano lessons, she would take him to the cinema where he enjoyed the performances of Charlie Chaplin, Chester Conklin, Fatty Arbuckle, Ford Sterling, Mack Swain, Broncho Billy Anderson. He was sent to the Bishop Road Primary School, Bristol when he was 4½. Grant's biographer Graham McCann claimed that his mother "did not know how to give affection and did not know how to receive it either."
Biographer Geoffrey Wansell notes that his mother blamed herself bitterly for the death of Grant's brother John, she never recovered from it. Grant acknowledged that his negative experiences with his mother affected his relationships with women in life, she frowned on alcohol and tobacco, would reduce pocket money for minor mishaps. Grant attributed her behavior towards him as her being overprotective, fearing that she would lose him as she did John; when Grant was nine years old, his father placed his mother in Glenside Hospital, a mental institution, told him that she had gone away on a "long holiday". Grant grew up resenting his mother after she left the family. After she was gone and his father moved into the home of his grandmother in Bristol; when Grant was 10, his father remarried and started a new family, Grant did not learn that his mother was still alive until he was 31. Grant made arrangements for his mother to leave the institution in June 1935, shortly after he learned of her whereabouts.
He visited her in October 1938. Grant enjoyed the theater pantomimes at Christmas which he would attend with his father, he befriended a troupe of acrobatic dancers known as "The Penders" or the "Bob Pender Stage Troupe". He began touring with them. Jesse Lasky was a Broadway producer at the time, he saw him performing at the Wintergarten theater in Berlin around 1914. In 1915, Grant won a scholarship to attend Fairfield Grammar School in Bristol, although his father could afford to pay for the uniform, he was quite capable in most academic subjects, but he excelled at sports fives, his good looks and acrobatic talents made him a popular figure among both girls and boys. He developed a reputation for mischief, refused to do his homework. A former classmate referred to him as a "scruffy little boy", while an old teacher remembered "the naughty little boy, always making a noise in the back
Little Giants is a 1994 American family sports comedy film, starring Rick Moranis and Ed O'Neill as brothers in a small Ohio town, coaching rival Pee-Wee Football teams. Danny O'Shea has always lived in the shadow of his older brother, Kevin, a Heisman Trophy winner and a local football hero, they live in their hometown of Ohio. Kevin coaches the local "Pee-Wee Cowboys" football team. Despite being the best player, Danny's tomboy daughter, nicknamed Icebox, is cut during try outs because she is a girl. Cut are her less-talented friends, Rashid Hanon, Tad Simpson, Rudy Zolteck. After being ridiculed by the other players who made the team, she convinces her dad to coach a new pee-wee team of their own. At first, Danny is reluctant to do so, but accepts in an attempt to show Urbania that Kevin is not invincible, that there is another O'Shea in town capable of winning. Kevin mockingly reminds him of the "one town, one team" rule and with the help of the locals, they decide to have a playoff game to determine the lone team that will represent Urbania.
Among Becky, Tad and Nubie, Danny gathers other children that have never been given a chance and dubs the team the "Little Giants." One such player is Junior Floyd, a strong-armed quarterback who turns out to be the son of Danny's childhood crush, Patty Floyd. Becky develops a crush on him and struggles with her newfound feelings as a girl. Two old-timers and Wilbur, encourage the rivalry between Danny and Kevin by reporting to them that a new star player, Spike Hammersmith, has just moved to Urbania. Danny succeeds at recruiting him by tricking his overzealous father, that he is the famous "Coach O'Shea", but this is a problem as Spike proves to be rude and refuses to play on a team with a girl; the deception is discovered and he switches over to Kevin's more well-structured team. Kevin encourages his daughter, Debbie, to be a cheerleader and convinces Becky that a quarterback will want to date a cheerleader, not a teammate. Believing it is her best chance to win over Junior, she decides to quit the team and pursue cheerleading.
Just as Danny's team start to lose hope, a bus arrives carrying NFL stars John Madden, Emmitt Smith, Bruce Smith, Tim Brown, Steve Emtman. They inspire the young players into believing they can win. On the day of the game, Kevin goads Danny into making an impulsive bet: If Danny wins, he gets Kevin's Chevrolet dealership. Facing a 21-point halftime deficit, the Giants are lifted when Danny asks them to individually recall a time when they had a proud accomplishment and reassures them that all it takes is "one time" to beat the Cowboys. With this, they begin to make a big comeback with a series of unexpected plays. Realizing that Junior is the main threat to them, under orders from Mike, injures him by spearing him with his helmet after the whistle, which Kevin considers disgraceful, unsportsmanlike conduct. Witnessing from the sidelines, an enraged Becky drops her pompoms and suits up for the game, to which Kevin knows she will be a threat, she makes an impact when she forces a fumble after a jarring hit on Spike.
Other Giants make touchdowns in tandem with overcoming personal problems, such as Hanon's fear of dropping passes and making a reception, or another one running towards the end zone in excitement when he sees his little-seen dad has rushed back from a business trip to watch him play. In the game's closing seconds with the score tied at 21 all, the Giants make a goal line stand when Becky stops Spike. With time remaining for one final play, their offense steps back onto the field and uses a trick play Nubie calls "The Annexation of Puerto Rico," inspired by one of Madden's plays at Super Bowl XI. Kevin shouts out its actual name as it occurs, shouting "Fumblerooski, Fumblerooski!" The play includes three different ball carriers, utilizing the hook and lateral from Zolteck, to Junior, to Berman, who scores the Giants' 99 yard game-winning touchdown. Afterwards, Danny suggests that rather than having the Giants represent Urbania, they should merge with the Cowboys, both he and Kevin can coach the team.
Danny and Patty rekindle their childhood romance. He decides not to hold Kevin to the prior bet, on the stipulation that the town water tower be changed from "Home of Kevin O'Shea" to "Home of The O'Shea Brothers," reflecting a much earlier promise that Kevin made to Danny from their childhood; the film was inspired by a 1992 McDonald's Super Bowl commercial developed by Jim Ferguson and Bob Shallcross. According to the Baltimore Sun, after seeing the commercial, Steven Spielberg contacted them and said, "I want that commercial made into a movie. I want my'Home Alone.'" The film received mixed reviews. Stephen Holden remarked, in The New York Times, that "anyone, rejected or picked last for a team can relate to the concept behind "Little Giants," a slickly contrived family movie about an inept junior football team that succeeds in spite of spectacular liabilities "Little Giants,", directed by Duwayne Dunham, devotes much of its energy to such comic antics as balls getting stuck into face masks, wispy little kids practicing looking intimidating."
The Washington Post stated that "if "Little Giants" were in a beauty pageant it might win votes for Miss Congeniality, but it wouldn't take the crown." Conversely, the Los Angeles Times suggested that the film was "smarter than
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating to 1916, followed by improved versions over several decades. It was the second major color process, after Britain's Kinemacolor, the most used color process in Hollywood from 1922 to 1952. Technicolor became known and celebrated for its saturated color, was most used for filming musicals such as The Wizard of Oz and Down Argentine Way, costume pictures such as The Adventures of Robin Hood and Gone with the Wind, animated films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Gulliver's Travels, Fantasia; as the technology matured it was used for less spectacular dramas and comedies. A film noir—such as Leave Her to Heaven or Niagara —was filmed in Technicolor. "Technicolor" is the trademark for a series of color motion picture processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, now a division of the French company Technicolor SA. The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston in 1914 by Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Frost Comstock, W. Burton Wescott.
The "Tech" in the company's name was inspired by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where both Kalmus and Comstock received their undergraduate degrees and were instructors. Technicolor, Inc. was chartered in Delaware in 1921. Most of Technicolor's early patents were taken out by Comstock and Wescott, while Kalmus served as the company's president and chief executive officer; the term "Technicolor" has been used to describe at least five concepts: Technicolor: an umbrella company encompassing all of the below as well as other ancillary services. Technicolor labs: a collection of film laboratories across the world owned and run by Technicolor for post-production services including developing and transferring films in all major color film processes, as well as Technicolor's proprietary ones. Technicolor process or format: several custom image origination systems used in film production, culminating in the "three-strip" process in 1932. Technicolor IB printing: a process for making color motion picture prints that allows the use of dyes which are more stable and permanent than those formed in ordinary chromogenic color printing.
Used for printing from color separation negatives photographed on black-and-white film in a special Technicolor camera. Prints or Color by Technicolor: used from 1954 on, when Eastmancolor supplanted the three-film-strip camera negative method, while the Technicolor IB printing process continued to be used as one method of making the prints; this meaning of the name applies to nearly all Wikipedia articles about films made from 1954 onward in which Technicolor is named in the credits. Technicolor existed in a two-color system. In Process 1, a prism beam-splitter behind the camera lens exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white negative film one behind a red filter, the other behind a green filter; because two frames were being exposed at the same time, the film had to be photographed and projected at twice the normal speed. Exhibition required a special projector with two apertures, two lenses, an adjustable prism that aligned the two images on the screen; the results were first demonstrated to members of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in New York on February 21, 1917.
Technicolor itself produced the only movie made in Process 1, The Gulf Between, which had a limited tour of Eastern cities, beginning with Boston and New York on September 13, 1917 to interest motion picture producers and exhibitors in color. The near-constant need for a technician to adjust the projection alignment doomed this additive color process. Only a few frames of The Gulf Between, showing star Grace Darmond, are known to exist today. Convinced that there was no future in additive color processes, Comstock and Kalmus focused their attention on subtractive color processes; this culminated in what would be known as Process 2. As before, the special Technicolor camera used a beam-splitter that exposed two consecutive frames of a single strip of black-and-white film, one behind a green filter and one behind a red filter; the difference was that the two-component negative was now used to produce a subtractive color print. Because the colors were physically present in the print, no special projection equipment was required and the correct registration of the two images did not depend on the skill of the projectionist.
The frames exposed behind the green filter were printed on one strip of black-and-white film, the frames exposed behind the red filter were printed on another strip. After development, each print was toned to a color nearly complementary to that of the filter: orange-red for the green-filtered images, cyan-green for the red-filtered ones. Unlike tinting, which adds a uniform veil of color to the entire image, toning chemically replaces the black-and-white silver image with transparent coloring matter, so that the highlights remain clear, dark areas are colored, intermediate tones are colored proportionally; the two prints, made on film stock half the thickness of regular film, we