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One Laptop per Child

One Laptop per Child is a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world. Its primary goal continues to be to transform education, by enabling children in low-income countries to have access to content and computer-programming environments. At the time that the program launched, the typical retail price for a laptop was in excess of $1,000, so it was not possible to achieve this objective without bringing a low-cost machine to production; this became a low-cost and low-power laptop computer. The project was funded by member organizations such as AMD, eBay, Marvell Technology Group, News Corporation, Nortel. Chi Mei Corporation, Red Hat, Quanta provided in-kind support; the OLPC project has been the subject of extensive criticism. It was praised for pioneering low-cost, low-power laptops and inspiring variants such as Eee PCs and Chromebooks, it has been criticized from many sides regarding its US-centric focus that ignores bigger problems, high total costs that may be quite cost-ineffective, low focus on maintainability and training and its limited success so far.

The OLPC program has its roots in the pedagogy of Seymour Papert, an approach known as constructionism, which espoused providing computers for children at early ages to enable full digital literacy. Papert, along with Nicholas Negroponte, were at the MIT Media Lab from its inception. Papert compared the old practice of putting computers in a computer lab to books chained to the walls in old libraries. Negroponte likened shared computers to shared pencils. However, this pattern seemed to be inevitable, given the then-high prices of computers. In 2005, Negroponte spoke in Davos. In this talk he urged industry to solve the problem, to enable a $100 laptop, which would enable constructionist learning, would revolutionize education, would bring the world's knowledge to all children, he brought a mock-up and was described as prowling the halls and corridors of Davos to whip up support. Despite the reported skepticism of Bill Gates and others, Negroponte left Davos with committed interest from AMD, News Corp, with strong indications of support from many other firms.

From the outset, it was clear that Negroponte thought that the key to reducing the cost of the laptop was to reduce the cost of the display. Thus, upon return from Davos, he met Mary Lou Jepsen, the display pioneer, in early 2005 joining the MIT Media Lab faculty, the discussions turned to display innovation to enable a low-cost laptop. Convinced that the project was now possible, Negroponte led the creation of the first corporation for this: the Hundred Dollar Laptop Corp. At the 2006 Wikimania, Jimmy Wales announced that the One Laptop Per Child Project would be including Wikipedia as the first element in their content repository. Wales explained, "I think it is in my rational self interest to care about what happens to kids in Africa," elaborating in his fundraising appeal: I'm doing this for the child in Africa, going to use free textbooks and reference works produced by our community and find a solution to the crushing poverty that surrounds him, but for this child, a website on the Internet is not enough.

And I'm doing this for my own daughter, who I hope will grow up in a world where culture is free, not proprietary, where control of knowledge is in the hands of people everywhere, with basic works they can adopt and share without asking permission from anyone. We're taking back the Internet. With your help, we can take back the world. At the 2006 World Economic Forum in Davos, the United Nations Development Program announced it would back the laptop. UNDP released a statement saying they would work with OLPC to deliver "technology and resources to targeted schools in the least developed countries". In the first years of the project, the Association managed development and logistics, the Foundation managed fundraising such as the Give One Get One campaign. Intel was a member of the association for a brief period in 2007. Shortly after OLPC's founder, Nicholas Negroponte, accused Intel of trying to destroy the non-profit, Intel joined the board with a mutual non-disparagement agreement between them and OLPC.

Intel resigned its membership on January 3, 2008, citing disagreements with requests from Negroponte for Intel to stop dumping their Classmate PCs. In 2008, Negroponte showed some doubt about the exclusive use of open-source software for the project, made suggestions supporting a move towards adding Windows XP, which Microsoft was in the process of porting over to the XO hardware. Microsoft's Windows XP, however, is not seen by some as a sustainable operating system. Microsoft announced that they would sell them Windows XP for $3 per XO, it would be offered as an option on XO-1 laptops and be able to dual boot alongside Linux. In response, Walter Bender, the former President of Software and Content for the OLPC project, left OLPC and founded Sugar Labs to continue development of the open source Sugar software, developed within OLPC. No significant deployments elected to purchase Windows licenses. Charles Kane became t

Neurostimulation

Neurostimulation is the purposeful modulation of the nervous system's activity using invasive or non-invasive means. Neurostimulation refers to the electromagnetic approaches to neuromodulation. Neurostimulation technology can improve the life quality of those who are paralyzed or suffering from profound losses to various sense organs, as well as for permanent reduction of severe, chronic pain which would otherwise require constant, high-dose opioid therapy, it serves as the key part of neural prosthetics for hearing aids, artificial vision, artificial limbs, brain-machine interfaces. In the case of neural stimulation an electrical stimulation is utilized and charge-balanced biphasic constant current waveforms or capacitively coupled charge injection approaches are adopted. Alternatively, transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial electric stimulation have been proposed as non-invasive methods in which either a magnetic field or transcranially applied electric currents cause neurostimulation.

Brain stimulation has potentials to treat some disorders such as epilepsy. In this method, scheduled stimulation is applied to specific subcortical targets. There are available commercial devices that can deliver an electrical pulse at scheduled time intervals. Scheduled stimulation is hypothesized to alter the intrinsic neurophysiologic properties of epileptic networks; the most explored targets for scheduled stimulation are the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and the hippocampus. The anterior nucleus of the thalamus has been studied, which has shown a significant seizure reduction with the stimulator on versus off during several months after stimulator implantation. Moreover, the cluster headache can be treated by using a temporary stimulating electrode at sphenopalatine ganglion. Pain relief is reported within several minutes of stimulation in this method. To avoid use of implanted electrodes, researchers have engineered ways to inscribe a "window" made of zirconia, modified to be transparent and implanted in mice skulls, to allow optical waves to penetrate more as in optogenetics, to stimulate or inhibit individual neurons.

Deep brain stimulation has shown benefits for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dystonia and affective disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, chronic pain and cluster headache. Since DBS can directly change the brain activity in a controlled manner, it is used to map fundamental mechanisms of brain functions along with neuroimaging methods. A simple DBS system consists of two different parts. First, tiny microelectrodes are implanted in the brain to deliver stimulation pulses to the tissue. Second, an electrical pulse generator generates stimulation pulses, which it sends to the electrodes through microwires; the application and effects of DBS, on both normal and diseased brains, involves many parameters. These include the physiological properties of the brain tissue. Important are the stimulation parameters, such as amplitude and temporal characteristics, the geometric configuration of the electrode and the tissue that surrounds it. In spite of a huge number of studies on DBS, its mechanism of action is still not well understood.

Developing DBS microelectrodes is still challenging. Compared to electrical stimulation that utilizes brief, high-voltage electric shock to activate neurons, which can activate pain fibers, transcranial magnetic stimulation was developed by Baker in 1985. TMS uses a magnetic wire above the scalp, which carries a high current pulse. A time variant magnetic field is induced perpendicular to the coil due to the applied pulse which generates an electric field based on Maxwell's law; the electric field provides the necessary current for a non-invasive and much less painful stimulation. There are two TMS devices called single pulse TMS and repetitive pulse TMS while the latter has greater effect but potential to cause seizure. TMS can be used for therapy in psychiatry, as a tool to measure central motor conduction and a research tool to study different aspects of human brain physiology such as motor function and language; the rTMS method has been used to treat epilepsy with rates of 8–25 Hz for 10 seconds.

The other therapeutic uses of rTMS include parkinson diseases and mood diseases. TMS can be used to determine the contribution of cortical networks to specific cognitive functions by disrupting activity in the focal brain region. Early, results have been obtained in recovery from coma by Pape et al.. Transcranial direct current stimulation Transcranial alternating current stimulation Transcranial pulsed current stimulation Transcranial random noise stimulation Spinal cord stimulation is an effective therapy for the treatment of chronic and intractable pain including diabetic neuropathy, failed back surgery syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, phantom limb pain, ischemic limb pain, refractory unilateral limb pain syndrome, postherpetic neuralgia and acute herpes zoster pain. Another pain condition, a potential candidate for SCS treatment is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, associated with moderate to severe chronic extremity pain. SCS therapy consists of the electrical stimulation of the spinal cord to'mask' pain.

The gate theory proposed in 1965 by Melzack and Wall provided a theoretical construct to attempt SCS as a cli

Woodland Cemetery (Monroe, Michigan)

Woodland Cemetery known as Grove Cemetery and Woodlawn Cemetery, is a public, city-owned cemetery located at 428 Jerome Street in southeast Monroe, Michigan. It contains over 6,500 graves. Founded in 1810, it is one of Michigan's oldest public cemeteries, its oldest burials are veterans. Woodland Cemetery was designated as a Michigan State Historic Site on July 21, 1988. Many of Monroe's earliest settlers and war combatants are buried at Woodland Cemetery, including some of those that were killed during the Battle of Frenchtown in 1813; the cemetery contains Monroe veterans from every major war from the American Revolutionary War to the Vietnam War. A notable burial plot belongs to the families of Monroe residents George Armstrong Custer and his wife Elizabeth Bacon Custer, although neither of those two are buried at Woodland Cemetery, his younger brother, Boston Custer, his nephew, Henry Armstrong Reed, are buried at Woodland Cemetery after having died alongside George Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in the Montana Territory on June 25, 1876.

Woodland Cemetery is located right next to the Zion Cemetery. Austin Eli Wing, Congressional delegate and member of the Michigan House of Representatives Boston Custer, younger brother of George Armstrong Custer and soldier killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn Daniel S. Bacon, father of Elizabeth Bacon and father-in-law of George Armstrong Custer David A. Noble, mayor of Monroe, representative in the United States Congress Edwin Willits, local politician, representative in the United States Congress George Alford, a minuteman in the American Revolutionary War and the only known Monroe soldier to have served in the Continental Army under the direct command of General George Washington George Spalding, American Civil War officer and a representative in the United States Congress Heman J. Redfield, former mayor of Monroe and member of the Michigan Senate Henry Armstrong Reed, nephew of George Armstrong Custer and civilian casualty at the Battle of the Little Bighorn Isaac P. Christiancy, Chief Justice of the Michigan State Supreme Court and member of the United States Senate James H. Gilmore, mayor of Monroe from 1922–1925 and 1930–1931 Jesse Hart Root, federal judge in Michigan and delegate at the 1932 Republican National Convention Robert Scott Duncanson, one of the first African American painters to garner international acclaim

Race and ethnicity in Latin America

There is no single system of races or ethnicities that covers all modern Latin America, usage of labels may vary substantially. In Mexico, for example, the category mestizo is not defined or applied the same as the corresponding category of mestiço in Brazil. In spite of these differences, the construction of race in Latin America can be contrasted with concepts of race and ethnicity in the United States; the ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other European colonizers, diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, recent immigrant groups from all over the world. Racial categories in Latin America are linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical traits, but to socio-economic status. Ethnicity is constructed either as an amalgam national identity or as something reserved for the indigenous groups so that ethnic identity is something that members of indigenous groups have in addition to their national identity.

Racial and ethnic discrimination is common in Latin America where socio-economic status correlates with perceived whiteness, indigenous status and perceived African ancestry is correlated with poverty and lack of opportunity and social status. In Latin American concepts of race, physiological traits are combined with social traits such as socio-economic status, so that a person is categorized not only according to physical phenotype but social standing. Ethnicity on the other hand is a system that classifies groups of people according to cultural and historic criteria. An ethnic group is defined by having a degree of cultural and linguistic similarity and an ideology of shared roots. Another difference between race and ethnicity is that race is conceptualized as a system of categorization where membership is limited to one category and is externally ascribed by other who are not members of that category without regards to the individuals own feeling of membership. Whereas ethnicity is seen as a system of social organization where membership is established through mutual identification between a group and its members.

The construction of race in Latin America is different from, for example, the model found in the United States because race mixing has been a common practice since the early colonial period, whereas in the United States it has been avoided or sanctioned. Blanqueamiento, or whitening, is a social and economic practice used to "improve" the race towards whiteness; the term blanqueamiento is rooted in Latin America and is used more or less synonymous with racial whitening. However, blanqueamiento can be considered in both the symbolic and biological sense Symbolically, blanqueamiento represents an ideology that emerged from legacies of European colonialism, described by Anibal Quijano's theory of coloniality of power, which caters to white dominance in social hierarchies Biologically, blanqueamiento is the process of whitening by marrying a lighter skinned individual in order to produce lighter-skinned offspring. Blanqueamiento was enacted in national policies of many Latin American countries Brazil and Cuba, at the turn of the 20th century.

In most cases, these policies promoted European immigration as a means to whiten the population. An important phenomenon described for some parts of Latin America such as Brazil and Mexico is "Whitening" or "Mestizaje" describing the policy of planned racial mixing with the purpose of minimizing the non-white part of the population; this practice was possible as in these countries one is classified as white with few white phenotypical traits and it has meant that the percentages of people identifying as black or indigenous has increased over the course of the twentieth century as the mixed class expanded. It has meant that the racial categories have been fluid. Unlike the United States where ancestry is used to define race, Latin American scholars came to agree by the 1970s that race in Latin America could not be understood as the “genetic composition of individuals” but instead “based upon a combination of cultural and somatic considerations. In Latin America, a person's ancestry is quite irrelevant to racial classification.

For example, full-blooded siblings can be classified by different races. During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, used for social control and which determined a person's rights in society. There were four main categories of race: Peninsular - a Spaniard born in Spain, Criollo - a person of Spanish descent born in Mesoamerica, Indio - a person, a native of, or indigenous to, Negro - a person of African slave descent. There were other caste groups like the Mestizos/Mestizas that had one Spanish and one Indian parent; the Castizos which had one Mestizo parent and one Spanish parent, the children of a Castizo were accepted as a Criollo. Mulatto/Mulatta were the ones with one Spanish and one black parent, if a mulatto was born in slavery they were considered slaves as well unless the mother was free they would be free too. Speaking ethno-racial relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural and biological heritage, this is a remnant of the colonial Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups.

Additionally the presence of considerable portions of the population with African and Asian heritage f

Géza Gyóni

Géza Gyóni was a Hungarian war poet. He died in a Russian prisoner of war camp during the First World War. Born Géza Áchim to "crusading Lutheran family" in the small village of Gyón, Austria-Hungary, after he learned at the high school in Békéscsaba. Gyóni adopted the name of his birthplace after dropping out of theological studies in the capital, his first collection of poetry, named Versek was published in the same year, 1903. This marked a low period in his life, in which Gyóni sought to free himself from his father's demands and attempted suicide, before being transferred to an administrative course which led to a job in Budapest. In the city he was drawn to journalists and poets, contributing to the literary journal Nyugat and beginning a long rivalry with the contemporary leading poet of Hungary Endre Ady, who he criticized in his second collection, Szomorú szemmel in 1909. In November 1907, Gyóni was called up to the Austro-Hungarian Army, spent eighteen months working on railways lines, improving communications in case of war, an experience he did not enjoy, breeding a strong streak of pacifism in him.

During this time and the following two years he continued working on his poetry in Budapest, until he was called up again in 1912 during the crisis caused by the Balkan Wars. His works in this period were collected following his death, posthumously published in 1917 as Élet szeretője. At the outbreak of World War I, Gyóni was suspicious of his government's motives, but nonetheless seemed to enjoy the soldier's life writing poetry, sent back home from the front for publication; this was the last collection he saw published and is considered by many to be his most interesting, as the optimism of early days gives way to pessimism following his experiences in the Siege of Przemyśl. This collection was named Lengyel tábortúz melett. Home in Hungary, the politician Rákosi, knowing the poetic rivalry between Gyóni and Ady, now his main political rival too, used Gyóni's work as propaganda without permission; this angered the poet, whose poetry took a depressive turn following his entrapment in the siege and the situation at home.

One of his poems from this period, Csak egy éjszakára became a prominent anti-war song which lasted in Hungary well beyond the end of the First World War. Captured by the Imperial Russian Army in March 1915, Gyóni was permitted to remain with his younger brother Mihály Áchim, captured following the siege, they endured together the lengthy nine-month journey between POW receiving areas, travelling between Kiev, Alatyr, Omsk and to Krasnoyarsk in Siberia. It was in this camp that he learnt of the full actions of Jenő Rákosi, a politician, manipulating the poet's verse for propaganda value. Gyóni had only caught rumour before, was enraged by what he learned, he went on to write his finest poetry in the quiet and boredom he found there, producing the collections Levlek a kálváriáról és más költemények in 1916, published at home with manuscripts sent across the lines, Rabságban, posthumously published in 1919. Gyóni died in the camp on his 33rd birthday, the result of his declining health and mental state following his brother's death from disease on the 8 June.

He wrote a poem in captivity. A Hungarian bard's is my fateTo carry across the worldMy bloodied, crusading MagyarhoodLike a pilgrim with a picture of Christ Gyóni's anti-war poem Csak egy éjszakára, in which he calls for Hungary's war profiteers and armchair patriots to come and spend just one night in the trenches, remains popular and is still taught in Hungarian schools, it has been translated into English by Canadian poet Watson Kirkconnell and by Hungarian American poet Erika Papp Faber. Although Kirkconnell's translation is influenced by British war poets such as Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, Isaac Rosenberg, Erika Papp Faber's version is far more faithful to the original poem in Hungarian. 1903 - Versek 1909 - Szomorú szemmel 1914 - Lengyel mezőkön, tábortűz melett 1916 - Levlek a kálváriáról és más költemények 1917 - Élet szeretője 1919 - Rabságban Cross, The Lost Voices of World War I, Bloomsbury Publishing, Great Britain: 1988. ISBN 0-7475-4276-7

Bundal Island

Bundal Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Bundal, pronounced Bhandar by local fishermen, lies to its West. On Bundal Island the tomb of Muslim sufi Yusuf Shah is located; the annual urs of'Yusuf Shah' attract thousands of coastal people to the island. The island looked like a city during the urs. Churma and Buddo Islands are located near Bundal Island. There is a dispute between the provincial government of Sindh and Karachi Port Trust on the ownership rights of 12,000 acres of land in these Islands. Bahria Town signed a joint venture with the companies of Thomas Kramer to develop Bodha Island City on Bundal and Buddo Islands with a cost of $20 Billion. Covering 12,000 acres of land, this project will be developed in a span of 5–10 years but the residential communities will start being handed over to people in 2016; the global attractions of the project comprise world’s tallest building, world’s largest shopping mall, sports city, educational & medical city, international city and a media city – all having the most modern facilities and amenities and the most advanced infrastructure.

Many local NGOs, political parties and Sindh Government have raised their concerns over the environment damage and the adverse effect on the economy this could have. Furthermore, there is unease at a foreign company being sold the island. On March 11, 2013 Pakistan Business tycoon Malik Riaz signed an agreement with an American investor Thomas Kramer to build Bodha Island City in Bundal Island, located along the coast of Karachi. Planned for Bundal Island is the world's tallest building; this project will provide employment to an estimated 2.5 million people, as well as provide housing to millions of people. List of islands of Pakistan Pakistan agrees $43bn development