Amazon.com, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington that focuses in e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence. Amazon is the largest e-commerce marketplace and cloud computing platform in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, started as an online bookstore but diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, video games, apparel, food and jewelry. The company owns a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, produces consumer electronics lines including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, Echo devices, is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services through its AWS subsidiary. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries. 100 million people subscribe to Amazon Prime.
Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world and the second largest employer in the United States. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. The acquisition was interpreted by some as a direct attempt to challenge Walmart's traditional retail stores. In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. In May 1997, the organization went public; the company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software and toys in addition to other items. In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services, which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers.
In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud, which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service, that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years in 2017; as of March 2019, the board of directors is: Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, Chairman Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group Rosalind Brewer, Group President, COO, Starbucks Jamie Gorelick, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, Dorr Daniel P. Huttenlocher and Vice Provost, Cornell University Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, CEO, Inc. Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, CEO, Reader's Digest Association Patty Stonesifer, CEO, Martha's Table Wendell P. Weeks, President, CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U. S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website; the company was awarded $51 million in damages. In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to launch its own online store. On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, Watchmen.
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves. In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays; the service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014. In June 2017, Nike confirmed a "pilot" partnership with Amazon to sell goods directly on the platform; as of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sells a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas. In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million in financial year 2017–18. In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers.
As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019. Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries and perso
A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, organizations or governments with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal. Consortium is a Latin word, meaning "partnership", "association" or "society" and derives from consors'partner', itself from con-'together' and sors'fate', meaning owner of means or comrade; the Big Ten Academic Alliance, Claremont Colleges consortium in Southern California, Five College Consortium in Massachusetts, are among the oldest and most successful higher education consortia in the United States. The Big Ten Academic Alliance known as the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, includes the members of the Big Ten athletic conference; the participants in Five Colleges, Inc. are: Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Another example of a successful consortium is the Five Colleges of Ohio of Ohio: Oberlin College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, College of Wooster and Denison University.
The aforementioned Claremont Consortium consists of Pomona College, Claremont Graduate University, Scripps College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Keck Graduate Institute. These consortia have pooled the resources of their member colleges and the universities to share human and material assets as well as to link academic and administrative resources. An example of a non-profit consortium is the Appalachian College Association located in Richmond, Kentucky; the association consists of 35 private liberal arts colleges and universities spread across the central Appalachian mountains in Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee and West Virginia. Collectively these higher education institutions serve 42,500 students. Six research universities in the region are affiliated with the ACA; these institutions assist the ACA in reviewing grant and fellowship applications, conducting workshops, providing technical assistance. The ACA works to serve higher education in the rural regions of these five states.
An example of a for-profit consortium is a group of banks that collaborate to make a loan—also known as a syndicate. This type of loan is more known as a syndicated loan. In England it is common for a consortium to buy out financially struggling football clubs in order to keep them out of liquidation. Hulu, the American video streaming service, is owned by a consortium of large media conglomerates including AT&T, the Walt Disney Company. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, the company that built the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in the 1970s was a consortium of BP, ARCO, ConocoPhillips, Mobil and Koch Alaska Pipeline Company. Airbus Industries was formed in 1970 as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers; the retention of production and engineering assets by the partner companies in effect made Airbus Industries a sales and marketing company. This arrangement led to inefficiencies due to the inherent conflicts of interest that the four partner companies faced; the companies collaborated on development of the Airbus range, but guarded the financial details of their own production activities and sought to maximize the transfer prices of their sub-assemblies.
In 2001, EADS and BAE Systems transferred their Airbus production assets to a new company, Airbus SAS. In return, they got 80% and 20% shares respectively. BAE would sell its share to EADS; the Tornado was developed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a tri-national consortium consisting of British Aerospace, MBB of West Germany, Aeritalia of Italy. It first flew on 14 August 1974 and was introduced into service in 1979–1980. Due to its multirole design, it was able to replace several different fleets of aircraft in the adopting air forces; the Royal Saudi Air Force became the only export operator of the Tornado in addition to the three original partner nations. Including all variants, 992 aircraft were built. Coopetition is a word coined from competition, it is used when companies otherwise competitors collaborate in a consortium to cooperate on areas non-strategic for their core businesses. They prefer to reduce their costs on these non-strategic areas and compete on other areas where they can differentiate better.
For example, the GENIVI Alliance is a not-for-profit consortium between different car makers in order to ease building an In-Vehicle Infotainment system. Another example is the World Wide Web Consortium, a consortium that standardizes web technologies like HTML, XML and CSS; the Institute for Food Safety and Health is a consortium consisting of the Illinois Institute of Technology, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, members of the food industry. Some of the work done at the institute includes, "assessment and validation of new and novel food safety and preservation technologies and packaging systems and chemical methods, health promoting food components, risk management strategies". Joint venture This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "passim". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as identification, it can include elements such as title, abstract and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters, it describes the types, versions and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, who can access it. Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data Statistical metadata may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data. Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s, when libraries converted their catalog data to digital databases.
In the 2000s, as digital formats were becoming the prevalent way of storing data and information, metadata was used to describe digital data using metadata standards. The first description of "meta data" for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT's Center for International Studies experts David Griffel and Stuart McIntosh in 1967: "In summary we have statements in an object language about subject descriptions of data and token codes for the data. We have statements in a meta language describing the data relationships and transformations, ought/is relations between norm and data."There are different metadata standards for each different discipline. Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness. For example, a web page may include metadata specifying what software language the page is written in, what tools were used to create it, what subjects the page is about, where to find more information about the subject; this metadata can automatically improve the reader's experience and make it easier for users to find the web page online.
A CD may include metadata providing information about the musicians and songwriters whose work appears on the disc. A principal purpose of metadata is to help users discover resources. Metadata helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, support the archiving and preservation of resources. Metadata assists users in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, giving location information." Metadata of telecommunication activities including Internet traffic is widely collected by various national governmental organizations. This data can be used for mass surveillance. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations are stored by government organizations. Metadata means "data about data". Although the "meta" prefix means "after" or "beyond", it is used to mean "about" in epistemology.
Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. Some examples include:Means of creation of the data Purpose of the data Time and date of creation Creator or author of the data Location on a computer network where the data was created Standards used File size Data quality Source of the data Process used to create the dataFor example, a digital image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, the shutter speed, other data. A text document's metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, a short summary of the document. Metadata within web pages can contain descriptions of page content, as well as key words linked to the content; these links are called "Metatags", which were used as the primary factor in determining order for a web search until the late 1990s. The reliance of metatags in web searches was decreased in the late 1990s because of "keyword stuffing".
Metatags were being misused to trick search engines into thinking some websites had more relevance in the search than they did. Metadata can be stored and managed in a database called a metadata registry or metadata repository. However, without context and a point of reference, it might be impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it. For example: by itself, a database containing several numbers, all 13 digits long could be the results of calculations or a list of numbers to plug into an equation - without any other context, the numbers themselves can be perceived as the data, but if given the context that this database is a log of a book collection, those 13-digit numbers may now be identified as ISBNs - information that refers to the book, but is not itself the information within the book. The term "metadata" was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book "Extension of Programming Language Concepts" where it is clear that he uses the term in the ISO 11179 "traditional" sense, "structural metadata" i.e. "data about the containers of data".
Dallas Public Library
The Dallas Public Library system serves as the municipal library system of the city of Dallas, Texas. In 1899, the idea to create a free public library in Dallas was conceived by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs, led by president Mrs. Henry Exall, she helped raise US$11,000 from gifts from public school teachers, local businessmen, Alfred Horatio Belo of The Dallas Morning News. The library became a reality when Mrs. Exall requested and received a US$50,000 grant from philanthropist and steel giant Andrew Carnegie to construct the first library building in Dallas. On October 22, 1901, the Carnegie library opened at the corner of Harwood and Commerce streets with a head librarian, three assistants, 9,852 volumes; the first story held the entire collection. The art room was the first public art gallery in Dallas and became what is known today as the Dallas Museum of Art. An Oak Cliff branch opened in 1914 to serve the citizens of the area, annexed into Dallas in 1903. Four more branches opened in the 1930s including the Paul Lawrence Dunbar Library, the first to serve the African American population of Dallas.
In World War II, the library was established as a War Information Center. By 1950, the library resources and facilities were stretched to the limit, so supporters formed an auxiliary organization called the Friends of the Dallas Public Library to lobby for better library services. By the 1950s, the Carnegie Library was badly deteriorating and overcrowded, a new modern library was built on the same site. During construction, the Library was housed temporarily on the mezzanine of Union Station; the new building, now known as Old Dallas Central Library, had room for over 400,000 volumes and opened in 1954. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Dallas Public Library added 17 branches to the system. In 1962, Lillian M. Bradshaw was named Library Director, the first woman to head a department in the City of Dallas, marking a milestone in the civil rights and women's liberation movements of that era. Days after she was put into office, she faced a censorship push from a Dallas council-member, but the community and media rallied to her defense.
The City Council, in response, overwhelmingly approved her appointment and passed a resolution not to censor books purchased by the library. By the 1970s, the Central Library had again become overloaded and was unequipped to handle emerging technology. In 1972, the City selected a 114,000 square feet site at Young and Ervay across from the Dallas City Hall for a new central library facility. In 1982, the technologically sophisticated structure opened its doors, it was one of the first libraries in the nation to include an Online Public Access Catalog and state-of-the-art audiovisual capabilities. It was renamed the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in 1986 in honor of the former mayor who played a large role in the library system's development. In 1996, the Library implemented the STAR computer system, which allowed patrons to access a multitude of electronic databases and the Internet. By the 2000s, the system had 27 branch locations with over 2.5 million volumes, including books, magazines and cassettes.
The system attracts 2.8 million visitors per year and has 540,000 cardholders who check out more than 3.8 million books and other materials per year. The Library operates a "Library on Wheels" Mobile Learning Center to service Dallas communities; the Dallas Public Library is home to a copy of Shakespeare's First Folio, the only copy in a US public library outside of New England. It was purchased by the Dallas Shakespeare Club in 1984 at a cost of $275,000 and was gifted to the Library in 1986, it is displayed on the 7th floor. A Dunlap Broadside copy of the Declaration of Independence is housed on the 7th floor. Printed by John Dunlap of Philadelphia, it is only one of twenty-five known to survive; this is the only copy west of the Mississippi, one of only 3 displayed by a public library. It was given to the city; the library operates 27 branch locations throughout the city, an 8-story main branch, the J. Erik Jonsson Central Library, in the Government District of downtown, it operates the Bookmarks Children's Library located in NorthPark Center.
Arcadia Park Branch Library in West Dallas Audelia Road Branch Library in Lake Highlands Bachman Lake Branch Library Dallas West Branch Library in West Dallas Forest Green Branch Library in Lake Highlands Fretz Park Branch Library in North Dallas Grauwyler Park Branch Library in Dallas Hampton-Illinois Branch Library in Oak Cliff Highland Hills Branch Library in the Highland Hills neighborhood of South Dallas Kleberg-Rylie Branch Library in Kleberg in far Southeast Dallas Lochwood Lakewood Branch Library in Lakewood Martin Luther King Jr. Library and Learning Center near Fair Park Mountain Creek Branch Library in Mountain Creek North Oak Cliff Branch Library in Oak Cliff Oak Lawn Branch Library in Oak Lawn Park Forest Branch Library in North Dallas Paul Laurence Dunbar Lancaster-Kiest Branch Library in South Dallas Pleasant Grove Branch Library in Pleasant Grove Polk-Wisdom Branch Library in Southwest Dallas Prairie Creek Branch Library Preston Royal Branch Library in North Dallas Renner Frankford Branch Library in Renner in Far North Dallas Skillman Southwestern Branch Library in East Dallas Skyline Branch Library in East Dallas Timberglen Branch Library in Far North Dallas White Rock Hills Branch Library in Far East DallasThe newest
Trove is an Australian online library database aggregator. It is one of the most well-respected and accessed GLAM services in Australia, with over 70,000 daily users. Trove's origins can be seen in the development of earlier services such as the Australian Bibliographic Network, it was known as the Single Business Discovery Service, a project, launched in August 2008. The intention was to create a single point of entry for the public to the various online discovery services developed by the library between 1997 and 2008-2009 including Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Picture Australia, Libraries Australia, Music Australia, Australia Dancing, PANDORA search service, ARROW Discovery Service and the Australian Newspapers Beta service; the key features of the service were designed to create a faceted search system for Australian content. Tight integration with the provider databases has allowed "Find and Get" functions. Important extra features include the provision of a "check copyright" tool and persistent identifiers.
The scope of the project is to help "you find and use resources relating to Australia" and therefore the content is Australian-focused. Much of the material may be difficult to retrieve with other search tools as it is part of the deep web, including records held in collection databases, or in projects such as Picture Australia, Music Australia, the Register of Australian Archives and Manuscripts, Australia Dancing, Australian Research Online and the PANDORA web archive. Trove includes content from many libraries, museums and other organisations; the site's content is split into "zones" designating different forms of content which can be searched all together, or separately. Books: allows searching of the collective catalogues of institutions findable in Libraries Australia using the Australian National Bibliographic Database. Diaries People: allows searching of biographical information and other resources about associated people and organisations, from resources including the Australian Dictionary of Biography.
Journals: searching of academic periodicals. Maps Music and videos: allows searching of digitised historic sheet music and audio recordings. Replacing the previous "Music Australia" website. Includes searchable transcripts from many Radio National programs. Newspapers: allows text-searching of digitised historic newspapers. Replacing the previous "Australian Newspapers" website. Pictures: Including digitised photographs, posters, postcards etc. Considerable numbers of images on Flickr with the appropriate licensing are donated as well. Replacing the previous "Pictures Australia" website. Websites: the primary search portal of the PANDORA web-archiving service, which itself includes the "Australian Government Web Archive". Government Gazettes: allows searching of official publications written for the purpose of notifying the public of government business. A final "zone" called Lists allows logged-in users of Trove to make their own public compilations of items found in Trove searches. There is a facility to join the Trove community and make contributions to the resources such as tags and corrections.
The book zone provides access to books, audio books, conference proceedings and pamphlets listed in Australia's National Bibliographic Database, a union catalogue of items held in Australian libraries and a national bibliographic database of resources including Australian online publications. Bibliographic records from the ANBD are uploaded into the WorldCat global union catalogue; the results can be filtered by format if searching for braille, audio books, theses or conference proceedings and by decade and language of publication. A filter for Australian content is provided. Trove provides text-searchable access to over 700 historic Australian newspapers from each State and Territory. By 2014, over 13.5 million digitised newspaper pages had been made available through Trove as part of the Australian Newspaper Plan, a "collaborative program to collect and preserve every newspaper published in Australia, guaranteeing public access" to these important historical records. The extent of digitised newspaper archives is wide reaching and includes now defunct publications, such as the Australian Home Companion and Band of Hope Journal and The Barrier Miner in New South Wales and The Argus in Victoria.
It includes the earliest published Australian newspaper, the Sydney Gazette, some community language newspapers. Included is The Australian Women's Weekly; the Canberra Times is the only major newspaper available beyond 1957. It allowed publication of its in-copyright archive up to 1995 as part of the "centenary of Canberra" in 2013, the digitisation costs were raised with a crowdfunding campaign. Crowdfunded, the Australian feminist magazine The Dawn was included on International Women's Day 2012. On 25 July 2008 the "Australian Newspapers Beta" service was released to the public as a standalone website and a year became a integrated part of the newly launched Trove; the service contains millions of articles from 1803 onwards, with more content being added regularly. The website was the public face of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Project, a coordination of major libraries in Australia to convert historic newspapers to text-searchable digital files; the Australian Newspapers website allowed users to search the database of digitised newspapers from 1803 to 1954 which are now in the public domain.
The newspapers (frequent
The Dynix Automated Library System was a popular integrated library system, with a heyday from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s. It was used by libraries to replace the paper-based card catalog, track lending of materials from the library to patrons. First developed in 1983, it became the most popular library automation software released, was once near-ubiquitous in libraries boasting an electronic card catalog, peaking at over 5,000 installations worldwide in the late 1990s, with a market share of nearly 80%, including the United States' Library of Congress. Typical of 1980s software technology, Dynix had a character-based user interface, involving no graphics except ASCII art/ANSI art boxes; the first installation, in 1983, was at a public library in South Carolina. The library contracted for the system before the software was written. In the words of Paul Sybrowsky, founder of Dynix: "There was no software, no product. Undaunted, we pitched our plan to create an automated library system to a public library in South Carolina.
We didn't have a product, but we said'You need a system and we'd like to bid on it,' and showed them our business plan."The original Dynix library system was based on software developed at CTI, a development project of Brigham Young University, presided over by Gary Carlson. The initial search engine tools: FSELECT and FSORT were written for the PICK operating system under contract for CTI by Walter Nicholes as part of a bid for a research support systems for AT&T laboratories. Paul Sybrowsky was an employee of CTI. Both library systems were based on these PICK based search engine tools. Dynix use grew in the early-and-mid 1990s. In October 1989, Dynix had just 292 installations. Fifteen months in January 1991, it was up 71% to 500 installations. A year-and-a-half in June 1993, Dynix had doubled its installed base, signing its 1,000th contract. At its peak in the late 1990s, Dynix had over 5,000 libraries using its system, amounting to an 80% market share; the customer base for Dynix did not begin decreasing until 2000, at which point it started being replaced by Internet-based interfaces.
In 2003, it was reported that Dynix was being phased out by its manufacturer, approaching "end-of-life" status in terms of functionality and support. By 2004, its market share was down to 62%, still a comfortable majority. Phase-outs were constant in the late 2000s, by the second decade of the 21st century, it was obsolete and remained in few libraries. By mid-2013, only 88 libraries were on record as having Dynix installed; the majority of phase-outs took place between 2002 and 2007. At one point, Dynix was benchmarked supporting 1,600 terminals on a single system; this stability would come in handy. Several specialized versions were released, all nearly identical to the mainstream version. For academic libraries K-12, there was Dynix Scholar. For small libraries, with only one or two terminals, there was Dynix Elite; the original Dynix system, as used in regular public libraries, was renamed Dynix Classic in its lifespan to distinguish it from other Dynix products. Based around a relational database, Dynix was written in Pick/BASIC, run on the PICK operating system.
In 1990, it was ported to VMark's uniVerse BASIC programming language, run on Unix-based servers, with uniVerse acting as a PICK emulation layer between the software and the operating system. In the late 1990s, Dynix was once again re-ported, this time for Windows NT-based servers, it should be noted that Pick/BASIC and uniVerse BASIC are the same programming language, so porting Dynix did not require re-writing the source code. In the words of one Dynix developer, " was programmed in Pick/BASIC... however, as it matured, it was written in uniVerse BASIC... It was never re-written; that type of BASIC isn't easy to move to any other language. None other handles data as well. It's a fast-compiled and -interpreted language, frankly nothing matches it or now. It's too bad that it was so good, because it didn't make the transition to object-oriented Web-based technology in time to stay afloat." The software was written on computers made by The Ultimate Corp. of East Hanover, New Jersey, which ran Ultimate's proprietary implementation of the PICK operating system.
Dynix moved to IBM RISC/6000-based computers running AIX throughout the company, except in Training, which used SCO Unix. While most libraries purchased the same type of servers as Dynix was using, there were installations done on platforms such as DEC and MIPS, Sequoia, HP's Unix servers, etc; the Dynix corp. could do software-only installs to any compliant Unix because of uniVerse's scalability and adaptability. Dynix was developed around the ADDS Viewpoint A2 terminal's escape sequences, because ADDS terminals were the de facto standard on the PICK-based mainframes on which Dynix was created. Shortly after Dynix started being deployed to libraries around the country, requests started coming back that alternate terminals be provided for patron use.
Education Resources Information Center
The Education Resources Information Center is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences of the United States Department of Education; the mission of ERIC is to provide a comprehensive, easy-to-use, Internet-based bibliographic and full-text database of education research and information for educators and the general public. Education research and information are essential to improving teaching and educational decision-making. ERIC provides access to 1.5 million bibliographic records of journal articles and other education-related materials, with hundreds of new records added every week. A key component of ERIC is its collection of grey literature in education, available in full text in Adobe PDF format. One quarter of the complete ERIC Collection is available in full text. Materials with no full text available can be accessed using links to publisher websites and/or library holdings. ERIC includes education related articles in its database.
Sample articles include "The Economic and Administrative Pharmacy Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy", "Aesthetics in Young Children's Lives: From Music Technology Curriculum Perspective ", "Digital Game's Impacts on Students' Learning Effectiveness of Correct Medication ". The ERIC Collection, begun in 1966, contains records for a variety of publication types, including: journal articles books research syntheses conference papers technical reports dissertations policy papers, other education-related materialsERIC provides the public with a centralized Web site for searching the ERIC collection and submitting materials to be considered for inclusion in the collection. Users can access the collection through commercial database vendors and institutional networks, Internet search engines. To help users find the information they are seeking, ERIC produces a controlled vocabulary, the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors; this is a selected list of education-related words and phrases used to tag materials by subject and make them easier to retrieve through a search.
Prior to January 2004, the ERIC network consisted of sixteen subject-specific clearinghouses, various adjunct and affiliate clearinghouses, three support components. The program was consolidated into a single entity, with upgraded systems, paper-based processes converted to electronic, thus streamlining operations and speeding delivery of content. ERIC website ERIC Digests, a repository for materials produced by the former ERIC Clearinghouse system up to 2003