An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have the same age. More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy, many more are thought to exist, they are loosely bound by mutual gravitational attraction and become disrupted by close encounters with other clusters and clouds of gas as they orbit the galactic center. This can result in a migration to the main body of the galaxy and a loss of cluster members through internal close encounters. Open clusters survive for a few hundred million years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, can survive for longer. Open clusters have been found only in spiral and irregular galaxies, in which active star formation is occurring. Young open clusters may be contained within the molecular cloud from which they formed, illuminating it to create an H II region.
Over time, radiation pressure from the cluster will disperse the molecular cloud. About 10% of the mass of a gas cloud will coalesce into stars before radiation pressure drives the rest of the gas away. Open clusters are key objects in the study of stellar evolution; because the cluster members are of similar age and chemical composition, their properties are more determined than they are for isolated stars. A number of open clusters, such as the Pleiades, Hyades or the Alpha Persei Cluster are visible with the naked eye; some others, such as the Double Cluster, are perceptible without instruments, while many more can be seen using binoculars or telescopes. The Wild Duck Cluster, M11, is an example; the prominent open cluster the Pleiades has been recognized as a group of stars since antiquity, while the Hyades forms part of Taurus, one of the oldest constellations. Other open clusters were noted by early astronomers as unresolved fuzzy patches of light. In his Almagest, the Roman astronomer Ptolemy mentions the Praesepe cluster, the Double Cluster in Perseus, the Coma Star Cluster, the Ptolemy Cluster, while the Persian astronomer Al-Sufi wrote of the Omicron Velorum cluster.
However, it would require the invention of the telescope to resolve these "nebulae" into their constituent stars. Indeed, in 1603 Johann Bayer gave three of these clusters designations; the first person to use a telescope to observe the night sky and record his observations was the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1609. When he turned the telescope toward some of the nebulous patches recorded by Ptolemy, he found they were not a single star, but groupings of many stars. For Praesepe, he found more than 40 stars. Where observers had noted only 6–7 stars in the Pleiades, he found 50. In his 1610 treatise Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo Galilei wrote, "the galaxy is nothing else but a mass of innumerable stars planted together in clusters." Influenced by Galileo's work, the Sicilian astronomer Giovanni Hodierna became the first astronomer to use a telescope to find undiscovered open clusters. In 1654, he identified the objects now designated Messier 41, Messier 47, NGC 2362 and NGC 2451, it was realised as early as 1767 that the stars in a cluster were physically related, when the English naturalist Reverend John Michell calculated that the probability of just one group of stars like the Pleiades being the result of a chance alignment as seen from Earth was just 1 in 496,000.
Between 1774–1781, French astronomer Charles Messier published a catalogue of celestial objects that had a nebulous appearance similar to comets. This catalogue included 26 open clusters. In the 1790s, English astronomer William Herschel began an extensive study of nebulous celestial objects, he discovered. Herschel conceived the idea that stars were scattered across space, but became clustered together as star systems because of gravitational attraction, he divided the nebulae into eight classes, with classes VI through VIII being used to classify clusters of stars. The number of clusters known continued to increase under the efforts of astronomers. Hundreds of open clusters were listed in the New General Catalogue, first published in 1888 by the Danish-Irish astronomer J. L. E. Dreyer, the two supplemental Index Catalogues, published in 1896 and 1905. Telescopic observations revealed two distinct types of clusters, one of which contained thousands of stars in a regular spherical distribution and was found all across the sky but preferentially towards the centre of the Milky Way.
The other type consisted of a sparser population of stars in a more irregular shape. These were found in or near the galactic plane of the Milky Way. Astronomers dubbed the former globular clusters, the latter open clusters; because of their location, open clusters are referred to as galactic clusters, a term, introduced in 1925 by the Swiss-American astronomer Robert Julius Trumpler. Micrometer measurements of the positions of stars in clusters were made as early as 1877 by the German astronomer E. Schönfeld and further pursued by the American astronomer E. E. Barnard prior to his death in 1923. No indication of stellar motion was detected by these efforts. However, in 1918 the Dutch-American astronomer Adriaan van Maanen was able to measure the proper motion of stars in part of the Pleiades cluster by comparing photographic plates taken at different times; as astrometry became more accurate, cluster stars were found to share a common proper motion through space. By comparing the photographic plates of the Pleiades clu
Damon Francis Knight was an American science fiction author and critic. He is the author of "To Serve Man", a 1950 short story adapted for The Twilight Zone, he was married to fellow writer Kate Wilhelm. Knight was born in Baker, Oregon in 1922, grew up in Hood River, Oregon, he entered science-fiction fandom at the age of eleven and published two issues of a fanzine entitled Snide. Knight's first professional sale was a cartoon drawing to a science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, his first story, "The Itching Hour", appeared in the Summer 1940 number of Futuria Fantasia and published by Ray Bradbury. "Resilience" followed in the February 1941 number of Stirring Science Stories, edited by Donald Wollheim. An editorial error made. At the time of his first story sale, he was living in New York, was a member of the Futurians. One of his short stories describes paranormal disruption of a science fiction fan group, contains cameo appearances of various Futurians and others under thinly-disguised names: for instance, non-Futurian SF writer H.
Beam Piper is identified as "H. Dreyne Fifer". Knight's forte was the short story. To the general public, he is best known as the author of "To Serve Man", a 1950 short story adapted for The Twilight Zone, it won a 50-year Retro-Hugo in 2001 as the best short story of 1950. Knight became well known as a science fiction critic, a career which began when he wrote in 1945 that A. E. van Vogt "is not a giant as maintained. He's only a pygmy who has learned to operate an overgrown typewriter." He ceased reviewing when Science Fiction refused to publish a review. These reviews were collected in In Search of Wonder. Algis Budrys wrote that Knight and William Atheling Jr. had "transformed the reviewer's trade in the field", in Knight's case "without the guidance of his own prior example". The term "idiot plot", a story that only functions because everyone in it is an idiot, became well-known through Knight's frequent use of it in his reviews, though he believed the term was invented by Blish. Knight's only non-Retro-Hugo Award was for "Best Reviewer" in 1956.
Knight was the founder of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, cofounder of the National Fantasy Fan Federation, cofounder of the Milford Writer's Workshop, cofounder of the Clarion Writers Workshop. The SFWA officers and past presidents named Knight its 13th Grand Master in 1994. After his death, the associated award was renamed the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award in his honor; the Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted him in 2003. Until his death, Knight lived in Eugene, with his second wife, author Kate Wilhelm, his papers are held in the University of Oregon Special Collections and University Archive. Hell's Pavement A for Anything Masters of Evolution The Sun Saboteurs Beyond the Barrier Mind Switch Double Meaning The Earth Quarter World without Children The World and Thorinn The Man in the Tree CV The Observers A Reasonable World God's Nose Why Do Birds Humpty Dumpty: An Oval "The Third Little Green Man" "PS's Feature Flash" "Not with a Bang" "To Serve Man" "Ask Me Anything" "Don't Live in the Past" "Cabin Boy" "Catch that Martian" "The Analogues" "Beachcomber" "Ticket to Anywhere" "Anachron" "Babel II" "Four in One" "Special Delivery" "Natural State" "Rule Golden" "The Country of the Kind" "Dulcie and Decorum" "You're Another" "This way to the Regress "Extempore" "The Last Word" "Stranger Station" "Dio" "The Dying Man" "An Eye for a What?"
"The Enemy" "Be My Guest" "Eripmav" "Idiot Stick" "Thing of Beauty" "To Be Continued" "The Handler" "Time Enough" "Auto-Da-Fe" A Century of Science Fiction "The Visitor at the Zoo" "The Big Pat Boom" "An Ancient Madness" God's Nose Maid to Measure "Shall the Dust Praise Thee?" "Masks'" "The Star Below" I See You Forever O Point of View Strangers on Paradise Not a Creature Fortyday Life Edit "Double Meaning" "In the Beginning" In Search of Wonder Creating Short Fiction Turning Points Orbit The Futurians Far Out In Deep Off Center Turning On Aldiss, Brian W.. Hell's Cartographers. London: Futura. ISBN 0-86007-907-4. Gunn, James E.. Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4902-X. Pohl, Frederik; the SFWA Grand Masters. 3. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-86876-6. Stanyard, Stewart T.. Dimensions Behind the Twilight Zone: A Backstage Tribute to Television's Groundbreaking Series. Chicago: ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-55022-744-4. Works by Damon Knight at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Damon Knight at Internet Archive Works by Damon Knight at LibriVox "Damon Knight biography".
Science Fiction and
Per Christian Røntved is a Danish former footballer who played professionally for German club SV Werder Bremen from 1972 to 1979. He played for Danish clubs Brønshøj BK, Randers Freja, Hvidovre IF, he was named 1972 Danish Player of the Year, was the first to earn 75 caps for the Denmark national football team, doing so from 1970 to 1982. Born at Frederiksberg in Copenhagen, Røntved started his club career at local club Brønshøj Boldklub, he made his senior debut as a left winger at the age of 18, played alongside his footballing idol Erik Nielsen at Brønshøj. He was moved back to the defender position to cover for injuries in the Brønshøj team, he helped the club win promotion for the top-flight Danish 1st Division in 1969. Having participated in the 1972 Summer Olympics, Røntved moved abroad to play professionally for SV Werder Bremen in the Bundesliga. At Werder Bremen, he played alongside fellow Danish international John Danielsen, under German manager Sepp Piontek. Røntved played seven seasons at Werder Bremen, first as a midfielder, but he settled as a libero.
He was known for his good humour in the dressing room, was chosen as Werder Bremen team captain for a number of games. As Werder was not a rich club, the notion that they could always "Sell Røntved" if they needed money was popularized. According to new Werder manager Otto Rehhagel, Røntved was the next best libero in the World, second only to Franz Beckenbauer, he was expected to replace Beckenbauer at FC Bayern Munich in 1977, but Røntved chose to stay with Werder. He played 194 games and scored 40 goals for Werder in the Bundesliga until June 1979. Røntved moved back to Denmark in 1979, to play for Randers Freja in the second-tier Danish 2nd Division, he played three-and-a-half years with the club, relegated to the 3rd Division in his last year with the team. He played his last active year in Denmark with 1st Division club Hvidovre IF in 1983. Røntved made his debut while playing at Brønshøj, he played three games for the Denmark under-21 team from October 1970 to May 1971. He started his international career as a left winger, but was central defender and team captain in the Danish team at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.
He played six games at the tournament, scored a single goal against Brazil. After the 1972 Olympics, he won the 1972 Danish Player of the Year award. While at Werder Bremen, he became permanent Danish international team captain, in May 1979, he became the sixth Dane to play 50 national team games, he was influential in Sepp Piontek becoming Danish national team manager in 1979, when he recommended his former Werder team-mate and manager for the job. When he moved back to Randers in the summer 1979, Sepp Piontek dropped him from the national team after his 51st national team game. Piontek re-called him to the national team in June 1980, Røntved went on to play another 24 national team matches. Røntved broke Henning Munk Jensen's 1978 record of 62 national team games in August 1981, he became the first Dane to reach 75 national team matches in his last national team game in November 1982, a Danish record until broken by Morten Olsen in 1985. He was selected team captain in 38 of his national team matches, breaking Ole Madsen's record of 25, another record which Morten Olsen broke in 1987.
Per Røntved is the older brother of former professional footballer Kim Røntved. He has two kids; when he moved back to Denmark in 1979, he opened a sporting goods store in Randers. In 1979, he published his memoirs, which caused great controversy for its outspoken description and criticism of the life as a professional footballer, he planned to wind down his football career by playing in the United States, but was stopped abruptly in June 1984. During a rope jumping challenge with his brother, Per suffered from a cerebral hemorrhage, resulting in paralysis of the left side of his body, he recovered, was involved in the management of several smaller Danish football clubs, served as a technical advisor for the National Football Association of Swaziland. He became a popular motivational speaker. 1972 Danish Player of the Year "Fodbold på vrangen", Politiken, 1979, ISBN 87-567-3242-2 Danish national team profile Per Røntved at fussballdaten.de Haslund.info profile
Sarge is a 1976 album by Delroy Wilson released on the LTD label in Jamaica and the Charmers label in the UK. The album was produced and arranged by Lloyd Charmers, featured the biggest selling reggae single of 1976, Wilson's cover version of Bob Marley's "I'm Still Waiting"; the single's success led to a themed album, with Wilson singing versions of well-known songs over Charmers' arrangements, including covers of "My Conversation", "My Cecilia" and "Too Late for the Learning". Sarge was chosen as one of 100 "essential reggae CDs" by Rough Guides and is regarded as Wilson's best album; the album was re-issued in 1986 on Trojan Records. "I'm Still Waiting" "My Conversation" "Moving Away" "I Don't Want To See You Cry" "My Cecelia" "Ain't That Loving You" "Got A Date" "Every Body Needs Love" "Green Green Grass Of Home" "Too Late For The Learning" Vocals: Delroy Wilson Drums: Derrick Stewart, Mikey "Boo" Richards Bass guitar: Val Douglas Brass: Roots Casanovas Guitar: Willie Lindo Keyboards: Lloyd Charmers, Harold Butler Backing vocals: The Charmers Special Effects: Lloyd Charmers Producer: Lloyd Charmers Engineer: George Raymond & Frank Aggarat Delroy Wilson - Sarge, Roots Archives
Mount Paul is a 2,850 metre mountain summit towering 1134 metres above the east shore of Maligne Lake in Jasper National Park, in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta, Canada. The nearest higher peak is 1.81 km to the north-northwest. Mount Paul is situated north of Monkhead and they are seen together in the background of iconic calendar photos of Spirit Island and Maligne Lake. Mount Paul was named by Mary Schäffer after Paul Sharples, Mary's nine year old nephew who accompanied her on her second expedition to Maligne Lake in 1911. Mary referred to this mountain as The Thumb during her first successful expedition to Maligne Lake in 1908; the first ascent of Mount Paul was made in 1928 by W. R. Hainsworth and M. M. Strumia The mountain's name became official in 1946 by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Based on the Köppen climate classification, Mount Paul is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, mild summers. Temperatures can drop below -20 °C with wind chill factors below -30 °C.
Precipitation runoff from Mount Paul drains west into Maligne Lake, thence into the Maligne River, a tributary of the Athabasca River. List of mountains of Canada Parks Canada web site: Jasper National Park Mount Paul weather: Mountain Forecast
Rugrats is an American animated television series created by Arlene Klasky, Gábor Csupó and Paul Germain. The show focuses on a group of toddlers, most prominently Tommy, twins Phil and Lil, Angelica, their day-to-day lives involving common life experiences that become adventures in the babies' imaginations. Adults in the series are always unaware of what the children are up to; the series premiered on August 11, 1991, as the second Nicktoon after Doug and preceding The Ren & Stimpy Show. Production halted in 1993 after 65 episodes, with the last episode airing on May 22, 1994. From 1995 to 1996, the only new episodes broadcast were "A Rugrats Passover" and "A Rugrats Chanukah", two Jewish-themed episodes that received critical acclaim. In 1996, Klasky Csupo Animation began producing new episodes, the show's fourth season began airing in 1997; as a result of the show's popularity, a series of theatrical films were released. On July 21, 2001, Nickelodeon broadcast the made-for-TV special "All Growed Up" in celebration of the series' 10th anniversary.
The special acted as a pilot for the Rugrats spin-off series All Grown Up!, which chronicles the lives of the babies and their parents after they age 10 years. Another spin-off series, Rugrats Pre-School Daze, was considered, but only four episodes were produced. Two direct-to-video specials were released in 2005 and 2006, under the title Rugrats Tales from the Crib. Tie-in media for the series include video games, comics and various other merchandise. Rugrats gained over 20 awards during its 13-year run, including 4 Daytime Emmy Awards, 6 Kids' Choice Awards, its own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the series garnered Nickelodeon high ratings and was the network's top-rated show between 1995 and 2000. It was Nickelodeon's longest-running Nicktoon until 2012 when SpongeBob SquarePants aired its 173rd episode. On July 16, 2018, it was announced that Nickelodeon had given a series order to a 26-episode revival of the series, executive produced by Klasky and Germain. In the United States, episodes 102, 111, 123 and 124 were held over from this season and ended up airing during Season 7.
The first Klasky Csupo logo still appeared after the second logo appeared at the end of The Rugrats Movie. The second logo did not appear until "Runaway Reptar". During season 7, Rugrats made a change with a different format that consisted of three episodes per show. Additionally, all half-hour stories from this point on had two ad breaks instead of one; this is the only season of Rugrats to have three episodes per show. The original format for Rugrats was brought back for season 8. However, the half-hour episodes retain having two commercial breaks; the first Klasky Csupo logo appeared after the credits in the early airings of this season. However, the Season 8 DVD from Amazon.com, "The'90s Are All That" and the airings kept the second logo. The third Klasky Csupo logo appeared after the credits in the early airings of this season. However, the Season 9 DVD from Amazon.com, "The'90s Are All That" and the airings kept the second logo. Nickelodeon and Amazon.com produce DVDs of new and old Nickelodeon shows through the CreateSpace service.
Using a concept similar to print on demand, Amazon manufactures the discs, cover art, disc art. As of May 9, 2014, Seasons 1–9 were available; as of February 2017, the Amazon.com releases have been discontinued. In Australia, Beyond Home Entertainment has released all 9 seasons on DVD. In May 2017, Nickelodeon and Paramount Home Entertainment released Seasons 1 and 2 on DVD. In February 2018, Nickelodeon and Paramount Home Media Distribution released Seasons 3 and 4 on DVD; these movies are direct-to - DVD movies. TV.com's Rugrats episodes TV Guide's Rugrats episode