click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Star cluster

Star clusters are large groups of stars. Two types of star clusters can be distinguished: globular clusters are tight groups of hundreds to millions of old stars which are gravitationally bound, while open clusters, more loosely clustered groups of stars contain fewer than a few hundred members, are very young. Open clusters become disrupted over time by the gravitational influence of giant molecular clouds as they move through the galaxy, but cluster members will continue to move in broadly the same direction through space though they are no longer gravitationally bound. Star clusters visible to the naked eye include the Pleiades and the Beehive Cluster. Globular clusters are spherical groupings of from 10,000 to several million stars packed into regions of from 10 to 30 light-years across, they consist of old Population II stars—just a few hundred million years younger than the universe itself—which are yellow and red, with masses less than two solar masses. Such stars predominate within clusters because hotter and more massive stars have exploded as supernovae, or evolved through planetary nebula phases to end as white dwarfs.

Yet a few rare blue stars exist in globulars, thought to be formed by stellar mergers in their dense inner regions. In our galaxy, globular clusters are distributed spherically in the galactic halo, around the Galactic Centre, orbiting the centre in elliptical orbits. In 1917, the astronomer Harlow Shapley made the first reliable estimate of the Sun's distance from the galactic centre based on the distribution of globular clusters; until the mid-1990s, globular clusters were the cause of a great mystery in astronomy, as theories of stellar evolution gave ages for the oldest members of globular clusters that were greater than the estimated age of the universe. However improved distance measurements to globular clusters using the Hipparcos satellite and accurate measurements of the Hubble constant resolved the paradox, giving an age for the universe of about 13 billion years and an age for the oldest stars of a few hundred million years less. Our galaxy has about 150 globular clusters, some of which may have been captured from small galaxies disrupted by the Milky Way, as seems to be the case for the globular cluster M79.

Some galaxies are much richer in globulars: the giant elliptical galaxy M87 contains over a thousand. A few of the brightest globular clusters are visible to the naked eye, with the brightest, Omega Centauri, having been known since antiquity and catalogued as a star before the telescopic age; the brightest globular cluster in the northern hemisphere is Messier 13 in the constellation of Hercules. Super star clusters are large regions of recent star formation, are thought to be the precursors of globular clusters. Examples include Westerlund 1 in the Milky Way. Open clusters are different from globular clusters. Unlike the spherically distributed globulars, they are confined to the galactic plane, are always found within spiral arms, they are young objects, up to a few tens of millions of years old, with a few rare exceptions as old as a few billion years, such as Messier 67 for example. They form H II regions such as the Orion Nebula. Open clusters contain up to a few hundred members, within a region up to about 30 light-years across.

Being much less densely populated than globular clusters, they are much less gravitationally bound, over time, are disrupted by the gravity of giant molecular clouds and other clusters. Close encounters between cluster members can result in the ejection of stars, a process known as'evaporation'; the most prominent open clusters are the Hyades in Taurus. The Double Cluster of h+Chi Persei can be prominent under dark skies. Open clusters are dominated by hot young blue stars, because although such stars are short-lived in stellar terms, only lasting a few tens of millions of years, open clusters tend to have dispersed before these stars die. Establishing precise distances to open clusters enables the calibration of the period-luminosity relationship shown by Cepheids variable stars, which are used as standard candles. Cepheids are luminous and can be used to establish both the distances to remote galaxies and the expansion rate of the Universe. Indeed, the open cluster NGC 7790 hosts three classical Cepheids which are critical for such efforts.

Embedded clusters are groups of young stars that are or encased in an Interstellar dust or gas, impervious to optical observations. Embedded clusters form in molecular clouds, when the clouds begin to form stars. There is ongoing star formation in these clusters, so embedded clusters may be home to various types of young stellar objects including protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. An example of an embedded cluster is the Trapezium Cluster in the Orion Nebula. In ρ Ophiuchi cloud core region there is an embedded cluster; the embedded cluster phase may last for several million years, after which gas in the cloud is depleted by star formation or dispersed through radiation pressure, stellar winds and outflows, or supernova explosions. In general less than 30% of cloud mass is converted to stars before the cloud is dispersed, but this fraction may be higher in dense parts of the cloud. With the loss of mass in the cloud, the energy of the system is altered leading to the disruption of a star cluster.

Most young embedded clusters disperse shortly after the end of star formation. The open clusters

Great Fire of 1911 Historic District

The Great Fire of 1911 Historic District is located in downtown Bangor and has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1984. It preserves Maine's most significant collection of early 20th century public and commercial buildings, commemorates an urban re-building campaign matched only by Portland's following its own destruction by fire in 1866; the Great Fire of 1911 was Maine's last large-scale urban conflagrations, but resulted in the creation of an early 20th-century urban space unique in Maine or northern New England. The district comprises 48 buildings, most of them constructed between 1911 and 1915 in the burned area, which accounted for half of Bangor's commercial core. Stylistically, the rebuilding was a showcase for the Renaissance Revival, but with elements of the Romanesque Revival, Chicago School, Prairie Style, Art Deco, Classical Revival, Colonial Revival; the designs were contributed by a number of nationally prominent architectural firms, including Peabody and Stearns.

S. government architect Oscar Wenderoth, local architects C. Parker Crowell, Wilfred E. Mansur, Victor Hodgins, Frederick A. Patterson; every building except one is of brick, though some are steel-framed, two are faced with terra-cotta, two are sheathed in granite. The coloration and patterning of the brickwork is varied. Architecturally significant buildings within the Great Fire District include the: Bangor Public Library, 1912, Peabody and Stearns Bangor High School, 1912, Peabody and Stearns Morse Building, 1914–1915, Victor Hodgins First National Bank - Bangor Hydro Electric Building, 1915, Wilfred E. Mansur Exchange Building, 1913, Peabody and Stearns Bangor Savings Bank Building, 1912, Carrere and Hastings Eastern Trust Building, 1912, C. Parker Crowell Graham Building, 1911, Wilfred E. Mansur. One of the first and largest buildings constructed, commissioned by John R. Graham, President of the Bangor Hydro Electric Company, a prime mover in the rebuilding. Stearns Block, 1911, Wilfred E. Mansur Stetson Block, 1911, Wilfred E. Mansur Bangor Post Office, 1914–1915, Oscar Wenderoth Three of the district's architecturally-significant buildings were constructed somewhat in the 1920s and 1930s, most prominently the Bangor Telephone Exchange, designed in Art Deco style in 1931 by the Boston architectural firm of Densmore, LeClear, Robbins, the most prominent example of that style in Maine.

A few other important buildings within the district pre-date the fire, including the Tarratine Club by Parker and Rice of Boston, the Nichols Block by Wilfred Mansur of Bangor. The district includes three parks: Norumbega Mall (laid out 1933, on site of the burned Norumbega Hall Kenduskeag Mall, Warren H. Manning, which includes a bronze statue of Hannibal Hamlin Pierce Park, which includes a bronze statue of river drivers National Register of Historic Places listings in Penobscot County, Maine Gregory Clancey, "Great Fire of 1911 Historic District", National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form, January, 1984. On file with the Maine Historic Preservation Commission, 55 Capitol Street, Maine

Malahari

Malahari is a Carnatic raga. This raaga is a janya of the 15th Melakarta raga Mayamalavagowla; this raga is known to be a morning raga. It is associated with the rainy season. In classical carnatic training, it is used as a raaga for beginners using geetha right after the swara-based exercises in Mayamalavagowla. Many of the Geetha's in this raga have been composed by Muthuswami Dikshitar; this raga is an asymmetric scale and is classified as an audava-shadava raga. ārohaṇa: S R₁ M₁ P D₁ Ṡ avarohaṇa: Ṡ D₁ P M₁ G₃ R₁ SThe notes in this scale are'shuddha rishabha, shuddha madhyama, shuddha dhaivata in arohana and additional antara gandhara in avarohana. Since this scale does not have a nishadha, it can be derived from Gayakapriya or Vakulabharanam too, but has been traditionally associated with Mayamalavagowla as the parent. Shri GaNanaatha in Rupaka, written by Purandara Dasa kunda gowra gowrivara in Rupaka, written by Purandara Dasa padumanaabha paramapurusha in Triputa, written by Purandara Dasa kereya neeranu kerege chelli in Triputa, written by Purandara Dasa Panchamatanga in Rupaka composed by Muthuswami Dikshitar Ananta Padmanaabam in Rupaka composed by Muthiah Bhagavatar Kalaye Devadeva in Jhampa composed by MaharajaSwathi Thirunal Melukovayya in Adi composed by Shahji Maharaja This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāga.

Karnataka Shuddha Saveri is a rāga which has a symmetrical scale matching the ascending scale of Malahari. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R1 M1 P D1 S: S D1 P M1 R1 S

European mole

The European mole is a mammal of the order Eulipotyphla. It is known as the common mole and the northern mole; this mole lives in a tunnel system, which it extends. It uses these tunnels to hunt its prey. Under normal conditions the displaced earth is pushed to the surface, resulting in the characteristic molehills, it feeds on earthworms, but on insects and mice and shrews. Its saliva contains toxins; the mole is 11 to 16 cm long, weighing 70 to 130 g. Females are smaller than males; the eyes are small and hidden behind fur. The fur is dark grey, but the actual range of colors is larger, as due to the subterranean habits there is no disadvantage in having off-colored fur. European moles with white, light grey, tan and black fur have all been reported. While moles are found in tunnel systems, the European mole is not an underground dweller. In the spring and early summer when the young moles leave their mothers' burrows they must find new territory; this forces them to leave their burrow and they can either make new tunnel systems or enter existing systems.

In the summer time, they are to burrow much more superficially. The superficial burrowing could be due in part to the soil, much harder, which makes burrowing a greater challenge. T. Europaea have been found to spend a lot of time at the sides of drainage lines and streams but do not inhabit flooded or dry soils. However, dry areas do become important. Factors such as the type of soil, vegetation present, altitude have no effect on the areas that moles choose to inhabit; the one factor that does influence the mole population in a specific area is the abundance of earthworms. One would expect for the earthworm population to decrease as the moles feed, however no research has shown this to be true; the mole has a short breeding season, in the spring. Mating occurs over a span of a few weeks in March and April, followed by a gestation period of four to five weeks. Most births occur at the beginning of May; the litter size ranges from two to seven. The lactation period lasts for four to five weeks but at the end of June, the young are required to leave the tunnels.

The lifespan is from three to five years. One common belief about moles is that they consume their own weight in food every 24 hours, but this is an exaggeration. Studies have been performed that show moles eat about half of their body weight in food each day; when in captivity, moles will eat a wide variety of food items including liver, mealworms and maggots. However, they tend to prefer earthworms to all other options. Due to the subterranean nature of this mole, there is an anatomical regression of its eyes at several organizational levels, its eye has a diameter of only 1 mm, it has a cellular lens. The organization of the retina is quite similar to that of a typical mammal, it has been determined that there are about 2000 ganglion cells and the optic nerve is 50 μm with 3000 axons. 15% of these axons are myelinated. The photoreceptors are not cone-like shape that one would expect to see. Instead they all have one uniform shape with three distinct features: The receptors are short along the radial axis The inner and outer segments are similar in length The outer segments appear to be degeneratedStudies have shown that T. europaea does have photopic vision, contrary to popular belief that all moles are blind.

Two cone opsins have been found in the eyes of T. europaea but their function is still under investigation. In a study of the mole eyes it was found that Talpa withdraws when exposed to a flashlight and it can perform light/dark discrimination tasks; the cone cells in the eye are unlikely to provide high-resolution vision but they could allow a detection of movement and some hue discrimination. It is suggested that in subterranean mammals vision is used to detect predators that have broken into the tunnels. In mammals the cues for hearing are based on inter-aural intensity differences, which occur as a result of the diffraction of a progressive sound wave by the head and pinna, they could be based on inter-aural time differences that are present because of the distance between their two ears. Moles have no pinnae. In addition to this, their inner ear is unusual for that of a mammal due to the large trabeculation of the posterior ventral skull between the ears; the tympana of the ear lies horizontally and the manubrial tips are separated by a distance of 8 mm.

The results of several studies confirm that there is good transmission through the European mole's head for a range of low frequencies. Because of this it is expected. There are suggestions that the ears of this mole act as balanced pressure-difference receivers; this system has never been suggested for a mammal in the past, but reptiles, amphibia and crickets have been shown to have a direct air pathway between the tympana. In Talpa europaea there are several unique changes in ossification sequence in the postcranial elements. Many of the shifts are seen in the vertebral column the cervical and thoracic regions; the shifts allow the mole to have a more stabilized body axis and cervical region after they are born. After a mole is born and begins to develop it will begin to dig; as a result of the constant digging action, element

City-Hochhaus Leipzig

City-Hochhaus is 36-storey skyscraper in Leipzig, Germany. At 142 m, it is the tallest multistory building in Leipzig; the tower was designed by architect Hermann Henselmann in the shape of an open book, built between 1968 and 1972. It followed Henselmann's idea to cap central places in cities with a prominent tower, such as the Jen-Tower in Jena and Fernsehturm in Berlin. City-Hochhaus was part of the University of Leipzig campus at Augustusplatz, was sold by the state government of Saxony and is now owned by the U. S. investment bank Merrill Lynch. The building was renovated between 1999 and 2002, when it lost its aluminium sheathing, replaced by grey granite; the offices are now rented to private tenants including the public broadcaster MDR, the European Energy Exchange and the Panorama restaurant. The roof is equipped with a viewing platform; the building is nicknamed Weisheitszahn by locals as due to its form or after its previous function as Uniriese. List of tallest buildings in Germany Oderturm Jen-Tower Park Inn Berlin Fernsehturm Berlin Kulturfinger City-Hochhaus Leipzig Homepage

Graeme Murty

Graeme Stuart Murty is a professional football coach and former player. He made 437 appearances in the Football League and Premier League, playing for York City, Charlton Athletic and Southampton. Though born in Saltburn, North Yorkshire, Murty qualified for Scotland through his family who were Scottish, won four full caps. Murty joined Rangers as a development squad coach in 2016, he was twice placed in caretaker charge of the Rangers first team during 2017, was subsequently full-time manager from December 2017 to April 2018. Murty was born in North Yorkshire and attended Nunthorpe School, he joined Middlesbrough's Centre of Excellence after being scouted playing for Marton Juniors, but was released aged 15. Following trials with Aston Villa, Leeds United and Stockport County, Murty joined York City's youth system on a youth training scheme in June 1991, he signed a professional contract on 2 March 1993 and was placed into the first team in the 1993–94 season. On 20 September 1995, he played in their 3–0 victory against Manchester United in the League Cup at Old Trafford.

He scored in York's League Cup victory against Everton. Murty joined Reading on a four-year contract on 6 July 1998 for a £700,000 fee, which at the time was the highest fee paid by Reading and the highest fee received by York, his first few seasons were hampered by injury. However, once clear of injury, he became an integral part of the team, when Phil Parkinson left the club to become manager of Colchester United, Murty was appointed club captain. On 30 April 2006, Murty scored only his second goal, from a penalty, in 280 league and cup appearances when Reading played Queens Park Rangers on the final day of the 2005–06 season, it ensured that Reading reached a record for the second tier of English football. His only previous goal for Reading came against Bristol City in March 2001. On 1 December 2006, Murty signed a new contract to keep him at Reading until the summer of 2008, which meant he would complete 10 years at the club. On 31 March 2008, it was announced that, despite a previous announcement to the contrary, Murty had been awarded a testimonial in recognition of his services to the club, with a proportion of the proceeds going to the Swings and Smiles charity, of which he is a patron.

The testimonial match was held on 21 July 2009 at Reading's Madejski Stadium and featured the current Reading team taking on members of the Reading Championship winning team of 2005–06. In a vote to compile the Royals' best-ever eleven, Murty was voted the best right-back with 56.4% of the vote. Murty won the BBC South Sports Personality of the Year award, at a ceremony in Southampton on 3 December 2006 where John Madejski and Steve Coppell were honoured, he joined Charlton Athletic on a one-month loan on 6 January 2009 to allow him to improve his match fitness. He made his debut in a 2–0 home defeat to Nottingham Forest on 10 January 2009, his loan at Charlton was extended for a second month on 2 February 2009. He returned to Reading on 2 March 2009 after suffering from a calf injury. On 15 May 2009, Murty was released by Reading. On 3 July 2009, Murty joined League One side Southampton on a two-week trial with a view to a permanent deal, he signed a one-year contract with Southampton 5 August 2009 after impressing.

On 15 May 2010, after an injury plagued season, he was released by Southampton. In February 2012, he announced his retirement from playing. Although Murty was born in England, he qualified to play for Scotland through his father Eddie, for the Republic of Ireland through his grandfather, he was capped four times by Scotland, with his first coming as a half-time substitute for Gary Naysmith in a 4–0 defeat away against Wales on 18 February 2004. He was in the Scotland team for the 2006 Kirin Cup in Japan, earned his second cap after starting their 5–1 win against Bulgaria on 11 May 2006, he started Scotland's second and final match of the tournament against Japan, a 0–0 draw on 13 May 2006 that secured the Kirin Cup for Scotland. His fourth and final cap came after starting Scotland's UEFA Euro 2008 qualifying match away to Georgia on 17 October 2007, which Scotland lost 2–0. On 30 January 2008, Murty was one of nine defenders called up by new Scotland manager George Burley for his first get-together, a training camp between 3 and 5 February 2008 at Loch Lomond.

He moved onto coaching after retiring from playing, was appointed as an assistant youth development coach at Southampton's Academy on 27 February 2012, working with the under-12 to under-16 teams. On 14 July 2014, Murty joined Championship club Norwich City as youth development phase lead coach, taking control of the under-16 team, he was promoted to the position of manager of the under-18 team on 8 July 2015. On 17 August 2016, Murty was appointed as head coach for the development squad at Scottish Premiership club Rangers; the under-20 team lost to Celtic. After Mark Warburton and David Weir left Rangers on 10 February 2017, Murty was placed in caretaker control of the Rangers first team. Murty's last match in charge was a 1–1 draw in an Old Firm derby on 12 March, a day before Pedro Caixinha took formal control of the first team. Murty reverted to his previous role with the development squad. After Caixinha was sacked in October 2017, Murty was again placed in caretaker control of the first team.

On 22 December, he was appointed manager of the club until the end of the 2017–18 season. After two heavy defeats against Celtic in April 2018, namely 4–0 in the 2017–18 Scottish Cup semi-final and 5–0 in the league, Murty was removed from his role by Rangers on 1 May 2018, he returned to his previous role with the under-20s in June. The reserves won the inaugural SPFL Reserve League on goal difference and the