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Operation Chastise

Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis. The Möhne and Edersee dams were breached, causing catastrophic flooding of the Ruhr valley and of villages in the Eder valley. Two hydroelectric power stations were destroyed and several more damaged. Factories and mines were damaged and destroyed. An estimated 1,600 civilians – about 600 Germans and 1,000 Soviet forced labourers – died. Despite rapid repairs by the Germans, production did not return to normal until September. Before the Second World War, the British Air Ministry had identified the industrialised Ruhr Valley, its dams, as important strategic targets. In addition to providing hydroelectric power and pure water for steel-making, they supplied drinking water and water for the canal transport system. Calculations indicated that attacks with large bombs could be effective but required a degree of accuracy which RAF Bomber Command had been unable to attain when attacking a well defended target.

A one-off surprise attack might succeed but the RAF lacked a weapon suitable to the task. The mission grew out of a concept for a bomb designed by Barnes Wallis, assistant chief designer at Vickers. Wallis had worked on the Vickers Wellesley and Vickers Wellington bombers and while working on the Vickers Windsor, he had begun work, with Admiralty support, on an anti-shipping bomb, although dam destruction was soon considered. At first, Wallis wanted to drop a 10-tonne bomb from an altitude of about 12,200 m, part of the earthquake bomb concept. No bomber aircraft was capable of flying of carrying such a heavy bomb. A much smaller explosive charge would suffice if it exploded against the dam wall under the water, but German reservoir dams were protected by heavy torpedo nets to prevent delivery of an explosive warhead through water. Wallis devised a 4,100 kg bomb in the shape of a cylinder, equivalent to a large depth charge armed with a hydrostatic fuse, but designed to be given backward spin of 500 rpm.

Dropped at 18 metres and 390 km/h from the release point, the bomb would skip across the surface of the water before hitting the dam wall. The residual backspin would submerge the bomb. Testing of the concept included blowing up a plaster model dam at the Building Research Establishment, Watford, in May 1942 and the breaching of the disused Nant-y-Gro dam in Wales in July; the first trials were at Chesil Beach in January 1943, which demonstrated that a bomb of sufficient size could be carried by an Avro Lancaster, rather than waiting for a larger bomber such as the Windsor to come into service. Avro Chief Designer Roy Chadwick adapted the Lancaster to remove the mid-upper gun turret to reduce drag, increase speed and save fuel, bearing in mind that a large, ungainly weapon would be suspended below the fuselage, he worked out the design and installation of controls and gear for the carriage and release of the bomb in conjunction with Barnes Wallis. Air Vice-Marshal Francis Linnell at the Ministry of Aircraft Production thought the work was diverting Wallis from the development of the Windsor.

Pressure from Linnell via the chairman of Vickers, Sir Charles Worthington Craven, caused Wallis to resign. Sir Arthur Harris, head of Bomber Command, after a briefing by Linnell opposed the allocation of his bombers. Wallis had written to an influential intelligence officer, Group Captain Frederick Winterbotham, who ensured that the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Charles Portal, heard of the project. Portal was convinced. On 26 February 1943, Portal over-ruled Harris and ordered that thirty Lancasters were to be allocated to the mission and the target date was set for May, when water levels would be at their highest and breaches in the dams would cause the most damage. With eight weeks to go, the larger Upkeep bomb, needed for the mission and the modifications to the Lancasters had yet to be designed; the operation was given to No. 5 Group RAF, which formed a new squadron to undertake the dams mission. It was called Squadron X, as the speed of its formation outstripped the RAF process for naming squadrons.

Led by 24-year-old Wing Commander Guy Gibson, a veteran of more than 170 bombing and night-fighter missions, twenty-one bomber crews were selected from 5 Group squadrons. The crews included RAF personnel of several nationalities, members of the Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force; the squadron was based at RAF Scampton, about 8 km north of Lincoln. The targets selected were the Möhne Dam and the Sorpe Dam, upstream from the Ruhr industrial area, with the Eder Dam on the Eder River, which feeds into the Weser, as a secondary target; the loss of hydroelectric power was important but the loss of water to industry and canals would have greater effect and there was potential for devastating flooding if the dams broke. The aircraft were modified Avro Lancaster Mk IIIs, known as B Mark III Special. To reduce weight, much of the internal armour was removed; the dimensions of the bomb and its unusual shape meant that the bomb-bay doors had to be removed and the bomb hung below the fuselage.

It was mounted before dropping it was spun up to speed by an auxiliary motor. Bombing from an altitude of 18 m, at an air speed of 390 km/h and at set distance from the target called for expert crews. Intensive night-time an


Népouite is a rare nickel silicate mineral which has the apple green colour typical of such compounds. It was named by E Glasser in 1907 after the place where it was first described, the Népoui Mine, Népoui, Nouméa Commune, North Province, New Caledonia; the ideal formula is Ni34, but most specimens contain some magnesium, 34 is more realistic. There is a similar mineral called lizardite in which all of the nickel is replaced by magnesium, formula Mg34; these two minerals form a series. Pecoraite is another rare mineral with the same chemical formula as népouite, but a different structure. Népouite and pecoraite are all members of the kaolinite-serpentine group. Garnierite is a green nickel ore that formed as a result of weathering of ultramafic rocks, that occurs in many nickel deposits worldwide, it is a mixture including népouite. Associated minerals include calcite, goethite, nontronite, quartz, serpentine and willemseite; as well as the type locality in New Caledonia, it has been found in Australia, the Czech Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Greece, Japan, Poland, South Africa and the US.

Space Group Ccm21. Unit Cell: a = 5.31 Å, b = 9.19 Å, c = 14.50 Å Lizardite, much more common, forms a solid solution series with népouite. Fine-grained, scaly lizardite comprises much of the serpentine present in serpentine marbles, it is triclinic, has one direction of perfect cleavage, may be white, yellow or green. Lizardite is translucent and has an average specific gravity of 2.57. It can be pseudomorphous after enstatite, olivine or pyroxene, in which case the name bastite is sometimes applied. Bastite may have a silky lustre. Lizardite is named after its type locality on the Lizard Peninsula, Cornwall, UK, it is worked by local artisans into various trinkets which are sold to tourists

Lee Pollard

Lee Gordon Pollard is an English cricketer. Pollard is a right-handed batsman, he was born at Northamptonshire. Pollard made his debut in List A cricket for the Leicestershire Cricket Board against Hertfordshire in the 1999 NatWest Trophy, he represented the Board in 2 further List A matches, which came against the Durham Cricket Board in the 2000 NatWest Trophy and the Northamptonshire Cricket Board in the 1st round of the 2002 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy, played in 2001. In 2003, Pollard made his debut in the Minor Counties Championship for Bedfordshire against Cumberland. From 2003 to 2006, he represented the county in 13 Championship matches, the last of which came against Norfolk. Pollard played for the county in 2 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches against Suffolk in 2003 and Herefordshire in 2005, he made 2 List A appearances for Bedfordshire. These came against Warwickshire in the 2003 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy and Cheshire in the 1st round of the 2004 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy, played in 2003.

In his career total of 5 List A matches, he scored 19 runs at a batting average of 6.33, with a high score of 14. In the field he took a single catch, while with the ball he took 8 wickets at a bowling average of 29.00, with best figures of 2/33. Lee Pollard at ESPNcricinfo

Brittney Reese

Brittney Reese is an American long jumper, Olympic gold medalist, a seven-time world champion. Reese is the indoor American record holder in the long jump with a distance of 7.23 meters. Born in Inglewood, Reese is a 2004 graduate of Gulfport High School, where she became state champion in the long jump and triple jump, she attended MGCCC and the University of Mississippi. Reese was a member of the women's basketball team at MGCCC and was inducted into their sports Hall of Fame. Reese has been assistant track and field coach at San Diego Mesa College since 2013, she was the NCAA Outdoor Champion in long jump in 2007 and 2008. Reese set a personal best in the long jump of 22 feet 9.75 inches in July 2008 in Eugene, Oregon at the U. S. Olympic Trials to qualify for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. At the Olympics, Reese had the best qualifying jump at 6.87 meters. However, Reese placed fifth with a jump of 6.76 meters. On May 24, 2009, in Belém, Reese extended her personal best to 7.06 m. This brought her to third on the American all-time list, behind Marion Jones and Jackie Joyner-Kersee.

At the 2009 World Athletics Championships, in Berlin, Reese won the long jump title with a jump of 7.10 meters, beating defending champion Tatyana Lebedeva. Reese is the third youngest champion in the history of the event. At the 2010 IAAF World Indoor Championships, Reese won the gold medal in the long jump with a jump of 6.70 meters. At the 2011 World Championships in Athletics, Reese retained the gold medal in the long jump with a jump of 6.82 meters. At the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships, Reese retained the gold medal in the long jump with a jump of 7.23 meters. She became the first woman to win back-to-back World indoor titles in the long jump when she landed a 7.23 m last round effort, the longest mark indoors since 1989, a new American record and third on the all-time indoor lists. At the start of the outdoor season she broke Carol Lewis' long-standing meet record at the Mt SAC Relays with a jump of 7.12 m. That year, she won the Olympic gold medal, with another jump of 7.12 m. Reese won her third consecutive long jump world outdoor title at the 2013 World Championships in Moscow with a jump of 7.01m, beating Blessing Okagbare narrowly by 2 cm. Reese is represented by Mark Pryor of World Express Sports Management.

On November 14, 2011, Reese donated 100 turkeys and her time to various homeless and religious organizations in her community of Gulfport, Mississippi as her way of "giving back" to the community that has supported her throughout her athletic career. She wanted to make Thanksgiving a little easier, in an area where there are few resources for those in need. On October 26, 2012, in conjunction with the Gulfport School District celebrating "Brittney Reese Day". On May 21, 2013, the Reese Scholarship was awarded in Baltimore County Public Schools to a deserving student accepted to college or university who participated in the Allied Sports Program, coordinated by the Office of Athletics Director Michael Sye; the 2014 recipient of the scholarship is Bailey Weinkam, a Catonsville High School student, born hearing impaired. Ms. Weinkam will attend Community College of Baltimore County in Fall 2014. All information taken from IAAF profile. "The Beast is Hunting Olympic Gold". Sports January 10, 2012.

"Pistorius Advances to 400 Semifinals at Worlds". The New York Times. August 28, 2011. Reese Brittney at World Athletics USA Track & Field Profile NBC Olympics Bio Ole Miss Sports Profile Brittney Reese on Twitter World Express Athletic Management

Revolution Software

Revolution Software Limited is a British video-game developer based in York, founded in 1989 by Charles Cecil, Tony Warriner, David Sykes, Noirin Carmody. Released in 1992 for the Amiga, Atari ST, DOS platforms, Lure of the Temptress was both critically and commercially a success, which helped set the company up for their future game releases. Revolution released the game as freeware on 1 April 2003, their next game was released in 1994. The game focused on protagonist Robert Foster's abduction and subsequent search for answers in a dystopian city of the future. In that period they ported Sierra's King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow to the Commodore Amiga. Virtual Theatre system was used instead of Sierra's Creative Interpreter due to its much better performance. Despite the success of Beneath a Steel Sky, it was the company's next game that they would become best known for, which would have both the biggest critical and commercial success. Broken Sword: The Shadow of the Templars was released for PC and PlayStation in 1996 and was ported to the Game Boy Advance in 2002.

The game revolves around the story of George Stobbart, an American tourist whose holiday in Paris is rudely interrupted by a bombing. Investigating, he runs into photo-journalist Nicole Collard, the two embark on a globe-trotting adventure; the hand drawn graphics and characters, gameplay helped make the game a hit, cemented the company's reputation for story driven games. The game was followed by a well-received sequel, Broken Sword II: The Smoking Mirror. According to Charles Cecil, each of the first two Broken Sword games sold around a 1,000,000 copies in the mid-1990s. On July 2000, the company released their first 3D game In Cold Blood for the PlayStation. Set in the near future, the game featured an MI6 agent. Sent to the fictional, former soviet region of Volgia, the player embarks on a mission to investigate a newly discovered substance, Blue Nephrine. However, Cord is betrayed and must work out by whom, while trying to work out what plans the dictator of Volgia, General Nagarov, has for this mysterious new chemical and the implications for the world.

On December 2000, the company released a children's adventure game Gold and Glory: The Road to El Dorado to coincide with the release of the film The Road to El Dorado. The company started work on Good Cop Bad Cop, an action game for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube; however the game was cancelled so that the company could concentrate on Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon. Released in November 2003, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon featured 3D graphics, moved away from the 2D point-and-click style of older games; as the game was developed for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2 and Xbox they decided to implement a direct control mechanism for the protagonist, instead of mouse control clicking on hot spots, as this was easier to convert to console game pads. Revolution released Broken Sword: The Angel of Death on 15 September 2006. At the start of the game, George is working as a bail bonds clerk, when he falls in love with Anna-Maria, a woman who asks George to help her find an artefact. On 1 March 2009, Revolution Software released a director's cut version of their first Broken Sword series, called Broken Sword: The Shadow of the Templars – Director's Cut, for Wii and Nintendo DS platforms.

According to a Charles Cecil interview with Pocket Gamer, the iOS version of the Director's Cut sold around 160,000 copies by December 2010. The company announced that The Director's Cut is coming soon to Android. On October 2009, Beneath a Steel Sky – Remastered was made available on the Apple App Store; the Remastered Edition sold around 20,000 copies in its first month and expected to hit 70,000 sales in the first year and 100,000 lifetime sales. The company announced the remastered edition of the second game in the Broken Sword series on 9 December 2010, called Broken Sword: The Smoking Mirror – Remastered; the game was released in April 2011 on OS X and May 2011 on Microsoft Windows. On 25 July 2012, Charles Cecil posted on his personal Facebook account: "Totally focused on the announce video for our next game. I am thrilled by how it's looking, can't wait to talk publicly, but completing the video for end of the month – as promised – now seems somewhat ambitious." After a short delay, the game was announced to be a fifth entry in the series: Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse.

The game was announced with a Kickstarter campaign and a video, showing some of the game's graphics and hinting at its storyline. After the release of Beneath a Steel Sky – Remastered, Charles Cecil and Dave Gibbons stated that a sequel could be and that iPhone would be the ideal platform. During its Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter, the company put Beneath a Steel Sky 2 as a $1,000,000 bonus stretch goal if the new Broken Sword game raises enough money, but it only raised $820,000. On 24 September 2012, after failing to reach the bonus stretch goal, the company's co-founder Tony Warriner said that "after the huge success of the Broken Sword 5 crowdfunding campaign on Kickstater, it inspired us to begin work on Beneath a Steel Sky 2. Development of the sequel will begin after the release of Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse. We're delighted by the recent level of interest in a sequel to Beneath a Steel Sky and are discussing design ideas for this project which we plan to go into development following the release of Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse.

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Newfoundland Power Inc.

Newfoundland Power Incorporated is a Canadian utility company formed by the Royal Securities Corporation of Montreal in 1924. It is regulated by the Public Utilities Commission. Newfoundland Power is the primary retailer of electric power in Labrador. In the year of its incorporation it purchased the assets of the St. John's Light and Power Company, formed by Robert Gillespie Reid as the St. John's Street Railway Company in 1896; those assets included Newfoundland and Labrador's first hydro electric generating station at Petty Harbour, Petty Harbour Hydro Electric Generating Station. After 1924 Newfoundland Light & Power Company became a subsidiary of the International Power Company, it remained a subsidiary until 1949, when the parent company sold its shares in it to the general public; the Newfoundland Light & Power Company supplied the general needs of the St. John's urban area and operated the city's electrical street car system. In 1948 the street railway was disbanded and the company became an electric company.

Newfoundland Power operates 23 hydro generating plants, three diesel plants and three gas turbine facilities for a total installed capacity of 139.4 MW. 1926 the company increased the generating capacity of the Petty Harbour Generating Station 1931 completed a 3 MW hydro electric generating station at Pierre's Brook 1931 laid two 13 kW cables across the Bell Island tickle in Conception Bay to supply the iron ore mines on Bell Island 1951 purchased from Bowater's Newfoundland Pulp and Paper Mills and Bay of Islands Light and Power Company the distribution systems in Corner Brook and Deer Lake. 1956 obtained from the Anglo Newfoundland Development Company the distribution system in Grand Falls, Bishops Falls and Botwood. 1958 completed a 12.5 MW hydro electric generating station at Rattling Brook. 1958 obtained from the Department of Transport the distribution system in Gander. 1962 converted the Grand Falls, Bishop's Falls and Botwood distribution systems from 50 cycles to the North American standard of 60 cycles.

1966 Union Electric Light and Power Company became part of the Newfoundland Power Company. 1966 the company had eleven generating plants with an installed capacity of 95 MW. 1970 the company sold over the one billion kW·h. 1981 the company had twenty-one hydro stations, three gas turbines, seven diesel generating plants and one thermal power station for a total installed capacity of 241 MW. 1987 shareholders of Newfoundland Light & Power Co. form Fortis Inc. as a holding company with 100% ownership of the regulated electrical utility. 1990 Newfoundland Light & Power Co. changes its corporate name to Newfoundland Power. 1998 the company changed its legal name from Newfoundland Light & Power Co. to Newfoundland Power Inc. Newfoundland and Labrador Power Commission Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro Official site^