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Operation Market Garden

Operation Market Garden was a failed World War II military operation fought in the Netherlands from 17 to 25 September 1944. It was the brainchild of Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery, planned by Generals Lewis H. Brereton and Williams of the USAAF; the airborne part of the operation was undertaken by the First Allied Airborne Army with the land operation by XXX Corps of the British Second Army. The objective was to create a 64 mi salient into German territory with a bridgehead over the River Rhine, creating an Allied invasion route into northern Germany; this was to be achieved by seizing a series of nine bridges by Airborne forces with land forces swiftly following over the bridges. The operation succeeded in liberating the Dutch cities of Eindhoven and Nijmegen along with many towns, creating a 60 mi salient into German-held territory limiting V-2 rocket launching sites, it failed, however, to secure a bridgehead over the Rhine, with the advance being halted at the river. Market Garden consisted of two sub operations: Market - an airborne assault to seize key bridges Garden - a ground attack moving over the seized bridges creating the salient.

The attack was the largest airborne operation up to that point in World War II. Supreme Commander General Eisenhower's strategic goal was to encircle the heart of German industry, the Ruhr Area, in a pincer movement; the northern end of the pincer would circumvent the northern end of the Siegfried Line, giving easier access into Germany across the north German plains enabling mobile warfare. The prime aim of Operation Market Garden was to establish the northern end of a pincer ready to project deeper into Germany. Allied forces would project north from Belgium, 60 miles through the Netherlands, across the Rhine and consolidate north of Arnhem on the Dutch/German border, ready to close the pincer; the operation made massive use of airborne forces, whose tactical objectives were to secure the bridges and to allow a rapid advance by armored ground units to consolidate north of Arnhem. The operation required the seizure of the bridges by airborne troops across the Meuse River, two arms of the Rhine, together with crossings over several smaller canals and tributaries.

However, this large airborne force contrasted with the ground forces being light with only one corps moving north of Eindhoven, XXX Corps. XXX Corps took along 5,000 vehicles full of bridging 9,000 sappers; the Allies captured several bridges between Eindhoven and Nijmegen at the beginning of the operation. Lieutenant-General Brian Horrocks' XXX Corps ground force advance was delayed by the initial failure of the airborne units to secure bridges at Son en Breugel and Nijmegen. German forces demolished the bridge over the Wilhelmina Canal at Son before it could be captured by the US 101st Airborne Division, although a Bailey bridge was built over the canal by British sappers; this delayed XXX Corps' advance by 12 hours. The US 82nd Airborne Division's failure to capture the main highway bridge over the Waal River at Nijmegen before 20 September delayed the advance by 36 hours. XXX Corps had to seize the bridge themselves instead of speeding over a captured bridge onwards to Arnhem, where the British paratroopers were still holding the north end of the bridge.

At the northern point of the airborne operation, the British 1st Airborne Division encountered strong resistance. The delays in capturing the bridge at Nijmegen and constructing a Bailey bridge at Son gave time for German forces to organise their counterattack. A small British force managed to capture the north end of the Arnhem road bridge, denying use of the intact bridge to German forces. After the ground forces failed to relieve the paratroopers on time, they were overrun on 21 September. At the same time that XXX Corps' tanks moved over the Nijmegen bridge, 36 hours late, after seizing it from the Germans, the British paratroopers at the Arnhem bridge were capitulating, unable to hold on any longer; the remainder of the British 1st Airborne Division was trapped in a small pocket west of the Arnhem bridge, evacuated on 25 September after sustaining heavy casualties. The Allies had failed to cross the Rhine; the river remained a barrier to their advance into Germany until offensives at Remagen, Oppenheim and Wesel in March 1945.

The failure of Operation Market Garden to form a foothold over the Rhine ended Allied hopes of finishing the war by Christmas 1944. After major defeats in Normandy in the summer of 1944, remnants of German forces withdrew across France and the Low Countries towards the German border by the end of August. In the north, in the first week of September, the British 21st Army Group, under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, sent its British Second Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Miles Dempsey advancing on a line running from Antwerp to the northern border of Belgium, while its First Canadian Army, under Lieutenant-General Harry Crerar, was pursuing its task of recapturing the ports of Dieppe, Le Havre, Boulogne-sur-Mer. To the south, the U. S. 12th Army Group under Lt. General Omar Bradley was nearing the German border and had been ordered to line up within the Aachen gap with Lieutenant General Courtney Hodges' U. S. First Army, in support of Montgomery's advance on the Ruhr. Meanwhile, the group's U.

S. Third Army, under Lieutenant General George S. Patton, moved eastward towards the Saarland. At the same time, the U. S. 6th Army Group under Lt. General Jacob L. Devers was advancing towards Germany after their landings in southern France. Before D-Day, to disrupt German logistics effor

Portuguese House of Burgundy

The Portuguese House of Burgundy or the Afonsine Dynasty was a Portuguese dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Portugal from its founding until the 1383-85 Portuguese Interregnum. The house was founded by Henry of Burgundy, who became Count of Portugal in 1096, his son, Afonso Henriques, was proclaimed King of Portugal following his victory at the Battle of Ourique in 1139. Burgundy monarchs would rule Portugal through much of its early formation, including the formalization of the Portuguese language under King Dinis I, the first Portuguese parliament, under King Afonso II, the conquest of the Kingdom of the Algarve, under King King Afonso III. Numerous princes of the house took up thrones across Europe, such as Ferdinand I, Count of Flanders and Peter I, Count of Urgell. Many princesses became royal consorts, including Berengaria, Queen of Denmark, Queen of Aragon, Teresa, Duchess of Burgundy, among others. Henry, Count of Portugal, a grandson in the senior line of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy, had joined the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 11th century.

After conquering parts of Galicia and northern Portugal on behalf of Alfonso VI of León, he married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter and was given the County of Portugal as a fief under the Kingdom of León. His son, Afonso Henriques, became King of Portugal after defeating his mother in the Battle of São Mamede in 1128, it was only in 1179 that Pope Alexander III recognized Portugal as an independent state, recognition, at the time, needed for total acceptance of the kingdom in the Christian world. The kings that succeeded Afonso I continued the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula against the Moors. Afonso III adopted the title of King of Portugal and the Algarve; the borders of Portugal were defined in the Treaty of Alcanizes when king Dinis I, son of Afonso III, started developing the kingdom's land. In 1383 Beatrice, princess of Portugal and heir to the throne married John I of Castile; when Ferdinand I died during the same year the kingdom entered a period of anarchy called the 1383-1385 Crisis, threatened with a possible annexation by Castile.

This period ended in 1385 with the victory of the Portuguese in the Battle of Aljubarrota and a new dynasty began with John I, Master of Aviz, thus called the House of Aviz. List of Portuguese monarchs House of Aviz Portugal in the Middle Ages Timeline of Portuguese history The Portuguese monarchs of Burgundy and their history

Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor 2

Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF2 known as tyrosine kinase activator protein 1 or SRY-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC9A3R2 gene. NHERF-2) is a scaffold protein that connects plasma membrane proteins with members of the ezrin/moesin/radixin family and thereby helps to link them to the actin cytoskeleton and to regulate their surface expression, it is necessary for cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and inhibition of SLC9A3. In addition, it may act as scaffold protein in the nucleus; this regulatory protein interacts with a sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHE3 in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule, small intestine, colon that plays a major role in transepithelial sodium absorption. SLC9A3R2, as well as SLC9A3R1 and protein kinase A phosphorylation, may play a role in NHE3 regulation. Sodium-hydrogen exchange regulatory cofactor 2 has been shown to interact with SGK, Actinin alpha 4, Parathyroid hormone receptor 1, Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1, EZR, PODXL, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and PLCB3.

Solute carrier family Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q15599 at the PDBe-KB. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain