SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Operation Sea Lion

Operation Sea Lion written as Operation Sealion, was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. Following the Fall of France, Adolf Hitler, the German Führer and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, hoped the British government would seek a peace agreement and he reluctantly considered invasion only as a last resort if all other options failed. However, once Hitler had determined that Germany would invade the Soviet Union in 1941, the desirability of forcing Britain out of the war before that date increased the attractiveness of an invasion, as offering a quick and decisive victory in the West; as a precondition, Hitler specified the achievement of both air and naval superiority over the English Channel and the proposed landing sites, but the German forces did not achieve either at any point during the war, both the German High Command and Hitler himself had serious doubts about the prospects for success.

Both the German Army and Navy undertook a major programme of preparations for an invasion: training troops, developing specialised weapons and equipment, modifying transport vessels. A large number of river barges and transport ships were gathered together on the Channel coast, but with Luftwaffe aircraft losses increasing in the Battle of Britain and no sign that the Royal Air Force had been defeated, Hitler postponed Sea Lion indefinitely on 17 September 1940 and it was never put into action. Adolf Hitler hoped for a negotiated peace with the UK and made no preparations for amphibious assault on Britain until the Fall of France. At the time, the only forces with experience of, or modern equipment for, such landings were the Japanese, at the Battle of Wuhan in 1938. In September 1939, the German invasion of Poland was a success, but this infringed on both a French and a British alliance with Poland and both countries declared war on Germany. On 9 October, Hitler's "Directive No. 6 for the Conduct of the War" planned an offensive to defeat these allies and "win as much territory as possible in Holland and northern France to serve as a base for the successful prosecution of the air and sea war against England".

With the prospect of the Channel ports falling under Kriegsmarine control, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder attempted to anticipate the obvious next step that might entail and instructed his operations officer, Kapitän Hansjürgen Reinicke, to draw up a document examining "the possibility of troop landings in England should the future progress of the war make the problem arise". Reinicke spent five days on this study and set forth the following prerequisites: Eliminating or sealing off Royal Navy forces from the landing and approach areas. Eliminating the Royal Air Force. Destroying all Royal Navy units in the coastal zone. Preventing British submarine action against the landing fleet. On 22 November 1939, the Head of Luftwaffe intelligence Joseph "Beppo" Schmid presented his "Proposal for the Conduct of Air Warfare", which argued for a counter to the British blockade and said "Key is to paralyse the British trade" by blocking imports to Britain and attacking seaports; the OKW considered the options and Hitler's 29 November "Directive No. 9 – Instructions For Warfare Against The Economy of the Enemy" stated that once the coast had been secured, the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine were to blockade UK ports with sea mines, attack shipping and warships, make air attacks on shore installations and industrial production.

This directive remained in force in the first phase of the Battle of Britain. In December 1939, the German Army issued its own study paper and solicited opinions and input from both Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe; the paper outlined an assault on England's eastern coast between The Wash and the River Thames by troops crossing the North Sea from ports in the Low Countries. It suggested airborne troops as well as seaborne landings of 100,000 infantry in East Anglia, transported by the Kriegsmarine, to prevent Royal Navy ships from getting through the Channel, while the Luftwaffe had to control airspace over the landings; the Kriegsmarine response was focused on pointing out the many difficulties to be surmounted if invading England was to be a viable option. It could not envisage taking on the Royal Navy Home Fleet and said it would take a year to organise shipping for the troops. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, responded with a single-page letter in which he stated, " combined operation having the objective of landing in England must be rejected.

It could only be the final act of an victorious war against Britain as otherwise the preconditions for success of a combined operation would not be met". Germany's swift and successful occupation of France and the Low Countries gained control of the Channel coast, facing what Schmid's 1939 report called their "most dangerous enemy". Raeder met Hitler on 21 May 1940 and raised the topic of invasion, but warned of the risks and expressed a preference for blockade by air and raiders. By the end of May, the Kriegsmarine had become more opposed to invading Britain following its costly victory in Norway. Raeder was opposed to Sea Lion, for over half of Kriegsmarine surface fleet had been either sunk or badly damaged in Weserübung, his service was hopelessly outnumbered by the ships of the Royal Navy. British parliamentarians still arguing for peace negotiations were defeated in the May 1940 War Cabinet Crisi

USCGC Bertholf

USCGC Bertholf is the first Legend-class maritime security cutter of the United States Coast Guard. She is named for Commodore Ellsworth P. Bertholf, fourth commandant of both the Revenue Cutter Service and Coast Guard. In 2005, construction began at Northrop Grumman's Ship Systems Ingalls Shipyard in Pascagoula, Mississippi, she was launched on September 29, 2006, christened November 11, 2006, commissioned on August 4, 2008. The cutter's home port is California. Bertholf was the first to fire the Bofors 57 mm gun aboard a U. S. vessel on 11 February 2008. On March 3, 2016, Bertholf responded to a sighting off the Pacific Coast of Panama of a semi-submersible narco-submarine, reported by a P-3 Orion; the semi-submersible surrendered to a boarding party launched from Bertholf, four suspects were captured along with 6 tons of cocaine. The boarding party sank the semi-submersible. During the 2012 RIMPAC exercises Bertholf detected and tracked missile threats and provided naval gunfire support for troops ashore during the training exercise, demonstrating the capability of moving with other naval forces and being able to perform other defense operations.

On 25 March 2019, USS Curtis Wilbur, in concert with Bertholf transited the contested Taiwan Strait. On 15 April of same year, the ship visited Hong Kong, the first Coast Guard vessel to do so in seventeen years. Bertholf is the lead ship of the Legend-class cutter design and the first large ship to be built under the Coast Guard's multi-year Deepwater acquisitions project; the NSCs are to replace the fleet's aging 1960s-era 378-foot Hamilton-class cutters. Automated weapon systems Medium-caliber deck gun capable of stopping rogue merchant vessels far from shore Helicopter launch and recovery pad with rail-based aircraft retrieval system and two aircraft hangars Stern launching ramp for small boat launch and recovery Bow thruster State-of-the-art C4ISR improving interoperability between Coast Guard and Department of Defense assets Detection and defense capabilities against chemical, biological, or radiological attack Advanced sensors for intelligence collection and sharing Real-time tracking and seamless common operational picture/maritime domain awareness via integration with Rescue 21 Advanced state-of-the-art Ships Integrated Control System for reduced manpower requirements and improved automation Cassidian TRS-3D/16-ES air search radar for area surveillance The cutter can have an anti-terrorism/force protection suite that will include underwater sonar that will allow the cutter to scan ports, approaches and high-value assets for underwater mines and mine-like devices and detect swimmers.

Bertholf home page Deepwater Official site about USCGS Bertholf National Security Cutter Home Team Deepwater NSC Home Bertholf intercepting drug boats in her first action

Torkilstrup Church

Torkilstrup Church is located in the village of Torkilstrup some 7 km southeast of Nørre Alslev, on the Danish island of Falster. It is built of hewn fieldstone rather than brick, indicating it is one of the oldest churches on the island from before 1160; the west part of the chancel and the nave from the Romanesque period are built of hewn fieldstone with a few limestone trimmings. Rounded-arch friezes, sometimes with ornamental lilies, decorate the north and south walls of the nave, indicating an early design; the round-arched south door is still in use. In addition to the Romanesque window in the chancel, there are traces of Romanesque windows in the nave's north wall; the extension of chancel occurred as early as the 14th century but could have been during the Late Gothic period when the tower and porch were added. One of the bells in the tower is dated 1491; the low Romanesque chancel arch was adapted when cross-vaulting was added to the nave in the Gothic period. Traces of frescos from the second half of the 15th century have been found in the vaults.

The altarpiece is the work of Jørgen Ringnis. The altar painting is by Lucie Marie Ingemann, depicting the Bible story Suffer the little children to come unto me. An Early Gothic crucifix from c. 1300 hangs in the church. B. S. Ingemann's father, Søren Ingemann, is buried under the floor in the west section of the nave; the barrel-shaped Romanesque font of sculpted granite has a rope-shaped rim