Henry Dearborn was an American soldier and statesman. In the Revolutionary War, he served under Benedict Arnold in the expedition to Quebec, of which his journal provides an important record. After being captured and exchanged, he served in George Washington's Continental Army, was present at the British surrender at Yorktown. Dearborn served on General Washington's staff in Virginia, he was US Secretary of War, serving under President Thomas Jefferson from 1801 to 1809, served as a commanding general in the War of 1812. In life his criticism of General Israel Putnam's performance at the Battle of Bunker Hill caused a major controversy. Fort Dearborn in Illinois and the city of Dearborn, were named in his honor. Henry Dearborn was born February 23, 1751, to Simon Dearborn and Sarah Marston in North Hampton, New Hampshire, he was descended from Godfrey Dearborn, from Exeter in England, who came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1639. Godfrey Dearborn settled at Exeter, New Hampshire, soon after at Hampton, where four successive generations of his descendants lived.
Henry spent much of his youth in New Hampshire, where he attended public schools. He grew up as notably strong and a champion wrestler, he studied medicine under Dr. Hall Jackson of Portsmouth and opened a practice on the square in Nottingham, New Hampshire, in 1772. Dearborn was married three times: to Mary Bartlett in 1771, to Dorcas Marble in 1780, to Sarah Bowdoin, widow of James Bowdoin, in 1813. Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn was his son by his second wife; when fighting in the American Revolutionary War began, Dearborn fought with the Continental Army as a captain in the 1st and 3rd New Hampshire Regiments and soon rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. He was appointed Deputy Quartermaster General in July 1781 and served on George Washington's staff while in Virginia. At age twenty-three, he organized and led a local militia troop of sixty men to the Boston area, where he fought on June 17, 1775, at the Battle of Bunker Hill as a captain in Colonel John Stark's 1st New Hampshire Regiment.
During the battle, Dearborn observed that "Not an officer or soldier of the continental troops engaged was in uniform, but were in the plain and ordinary dress of citizens. Dearborn years would accuse Israel Putnam of failing his duty during that battle, resulting in what has since been known as the Dearborn-Putnam controversy. Dearborn volunteered to serve under Colonel Benedict Arnold in September 1775, during the difficult American expedition to Quebec. Dearborn would record in his Revolutionary War journal their overall situation and condition: "We were small indeed to think of entering a place like Quebec, but being now out of provisions we were sure to die if we attempted to return back and we could be in no worse situation if we proceeded on our rout."On the final leg of the march he was taken ill with fever, forcing him to remain behind in a cottage on the Chaudière River. He rejoined the combined forces of Arnold and Gen. Richard Montgomery in time to take part in the assault on Quebec.
Dearborn's journal is an important record for that campaign. During the march he and Aaron Burr became companions. Along with a number of other officers, Dearborn was captured on December 31, 1775, during the Battle of Quebec, detained for a year, he was released on parole in May 1776, but he was not exchanged until March 1777. After fighting at Ticonderoga in July 1777, Dearborn was appointed major in the regiment commanded by Alexander Scammell. In September 1777, Dearborn was transferred to the 1st New Hampshire Regiment, under Colonel Joseph Cilley, he took part in the Saratoga campaign against Burgoyne at Freeman's Farm. The first battle was fought by troops from New Hampshire, Dearborn's home state; the New Hampshire brigade under General Poor and a detachment of infantry under Major Dearborn, numbering about three hundred, along with detachments of other militia, Whitcomb's Rangers, co-operated with Morgan in the repulse of Fraser's attack. The cautious General Horatio Gates reluctantly ordered a reconnaissance force consisting of Daniel Morgan's Provisional Rifle Corps and Dearborn's light infantry to scout out the Bemis Heights area.
Gates noted Dearborn's marked ability as a soldier and officer in his report. Thereafter Dearborn joined General George Washington's main Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, as a lieutenant colonel, where he spent the winter of 1777–1778. Dearborn fought at the Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey in 1778, following the British evacuation of Philadelphia to retreat to concentrate at New York City, in the final major battle of the Northern Theatre, in the summer of 1779 he accompanied Major General John Sullivan on the Sullivan Expedition against the Iroquois in upstate New York and in the Battle of Wyoming against the Six Nations, thereafter laying waste to the Genesee Valley and the various regions around the Finger Lakes. During the winter of 1778-1779, he was encamped at what is now Putnam Memorial State Park in Redding, Connecticut. Dearborn rejoined General Washington's staff in 1781 as deputy quartermaster general and commanded the 1st New Hampshire at the Battle of Yorktown with the rank of colonel and was present when Cornwallis surrendered in October of that year.
In June 1783, Dearborn received his discharge from the Continental Army and settled in Gardiner, where he became Major General of the Maine militia. Washington appointed. Dearborn served in the U. S. House of Representatives from the District of Maine, 1793 to 1797, he was an original member of the New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati. During the American Revolution Dearborn maintai
Francis Scott Key
Francis Scott Key was an American lawyer and amateur poet from Frederick, Maryland, best known for writing a poem which became the lyrics for the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner". During the War of 1812, Key observed the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Maryland in 1814. Key was inspired upon viewing the American flag still flying over the fort at dawn, wrote the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry", published a week later; the poem was adapted to the tune of the popular song "To Anacreon in Heaven." The song with Key's lyrics became known as "The Star-Spangled Banner," and gained in popularity as an unofficial anthem over the years achieving official status a century under President Woodrow Wilson as the United States national anthem. Key was a lawyer in Maryland and Washington D. C. for four decades, worked on important cases like the Burr conspiracy trial, argued numerous times before the U. S. Supreme Court. Nominated for U. S. attorney by President Andrew Jackson, he served from 1833 to 1841.
Key owned slaves from 1800, during which time abolitionists ridiculed his words, that America was more like the "Land of the Free and Home of the Oppressed". He freed his slaves in the 1830s. Key publicly criticized slavery and gave free legal representation to some slaves seeking freedom, but represented owners of runaway slaves as well. Representing both slaves and slave owners is emblematic of his complex relationship with slavery; as District Attorney, Key suppressed didn't support an immediate end to slavery. Referring to blacks as "a distinct and inferior race of people”, he was a leader of the American Colonization Society which sent freed slaves back to Africa. Key was a devout Episcopalian, he was an author of poetry, wrote on religious themes. It has been speculated that the U. S. motto "In God We Trust" was adapted from a line in the fourth stanza of the "Star-Spangled Banner". Francis Scott Key's father, John Ross Key was a lawyer, a commissioned officer in the Continental Army and a judge.
John was born in Frederick, colony of Maryland on September 19, 1754, the son of Francis Key and Ann Arnold Ross. Francis Key's father was English settler Philip Key who resided near Leonardtown around 1726, he married Susannah Gardiner and had seven children. Scott Key's mother, Ann Pheobe Dagworthy Charlton, was born February 6, 1756 to Arthur Charlton, a tavern keeper, his wife, Eleanor Harrison of Frederick, colony of Maryland, her ancestry can be traced back to a Henry "Henrie" Charlton who arrived as a young man aboard the George in 1623 settling in Virginia. However little of this ancestor is known. Francis Scott Key was born to Ann Phoebe Penn Dagworthy and Captain John Ross Key at the family plantation Terra Rubra in what was part of Frederick County, now Carroll County, Maryland. Key graduated from St. John's College, Maryland in 1796, read the law under an uncle, Philip Barton Key, loyal to the British Crown during the War of Independence, he married Mary Tayloe Lloyd on January 1, 1802.
During the War of 1812, accompanied by the British Prisoner Exchange Agent Colonel John Stuart Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant as the guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral George Cockburn, Major General Robert Ross. Skinner and Key were there to negotiate the release of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, a resident of Upper Marlboro, arrested after jailing marauding British troops who were looting local farms. Skinner and Beanes were not allowed to return to their own sloop because they had become familiar with the strength and position of the British units and with the British intent to attack Baltimore. Thus, Key was unable to do anything but watch the bombarding of the American forces at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore on the night of September 13–14, 1814. At dawn, Key was able to see an American flag still waving. Back in Baltimore and inspired, Key wrote a poem about his experience, "Defence of Fort M'Henry", soon published in William Pechin's American and Commercial Daily Advertiser on September 21, 1814.
He took it to Thomas Carr, a music publisher, who adapted it to the rhythms of composer John Stafford Smith's "To Anacreon in Heaven", a popular tune Key had used as a setting for his 1805-song "When the Warrior Returns", celebrating U. S. heroes of the First Barbary War. It has become better known as "The Star-Spangled Banner". Though somewhat difficult to sing, it became popular, competing with "Hail, Columbia" as the de facto national anthem by the time of the Mexican–American War and American Civil War. More than a century after its first publication, the song was adopted as the American national anthem, first by an Executive Order from President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and by a Congressional resolution in 1931, signed by President Herbert Hoover. Key was a leading attorney in Frederick and Washington, D. C. for many years, with an extensive real estate as well as trial practice. He and his family settled in Georgetown near the new national capital. There the young Key assisted his uncle, the prominent lawyer Philip Barton Key, such as in the sensational conspiracy trial of Aaron Burr and the expulsion of Senator John Smith of Ohio.
He made the first of his many arguments before the United States Supreme Court in 1807. In 1808 he assis
The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison around 1792 to oppose the centralizing policies of the new Federalist Party run by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury and chief architect of George Washington's administration. From 1801 to 1825, the new party controlled the presidency and Congress as well as most states during the First Party System, it began in 1791 as one faction in Congress and included many politicians, opposed to the new constitution. They called themselves Republicans after republicanism, they distrusted the Federalist tendency to centralize and loosely interpret the Constitution, believing these policies were signs of monarchism and anti-republican values. The party splintered in 1824, with the faction loyal to Andrew Jackson coalescing into the Jacksonian movement, the faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay forming the National Republican Party and some other groups going on to form the Anti-Masonic Party.
The National Republicans, Anti-Masons, other opponents of Andrew Jackson formed themselves into the Whig Party. During the time that this party existed, it was referred to as the Republican Party. To distinguish it from the modern Republican Party, political scientists and pundits refer to this party as the Democratic-Republican Party or the Jeffersonian Republican Party; when the modern Republican Party was founded in 1854, it deliberately chose to name itself after the Jeffersonians. In response, contemporary Democrats embraced the name Democratic-Republican to reinforce their party's claim to the party's pre-Jacksonian history. Modern Democratic politicians continue to claim Jefferson as their founder; the party arose from the Anti-Administration faction which met secretly in the national capital to oppose Alexander Hamilton's financial programs. Jefferson denounced the programs as leading to subversive of republicanism. Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to challenge the Federalists, which Hamilton was building up with allies in major cities.
Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1794–1795 as the Republicans vigorously opposed the Jay Treaty with the United Kingdom, at war with France. Republicans saw France as more democratic after its Revolution while the United Kingdom represented the hated monarchy; the party denounced many of Hamilton's measures as unconstitutional the national bank. The party was weakest in the Northeast, it demanded states' rights as expressed by the "Principles of 1798" articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that would allow states to nullify a federal law. Above all, the party stood for the primacy of the yeoman farmers. Republicans were committed to the principles of republicanism, which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Hamiltonian Federalists; the party came to power in 1801 with the election of Jefferson in the 1800 presidential election. The Federalists—too elitist to appeal to most people—faded away and collapsed after 1815. Despite internal divisions, the Republicans dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away during the Era of Good Feelings after 1816.
The party selected its presidential candidates in a caucus of members of Congress. They included James Madison and James Monroe. By 1824, the caucus system had collapsed. After 1800, the party dominated most state governments outside New England. By 1824, the party was split four ways and lacked a center as the First Party System collapsed; the emergence of the Second Party System in the 1820s and 30s realigned the old factions. One remnant followed Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren into the new Democratic Party by 1828. Another remnant, led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, formed the National Republican Party in 1824 while some remaining smaller factions formed the Anti-Masonic Party, which along with some National Republican groups developed into the Whig Party by 1836. Most remaining National Republicans would soon after go on to be a part of the Free Soil and modern Republican parties in the 1840s and 1850s. Congressman James Madison started the party among Representatives in Philadelphia as the "Republican Party".
He, Jefferson and others reached out to include state and local leaders around the country New York and the South. The precise date of founding is disputed, but 1791 is a reasonable estimate and some time by 1792 is certain; the new party set up newspapers that made withering critiques of Hamiltonianism, extolled the yeoman farmer, argued for strict construction of the Constitution, favored the French Revolution opposed the United Kingdom and called for stronger state governments than the Federalist Party was proposing. The elections of 1792 were the first ones to be contested on anything resembling a partisan basis. In most states, the congressional elections were recognized—as Jefferson strategist John Beckley put it—as a "struggle between the Treasury department and the republican interest". In New York, the candidates for governor were a Federalist. Four states' electors voted for Clinton and one for Jefferson for Vice President in opposition to incumbent John Adams as well as casting their votes for President Washington.
Before 1804, electors cast two votes together wi
A war hawk, or hawk, is a term used in politics for someone favoring war in a debate over whether to go to war, or whether to continue or escalate an existing war. War hawks are the opposite of doves; the terms are derived by analogy with the birds of the same name: hawks are predators that attack and eat other animals, whereas doves eat seeds and fruit and are a symbol of peace. The term "War Hawk" was coined by the prominent Virginia Congressman John Randolph of Roanoke, a staunch opponent of entry into the War of 1812. There was, never any "official" roster of War Hawks. One scholar believes the term "no longer seems appropriate". However, most historians use the term to describe about a dozen members of the Twelfth Congress; the leader of this group was Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina was another notable War Hawk. Both of these men became major players in American politics for decades. Other men traditionally identified as War Hawks include Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky, William Lowndes of South Carolina, Langdon Cheves of South Carolina, Felix Grundy of Tennessee, William W. Bibb of Georgia.
The President set the legislative agenda for Congress, providing committees in the House of Representatives with policy recommendations to be introduced as bills on the House floor. In modern American usage "hawk" refers to a fierce advocate for a cause or policy, such as "deficit hawk" or "privacy hawk", it may refer to a person or political leader who favors a strong or aggressive military policy, though not outright war. The term has been expanded into "chicken hawk", referring to a war hawk who avoided military service; the term "liberal hawk" is a derivation of the traditional phrase, in the sense that it denotes an individual with "socially liberal" inclinations coupled with an aggressive outlook on foreign policy. Animal epithet Warmonger War dove
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war, minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, is linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, boycotts, peace camps, moral purchasing, supporting anti-war political candidates, legislation to remove the profit from government contracts to the Military–industrial complex, banning guns, creating open government and transparency tools, direct democracy, supporting Whistleblowers who expose War-Crimes or conspiracies to create wars and national political lobbying groups to create legislation; the political cooperative is an example of an organization that seeks to merge all peace movement organizations and green organizations, which may have some diverse goals, but all of whom have the common goal of peace and humane sustainability. A concern of some peace activists is the challenge of attaining peace when those that oppose it use violence as their means of communication and empowerment.
Some people refer to the global loose affiliation of activists and political interests as having a shared purpose and this constituting a single movement, "the peace movement", an all encompassing "anti-war movement". Seen this way, the two are indistinguishable and constitute a loose, event-driven collaboration between groups with motivations as diverse as humanism, veganism, anti-racism, anti-sexism, hospitality, ideology and faith. There are different ideas over what "peace" is, which results in a plurality of movements seeking diverse ideals of peace. "anti-war" movements have short-term goals, while peace movements advocate an ongoing life-style and proactive government policy. It is not clear whether a movement or a particular protest is against war in general, as in pacifism, or against one's own government's participation in a war. Indeed, some observers feel that this lack of clarity or long term continuity has represented a key part of the strategy of those seeking to end a war, e.g. the Vietnam War.
Global protests against the U. S. invasion of Iraq in early 2003 are an example of a more specific, short term and loosely affiliated single-issue "movement" —with scattered ideological priorities, ranging from absolutist pacifism to Islamism and Anti-Americanism. Nonetheless, some of those who are involved in several such short term movements and build up trust relationships with others within them, do tend to join more global or long-term movements. By contrast, some elements of the global peace movement seek to guarantee health security by ending war and assuring what they see as basic human rights including the right of all people to have access to air, food and health care. A number of activists seek social justice in the form of equal protection under the law and equal opportunity under the law for groups that have been disenfranchised; the Peace movement is characterized by a belief that humans should not wage war on each other or engage in violent ethnic cleansings over language, race or natural resources or ethical conflict over religion or ideology.
Long-term opponents of war preparations are characterized by a belief that military power is not the equivalent of justice. The Peace movement tends to oppose the proliferation of dangerous technologies and weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons and biological warfare. Moreover, many object to the export of weapons including hand-held machine guns and grenades by leading economic nations to lesser developed nations. Some, like SIPRI, have voiced special concern that artificial intelligence, molecular engineering and proteomics have more vast destructive potential, thus there is intersection between peace movement elements and Neo-Luddites or primitivism, but with the more mainstream technology critics such as the Green parties and the ecology movement they are part of. It is one of several movements that led to the formation of Green party political associations in many democratic countries near the end of the 20th century; the peace movement has a strong influence in some countries' green parties, such as in Germany reflecting that country's negative experiences with militarism in the 20th century.
The first mass peace movements in history were the Peace of God, being first proclaimed in AD 989 at the Council of Charroux, the Truce of God evolving out of it and being first proclaimed in 1027. The Peace of God originated as a response to increasing violence against monasteries in the aftermath of the fall of the Carolingian dynasty, spearheaded by bishops and "was promoted at a number of subsequent councils, including important ones at Charroux, Limoges and Bourges"; the Truce of God sought to restrain violence by limiting the number of days of the week and times of the year where the nobility were able to practice violence. These peace movements "set the foundations for modern European peace movements." Beginning in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation gave rise to a variety of new Christian sects, including the historic peace churches. Foremost among them were the Religious Society of Friends, Amish and Church of the Brethren; the Quakers were prominent advocates of pacifism, who as early as 1660 had repudiated violence in all forms and adhered to a pacifist interpretation of Christianity.
Throughout the many 18th century wars in which Britain participated, the Quak
War of 1812 Campaigns
The following is a synopsis of the land campaigns of the War of 1812. This campaign includes all operations in the Canada-US border region except the battle of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane; the invasion and conquest of western Canada was a major objective of the United States in the War of 1812. Among the significant causes of the war were the continuing clash of British and American interests in the Northwest Territory and the desire of frontier expansionists to seize Canada as a bargaining chip while Great Britain was preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars. In the first phase of the war along the border in 1812, the United States suffered a series of reverses. Fort Mackinac fell, Fort Dearborn was evacuated, Fort Detroit surrendered without a fight. American attempts to invade Canada across the Niagara Peninsula and toward Montreal failed completely. Brig. Gen. William Henry Harrison's move to recapture Detroit was repulsed, but he checked British efforts to penetrate deeper into the region at the west end of Lake Erie, during the summer of 1813.
Meanwhile, in April 1813, Maj. Gen. Henry Dearborn's expedition captured Fort Toronto and burned York, capital of Upper Canada. On 27 May, Brig. Gen. Jacob Brown repelled a British assault on New York. An American force led by Col. Winfield Scott seized Fort George and the town of Queenston across the Niagara, but the British regained control of this area in December 1813. A two-pronged American drive on Montreal from Sackett's Harbor and Plattsburg, New York in the fall of 1813 ended in a complete fiasco. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British fleet on Lake Erie, opening the way for Harrison's victory at the Thames River, which reestablished American control over the Detroit Area. A Campaign Streamer, embroidered Canada, 18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815 was awarded for this campaign. An American advance from Plattsburg in March 1814, led by Maj. Gen. James Wilkinson, was checked just beyond the border, but on 3 July, 500 men under General Brown seized Fort Erie across the Niagara in a coordinated attack with Commodore Isaac Chauncey's fleet designed to wrest control of Lake Ontario from the British.
In subsequent troop maneuvers in the Niagara region, Brig. Gen. Winfield Scott's brigade of Brown's command was unexpectedly confronted by a large British force while preparing for an Independence Day parade near the Chippewa River. Scott's well-trained troops broke the enemy line with a skillfully executed charge, sending the survivors into a hasty retreat. British losses were 137 304 wounded. After Chippewa, Brown's force advanced to Queenstown, but soon abandoned a proposed attack on Forts George and Niagara when Chauncey's fleet failed to cooperate in the operation. Instead, on 24–25 July 1814, Brown moved back to the Chippewa preparatory to a cross-country march along Lundy's Lane to the west end of Lake Ontario. Unknown to Brown, the British had concentrated about 2,200 troops in the vicinity of Lundy's Lane and 1,500 more in Forts George and Niagara. On 25 July, Scott's brigade, moving again towards Queenstown in an effort to draw off a British detachment threatening Brown's line of communications on the American side of the Niagara, ran into the enemy contingents at the junction of Queenstown Road and Lundy's Lane.
The ensuing battle, which involved all of Brown's force and some 3,000 British, was fiercely fought and neither side gained a clear cut victory. The Americans retired to the Chippewa unmolested, but the battle terminated Brown's invasion of Canada. Casualties were heavy on both sides, the British losing 878 and the Americans 854 in killed and wounded. British siege of Fort Erie failed to drive the Americans from that outpost on Canadian soil, but on 5 November they withdrew voluntarily. Commodore Thomas Macdonough's victory over the British fleet on Lake Champlain compelled Sir George Prevost, Governor General of Canada, to call off his attack on Plattsburg with 11,000 troops. After the surrender of Napoleon, the British dispatched Maj. Gen. Robert Ross from France on 27 June 1814, with 4,000 veterans to raid key points on the American coast. Ross landed at the mouth of the Patuxent River in Maryland with Washington as his objective on 19 August and marched as far as Upper Marlboro, Maryland without meeting resistance.
Meanwhile, Brig. Gen. William Winder, in command of the Potomac District, had assembled a mixed force of about 5,000 men near Bladensburg, including militia and some 400 sailors from Commodore Joshua Barney's gunboat flotilla, destroyed to avoid capture by the British fleet. In spite of a considerable advantage in numbers and position, the Americans were routed by Ross' force. British losses were about 249 wounded. British detachments entered the city and burned the Capitol and other public buildings in what was announced as retaliation for the American destruction at York. While the British marched on Washington, Baltimore had time to hastily strengthen its defenses. Maj. Gen. Samuel Smith had about 9,000 militia, including 1,000 in Fort McHenry guarding the harbor. On 12 September 1814, the British landed at North Point about 14 miles below the city, where their advance was momentarily checked by 3,200 Maryland Militiamen. Thirty-nine British were killed and 251 wounded at a cost of 24 Ameri
Laura Secord was a Canadian heroine of the War of 1812. She is known for having walked 20 miles out of American-occupied territory in 1813 to warn British forces of an impending American attack, her contribution to the war was little known during her lifetime, but since her death she has been honoured in Canada. Though Laura Secord had no relation to it, most Canadians associate her with the Laura Secord Chocolates company, named after her on the centennial of her walk. Laura Secord's father, Thomas Ingersoll, lived in Massachusetts and fought on the side of the Patriots during the Revolutionary War. In 1795 he moved his family to the Niagara region of Upper Canada after he had applied for and received a land grant. Shortly after, Laura married Loyalist James Secord, seriously wounded at the Battle of Queenston Heights early in the War of 1812. While he was still recovering in 1813, the Americans invaded the Niagara Peninsula, including Queenston. During the occupation, Secord acquired information about a planned American attack, stole away on the morning of 22 June to inform Lieutenant James FitzGibbon in the territory still controlled by the British.
The information helped the British and their Mohawk warrior allies repel the invading Americans at the Battle of Beaver Dams. Her effort was forgotten until 1860, when Edward, Prince of Wales awarded the impoverished widow £100 for her service on his visit to Canada; the story of Laura Secord has taken on mythic overtones in Canada. Her tale has been the subject of books and poetry with many embellishments. Since her death, Canada has bestowed honours on her, including schools named after her, monuments, a museum, a memorial stamp and coin, a statue at the Valiants Memorial in the Canadian capital. Thomas Ingersoll married the seventeen-year-old Elizabeth Dewey on 28 February 1775, their first child, was born in Great Barrington in the colonial Province of Massachusetts Bay on 13 September 1775. Thomas's family had lived in Massachusetts for five generations, his paternal immigrant ancestor was Richard Ingersoll, who had arrived in Salem, from Bedfordshire, England, in 1629. Thomas was born in 1749 in Massachusetts.
Elizabeth, daughter of Israel Dewey and his wife, was born in Westfield, on 28 January 1758. Thomas moved to Great Barrington in 1774, where he settled into a house on a small piece of land by the Housatonic River. Over the next several years, his success as a hatmaker allowed him to marry, increase his landholdings, expand his house as his family grew, he spent much time away from home, as he rose through the ranks in the military on the side of the American revolutionaries during the American Revolutionary War. Upon his return to Great Barrington, he was made a magistrate. Elizabeth gave birth to three more girls: Elizabeth Franks on 17 October 1779, they gave up Abigail for adoption in 1784 to an aunt with the surname Nash. Elizabeth Ingersoll died 20 February 1784. Thomas remarried the following year to Mercy Smith, widow of Josiah Smith, on 26 May 1785. Mercy had no children, she has been credited with teaching her stepdaughters to read and do needlework before her death from tuberculosis in 1789.
By adolescence, the eldest daughter Laura was caring for her sisters and looking after the household affairs. Thomas remarried four months after Mercy's death, on 20 September 1789, to Sarah "Sally" Backus, a widow with a daughter, Harriet; the couple had three boys. The first boy, Charles Fortescue, was born on 27 September 1791. Charlotte and Appolonia were the last members of this branch of the Ingersoll family to be born in Massachusetts. Thomas helped suppress Shays' Rebellion in 1786. In the years following, he witnessed and was offended by the continuing persecution of Loyalists in Massachusetts, he realized that in the depressed economic conditions that followed the Revolutionary War, with his own deep debts, he was unlikely to see his former prosperity again. In 1793, Thomas met in New York City with Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, who offered to show him the best land for settlement in Upper Canada, where the Crown was encouraging development, he and four associates travelled to Upper Canada to petition Lieutenant Governor John Simcoe for a land grant.
They received 66,000 acres in the Thames Valley, founded Oxford-on-the-Thames, on condition that they populate it with forty other families within seven years. After winding up their affairs in Great Barrington, the Ingersoll family moved to Upper Canada in 1795. Thomas Ingersoll supported his family in their early years in Upper Canada by running a tavern in Queenston while land was being cleared and roads built in the settlement; the family stayed in Queenston until a log cabin was completed on the settlement in 1796. After Governor Simcoe returned to England in 1796, opposition grew in Upper Canada to the "Late Loyalists", such as Thomas, who had come to Canada for the land grants; the grants were reduced, Thomas's contract was cancelled for not having all of its conditions fulfilled. Feeling cheated, in 1805 he moved the family to Credit River, close to York, where he ran an inn until his 1812 death following a stroke. Sally continued to run it until her own death in 1833. Laura Ingersoll remained in Queenston.
She married the wealthy James Secord in June 1797. The Secord family originated in France, where the name was spelled Sicar. Five Secord brothers, who were Protest