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Three-dimensional structure of cattle rhodopsin. The seven transmembrane domains are shown in varying colors. The chromophore is shown in red.
Three-dimensional structure of cattle rhodopsin. The seven transmembrane domains are shown in varying colors. The chromophore is shown in red.
The retinal molecule inside an opsin protein absorbs a photon of light. Absorption of the photon causes retinal to change from its 11-cis-retinal isom
The retinal molecule inside an opsin protein absorbs a photon of light. Absorption of the photon causes retinal to change from its 11-cis-retinal isomer into its all-trans-retinal isomer. This change in shape of retinal pushes against the outer opsin protein to begin a signal cascade, which may eventually result in chemical signaling being sent to the brain as visual perception. The retinal is re-loaded by the body so that signaling can happen again.
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Cartoon depicting the basic concept of GPCR conformational activation. Ligand binding disrupts an ionic lock between the E/DRY motif of TM-3 and acidi
Cartoon depicting the basic concept of GPCR conformational activation. Ligand binding disrupts an ionic lock between the E/DRY motif of TM-3 and acidic residues of TM-6. As a result, the GPCR reorganizes to allow activation of G-alpha proteins. The "side perspective" is a view from above and to the side of the GPCR as it is set in the plasma membrane (the membrane lipids have been omitted for clarity). The incorrectly labelled "intracellular perspective" shows an extracellular view looking down at the plasma membrane from outside the cell.
Cartoon depicting the heterotrimeric G-protein activation/deactivation cycle in the context of GPCR signaling
Cartoon depicting the heterotrimeric G-protein activation/deactivation cycle in the context of GPCR signaling
The effect of Rs and Gs in cAMP signal pathway
The effect of Rs and Gs in cAMP signal pathway
The effect of Ri and Gi in cAMP signal pathway
The effect of Ri and Gi in cAMP signal pathway