Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light. Human eyes perceive orange when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 585 and 620 nanometres. In painting and traditional colour theory, it is a secondary colour of pigments, created by mixing yellow and red, it is named after the fruit of the same name. The orange colour of carrots, sweet potatoes and many other fruits and vegetables comes from carotenes, a type of photosynthetic pigment; these pigments convert the light energy that the plants absorb from the sun into chemical energy for the plants' growth. The hues of autumn leaves are from the same pigment after chlorophyll is removed. In Europe and America, surveys show that orange is the colour most associated with amusement, the unconventional, warmth, energy, danger and aroma, the autumn and Allhallowtide seasons, as well as having long been the national colour of the Netherlands and the House of Orange, it serves as the political colour of Christian democracy political ideology and most Christian democratic political parties.
In Asia it is an important symbolic colour of Hinduism. In English, the colour orange is named after the appearance of the ripe orange fruit; the word comes from the Old French orange, from the old term for the fruit, pomme d'orange. The French word, in turn, comes from the Italian arancia, based on Arabic nāranj, derived from the Sanskrit nāraṅga; the first recorded use of orange as a colour name in English was in 1502, in a description of clothing purchased for Margaret Tudor. Other sources cite the first recorded use as 1512, in a will now filed with the Public Record Office; the place-name "Orange" is not related to that of the color. Prior to this word's being introduced to the English-speaking world, saffron existed in the English language. Crog referred to the saffron colour, so that orange was referred to as ġeolurēad for reddish orange, or ġeolucrog for yellowish orange. Alternatively, orange things were sometimes described as red such as red deer, red hair, the Red Planet and robin redbreast.
In ancient Egypt, artists used an orange mineral pigment called realgar for tomb paintings, as well as other uses. It was used by Medieval artists for the colouring of manuscripts. Pigments were made in ancient times from a mineral known as orpiment. Orpiment was an important item of trade in the Roman Empire and was used as a medicine in China although it contains arsenic and is toxic, it was used as a fly poison and to poison arrows. Because of its yellow-orange colour, it was a favourite with alchemists searching for a way to make gold, both in China and in the West. Before the late 15th century, the colour orange without the name. Portuguese merchants brought the first orange trees to Europe from Asia in the late 15th and early 16th century, along with the Sanskrit naranga, which became part of several European languages: "naranja" in Spanish, "laranja" in Portuguese, "orange" in English; the House of Orange-Nassau was one of the most influential royal houses in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries.
It originated in 1163 the tiny Principality of Orange, a feudal state of 108 square miles north of Avignon in southern France. The Principality of Orange took its name not from the fruit, but from a Roman-Celtic settlement on the site, founded in 36 or 35 BC and was named Arausio, after a Celtic water god; the family of the Prince of Orange adopted the name and the colour orange in the 1570s. The colour came to be associated with Protestantism, due to participation by the House of Orange on the Protestant side in the French Wars of Religion. One member of the house, William I of Orange, organised the Dutch resistance against Spain, a war that lasted eighty years, until the Netherlands won its independence; the House's arguably most prominent member, William III of Orange, became King of England in 1689, after the downfall of the Catholic James II. Due to William III, orange became an important political colour in Europe. William was a Protestant, as such he defended the Protestant minority of Ireland against the majority Roman Catholic population.
As a result, the Protestants of Ireland were known as Orangemen. Orange became one of the colours of the Irish flag, symbolising the Protestant heritage, his rebel flag became the forerunner of The Netherland's modern flag. When the Dutch settlers of South Africa rebelled against the British in the late 19th century, they organised what they called the Orange Free State. In the United States, the flag of the City of New York has an orange stripe, to remember the Dutch colonists who founded the city. William of Orange is remembered as the founder of the College of William & Mary, Nassau County in New York is named after the House of Orange-Nassau. In the 18th century orange was sometimes used to depict the robes of Pomona, the goddess of fruitful abundance. Oranges themselves became more common in northern Europe, thanks to the 17th century invention of the heated greenhouse, a building type which became known as an orangerie; the French artist Jean-Honoré Fragonard depicted an allegorical figure of "inspiration" dressed in orange.
Devin Battley is an American businessman known for his involvement with motorcycles as a racer and as a dealer. From an early age, Battley enjoyed racing motorcycles and participated in many national championships, he helped to orchestrate Harley-Davidson's interest in Buell motorcycles, he sold motorcycles to King Hussein of Jordan and Mike Tyson. From 1981 to 1984, Battley raced in the Battle of the Twins, part of the AMA Professional Road Racing series, as well as: 58th Laconia Classic, Battle of the Twins, Laconia NH, June 20, 1981, 1st place Stock Production AMA Superbike Championship Series: Final Round, Daytona Beach FL, October 3–4, 1981, finished 2nd place Stock Production class but won the championship Battle of the Twins, Alabama, March 14, 1982, 5th place Expert Modified class AMA Superbike Championship Series: Final Round, West Palm Beach FL, October 10, 1982, 2nd place Grand Prix class AMA Grand national Championship Series: Round 26, Sonoma CA, August 21, 1983, 2nd place Grand Prix class AMA Superbike Championship Series: Battle of the Twins, Elkhart Lake WI, June 10, 1984, finished 4th overall and 3rd in the Grand Prix class Finished third in the national point standings in 1984 in the Grand Prix class.
On March 1 and 2 in 1999, at the AHRMA Classic Days at Daytona International Speedway, Battley took first place in two races. First, in the eight-lap Formula One class, in the Battle of the Twins Open class, he was riding a 1998 Ducati 916. In 1986 Battley, through his friendship with Erik Buell, arranged for Rockville Harley-Davidson to become the world's first Buell dealership. Battley still has Buell an RR1000 Battletwin, in his private collection. In 1987 Battley smuggled Buell onto a cruise ship for the Harley-Davidson annual dealers' meeting. Battley told Harley-Davidson then-CEO, Vaughn Beals, that Buell could give the company a performance image with no risk to Harley, they set up a table for Buell to speak with dealers and by cruise-end he had deposits and orders for 25 motorcycles. Attendees such as Bill Bartels, Don Tilley, Devin Battley and Frank Ulicki went on to become some of Buells most successful dealers. In 1994 and 1996 Battley sold a collection of motorcycles to Hussein bin Talal, King Hussein I of Jordan.
He traveled to Jordan to test the motorcycles. While there he road across country with the King. A well publicized photo shows the King and Queen Noor riding a black, 1994 XLH1200 Harley-Davidson Sportster that Battley sold him. In 1999, Battley was interviewed on ABC's Nightline with Ted Koppel about his experiences with King Hussein. In the broadcast, the Nightline commentator says, " enjoyed racing cars and motorcycles. There was a Harley dealer in Maryland, near a home the King kept there, his chief supplier." Battley is interviewed, saying, "Anytime, he was liable to jump on one of these motorcycles, go blasting out of the palace grounds, you know, with his bodyguards in the big Mercedes chasing him and, you know, the King riding this motorcycle, he just got on the gas, kept going!" In 2004, Queen Noor published a book, A Leap of Faith: Memoirs of an Unexpected Life, which featured, on the paperback version, a picture of the king and queen riding on a 1994 Harley-Davidson FLSTC Heritage Softail that Battley sold the king.
In 2008, the legislature of Maryland created a task force to define all-terrain vehicles and how they should be handled under Maryland law. Battley was appointed to the committee through his role as president of the Maryland Motorcycle Dealers Association and was elected chairman of the task force; the task force produced a report for the Maryland legislature in December 2008. From 1999 until 2009, Battley owned the Maryland State Champion Polar Lombardy tree; the tree measured 132 points. Devin Battley speaks with Ride for Peace activist Jeffrey Polnaja on YouTube Battley motorcycle dealership
The ACC Men's Soccer Tournament is the conference championship tournament in soccer for the Atlantic Coast Conference. The tournament has been held every year since 1987, it is a single-elimination seeding is based on regular season records. The winner, declared conference champion, receives the conference's automatic bid to the NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship. Thru 2019 Florida State, Georgia Tech, Miami do not sponsor men's soccer. Prior to 1987, the champion was determined based on regular season play. "ACC Men's Soccer Annual Champions". Atlantic Coast Conference. P. 51. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2011. "2010 ACC Men's Soccer Championship". Atlantic Coast Conference. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011
Narym is a village in Parabelsky District of Tomsk Oblast, located on the banks of the Ob River near its confluence with the Ket River, 25 kilometers from the village of Parabel. The village is surrounded on all sides by marshes. Narym was founded in 1596 as Narymsky ostrog—the first Russian settlement on the territory of the current Tomsk Oblast. Russian pioneers would travel up the Ob to Narym up the Ket River and over a short portage to the Yenisei River; the village was founded under the supervision of ataman Tugarin of Surgut, who founded Ketsky Ostrog. In 1601, Narym received town status, but remained a small fort with only temporary inhabitants until 1629. In 1601, Narymsky District was formed; the settlement served as a center for the collection of tribute from the indigenous Selkup. Twice the settlement was relocated due to fires; the final location proved no safer from disaster and indeed much of the settlement was burnt down in a fire in 1638, including two ramparts of the wooden ostrog.
In 1629, Narym was brought under the jurisdiction of Tomsk and from that time took on greater permanence. In 1633, it had 46 permanent residents, 55 in 1643, 74 in 1662. From its beginning, Narym had been a destination for exiles, banished by the Russian government, starting with two farmers of prince Dimitri Pozyarsky in 1626. Many more would follow them. At the end 18th century, Narym had the status of an uyezd within Tobolsk Viceroyalty. In 1785, when the town received its coat of arms, there were 827 people living in the town, which now had a kremlin with four towers; the settlement became a center for trade between, among other places, the Makaryev Fair, the Irbit fair. Each year there was an annual fair from a weekly market on Saturdays. In 1822, it lost its position as the regional administrative center to the government of Tomsk. Narym's market continued to grow during the 19th century, but the population remained at around 1,000; as a transportation and distribution center for the neighboring sparsely populated region, it continued play a meaningful role.
In 1925, Narym lost its town status and became a selo. From 1638, Narym became a major destination for Russian exiles, playing host to a large number of Decembrists, Polish insurrectionists and other revolutionaries. Indeed, only the Arkhangelsk and Vyatka regions received more exiles; because the city lies in a vast swamp, home to many summer mosquitoes, because winter temperatures can drop to −65 °C, the folk-saying arose, "God made the Crimea. Some of Narym's most famous exiles include: Valerian Kuybyshev Aleksey Rykov Joseph Stalin Yakov Sverdlov Mikhail TomskyStalin remained in Narym for only two months of his planned three years, before he escaped in 1912. Once he came to power, he himself sent thousands of prisoners to the Narym gulag. According to the historian Zubareva, between 1935 and 1939 200,000 people were sent to Narym alone. In the beginning of the 1950s Narym saw a second major influx of Soviet exiles, after the end of World War II. Between 1930 and 1989. More than 500,000 people were banished to its surroundings.
Under Stalin's rule, a portion of these prisoners were placed in labor camps, while the rest were executed. The executed were secretly thrown into mass graves by the river to the south of Narym, but because of riverbank erosion, after moving the NKVD building, masses of skeletons surfaced above the ground; the local population, of which many had family members, executed, who had resisted themselves against collectivization and faced the ensuing repression, were able to identify 1,000 of the executed by the clothing on their remains. The Soviet authorities transported the rest of the skeletons in boats to the river falls, in order to further conceal the mass execution. In 1948, a Stalin-museum was built to commemorate his exile there. In 1960, after the de-Stalinization, the name was changed to the Museum of Political Exiles enough, as the flow of political exiles had not yet stopped. Here are historical populations of Narym. In reality there were fewer people living within the settlement, as many people would leave on trade-related travel.
Vadim Kozhevnikov, Russian writer Jacobson, J. "North to Narym: just over 80 years ago, Joseph Stalin was exiled to Narym, on Siberia's Ob river. Jessica Jacobson retraced his steps, those of the countless thousands whom Stalin exiled there...", Russian Life, 1 September 2004. Нарым Тяпкина, О.А. Северные города Западной Сибири во второй половине XIX в
Gordon and Koppel Field is a former baseball ground located in Kansas City, Missouri. The ground was home to the Kansas City Packers of the Federal League, a third major league in 1914 and 1915, it was called Gordon and Koppel Stadium, variously stylized as Gordon & Koppel or Gordon-Koppel. The local Gordon & Koppel Clothing Company, which included sporting goods among its wares, was operated by Arthur F. Gordon and Hugo M. Koppel, who created the Gordon & Koppel Athletic Company, they opened the multi-purpose Gordon & Koppel Stadium in 1910. Events reported in the local newspapers included baseball and track-and-field; the city directory gave Gordon & Koppel Stadium's address as "47th southeast corner Tracy Avenue." Prior to the Federal League's arrival, the most important event held at the stadium was the November 24, 1910, Kansas vs. Missouri annual rivalry college football game; the game ended in a 5-5 tie. The Kansas players in particular were not happy with the field conditions, saying the surface was too hard and could cause injuries.
The change in venue gave the annual event a boost, with the highest gate receipts recorded to that point in the series. This entry in the rivalry series was the last one to be played in Kansas City until 1944; the Federal League began operating as a minor league in 1913, with the Kansas City Packers as a member and with home games being played on Gordon & Koppel Field, as the papers were calling it by then. Two members of the Gordon family were on the team's board of directors; the league declared itself a major league for 1914, Kansas City continued as a league member for its two-year existence at major status. In 1914, the Packers finished in sixth place, 20 games back of first place, they fared better in 1915, finishing 5 1/2 games behind, but, the end of it. The ballfield was located on a block bound by The Paseo; the diamond is thought to have been in the northwest corner of the block, but there is room for some doubt, hence the question marks. Documentary evidence is scanty; the one known photo of the interior appears to show The Paseo bridge behind third base, which would suggest the diamond would have been in the northeast corner.
The field was subject to flooding from the nearby Brush Creek, which wrought havoc with the games. After the Federal experiment, the site was soon abandoned; the last city directory entry for Gordon & Koppel Stadium is in the 1917 edition. The land once occupied by the ballpark is now a public park called Kiely Park, which contains a few commercial businesses restaurants. Benson, Michael. Ballparks of North America: A Comprehensive Historical Reference to Baseball Grounds and Stadiums, 1845 to Present. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-89950-367-5. Lowry, Philip J.. Green Cathedrals: The Ultimate Celebration of All 271 Major League and Negro League Ballparks Past and Present. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-56777-6; the Federal League of 1914-1915, by Marc Okkonen, SABR, 1989. Ballpark photo
Cyril of Turov, alternately Kirill of Turov was a bishop and saint of the Russian Orthodox Church. He was one of the first and finest theologians of Kievan Rus', his feast day in the Orthodox Church is on 28 April. He was added to the Roman Catholic Church calendar by Pope Paul VI in 1969. For centuries Cyril of Turov enjoyed considerable prestige as a writer. According to Zenkovsky's assessment of Cyril's heritage: "Cyril, Bishop of Turov, was the most accomplished master of Orthodox theology and the Byzantine style of writing, he had an excellent command of Greek and his literary achievements surpass those of any other Russian man of letters of that era... Of all his works, Cyril's sermon with the triumphant description of spring as the symbol of the Resurrection was the most popular." Indeed, this sermon is one of his best known works in which he creates some of his more compelling images like a simile comparing the melting of ice in the spring and Thomas's dissolving doubts about Christ's resurrection: "Ныне зима греховнаа покаянием престала есть и лед невериа богоразумием растаяся... лед же Фомина невериа показанием Христов ребр растаяся."
It is emphasized that Kirill was an accomplished author who exerted influence on subsequent generations of East Slavs. The question of Kirill's heritage is problematic to some degree. First of all, there is the problem with the verifiable existence of Kirill of Turov. Biographic details are scant and because none come from sources contemporary with Kirill, many are debated. All we have in terms of his biography is a short Synaxarion Life: Life of Kirill of Turov, written no earlier than the mid-13th century; this terse formulaic composition draws on the hagiographic conventions and yields few historical details. He was born in a thriving town of the son of wealthy parents, he was characterized by extreme piety at a young age and he entered a monastery still a young man. In the monastery he was respected for his asceticism and his learned interpretation of biblical texts, he is said to be the consecrated bishop of Turov in the 1160s. With the support of the Metropolitan in 1169 he became involved in deposing Fedor, who occupied the bishopric of Rostov.
He is thought to have died in 1182. According to an alternative line of thought, he became a bishop after 1182, remaining a monk throughout the period of the 1160s and 1170s; the dates of Kirill's life and work are debated. The dates 1130-1182 had been accepted but among notable scholars, Simon Franklin vigorously disputes them. Kirill's title the Bishop of Turov is agreed to be a invention arising out of a desire to designate an appropriately high status to the author of popular and influential words. Though Kirill came to be known as the Bishop of Turov his works deal most extensively with a theme of monasticism, it is emphasized that Kirill's points of reference are located within the walls of the monastery. Monks are Kirill's most frequent addressees. Kirill's autographs are not available and the manuscript sources are separated from the assumed time of composition by centuries; the medieval habit of anonymity and pseudonymity further complicates the process of attribution. Apart from the rare "Kirill of Turov", the headings in'his' manuscripts include "Kirill the monk," "Kirill the philosopher," "Saint Kirill," "The Blessed father Kirill," "the blessed monk Kirill," "Kirill the unworthy monk," "the venerable Kirill."
Given this variety of labels,'Kirill's' texts invite several candidates for being their more authors. Hypothetically, each work can be allocated to one of several real Kirills and Cyrils: Cyril of Jerusalem. There are numerous Kirills who may have been active but were not recorded by chroniclers and hagiographers. Matters are further complicated by the fact, that these labels appear to have been used interchangeably as Simon Franklin points out. Questions of authorship notwithstanding, a remarkable corpus of works in different genres has been attributed to Kirill of Turov: festal homilies, monastic commentaries, some letters, a cycle of prayers, other hymnological texts, several versions of a penitential Prayer Canon, a Canon of Olga and an abecedarian prayer; these works constitute what came to be known as Corpus Cyrillianium This is a 19th-century consensus, assumed but continuously questioned. In manuscript sources, there are 23 prayers attributed to Kirill, as well as an additional nine unattributed prayers that are copied together as a group.
The prayers form a seven-day liturgical cycle. His homilies are a cycle based on the ecclesiastical calendar from Palm Sunday to the Sunday before Pentecost, his allegorical commentaries are directed at a monastic audience. As a scholar of Kyrill, C. M. MacRobert