Orange River

The Orange River is a river in Southern Africa. It is the longest river within the borders of Lesotho and the Orange River Basin extends extensively into South Africa and Botswana to the north, it rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean. The river forms part of the international borders between South Africa and Namibia and between South Africa and Lesotho, as well as several provincial borders within South Africa. Except for Upington, it does not pass through any major cities; the Orange River plays an important role in the South African economy by providing water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. The river was named the Orange River in honour of the Dutch ruling family, the House of Orange, by the Dutch explorer Robert Jacob Gordon. Other names include the word for river, in Khoekhoegowab orthography written as! Garib, rendered in Afrikaans as Gariep River with the intrusion of a velar fricative in place of the alveolar click, Groote River or Senqu River, derived from ǂNū "Black".

The Orange rises in the Drakensberg mountains along the border between South Africa and Lesotho, about 193 km west of the Indian Ocean and at an altitude of over 3,000 m. The extremity of the Orange River inside Lesotho is known as the Senqu. Parts of the Senqu River freeze in winter because of the high altitude there; this creates droughts downstream, which affect goat and cattle production. The Orange River runs westward through South Africa, forming the south-western boundary of the Free State province. In this section, the river flows first into the Gariep Dam, into the Vanderkloof Dam. From the border of Lesotho to below the Vanderkloof Dam, the river bed is incised. Further downstream, the land is flatter, the river is used extensively for irrigation. At the western point of the Free State, southwest of Kimberley, the Orange meets with its main tributary, the Vaal River, which itself forms much of the northern border of the province. From here, the river flows further westward through the arid wilderness of the southern Kalahari region and Namaqualand in the Northern Cape Province to meet with Namibia at 20°E longitude.

From here, it flows westward for 550 km, forming the international border between the province and Namibia's ǁKaras Region. On the border, the river passes the town of Vioolsdrif, the main border post between South Africa and Namibia. In the last 800 km of its course, the Orange receives many intermittent streams, several large wadis lead into it. In this section, the Namib Desert terminates on the north bank of the river, so under normal circumstances, the volume of water added by these tributaries is negligible. Here, the bed of the river is once again incised; the Augrabies Falls are located on this section of the Orange, where the river descends 122 m in a course of 26 km. The Orange empties into the Atlantic Ocean between the small towns of Oranjemund in Namibia and Alexander Bay in South Africa, about equidistant between Walvis Bay and Cape Town; some 33 km from its mouth, it is obstructed by rapids and sand bars and is not navigable for long stretches. The river has a total length of 2,200 km.

In the dry winter, the volume of the water in the river is reduced because of the rapid run-off and evaporation. At the source of the Orange, the rainfall is about 2,000 mm per annum, but precipitation decreases as the river flows westward; the factors that support evaporation, tend to increase in a westerly direction. In the wet season, the Orange river becomes an brown torrent; the huge mass of sediment carried constitutes a long-term threat to all engineering projects on the river. The total catchment of the Orange River extends over 973,000 km², i.e. equivalent to about 77% of the land area of South Africa. Around 366,000 km², are situated outside the country in Lesotho and Namibia; some of the earliest precolonial inhabitants called the river ǂNūǃarib, referring to its black colour, or sometimes just Kai! Arib, from, derived the Afrikaans version Gariep, translation "Groote Rivier"; the early Dutch name for the river was just that translation, Groote Rivier, meaning "Great River". The river was named the Orange River by Colonel Robert Gordon, commander of the United East India Company garrison at Cape Town, on a trip to the interior in 1779.

Gordon named the river in honor of William V of Orange. A popular but incorrect belief is that the river was named after the orange color of its water, as opposed to the color its tributary, the Vaal River, itself derived from the name ǀHaiǃarib "pale river". Since the end of apartheid, the name "Gariep" has had greater favour in official correspondence in South Africa, although the name "Orange" has greater international recognition. In Lesotho, where the river rises, it is known as the Senqu River, derived from the original Khoemana name; the Eastern Cape Geographical Names Committee has advertised its intention to consider a name change from the colonial name, for that portion of the river that forms the border between the Eastern Cape and the Free State, with suggestions being IGqili or Senqu. The advertisement placed in the Aliwal Weekblad newspaper states that the "present name is perceived to have a strong association with the history of colonial subjugation and has therefore no place under the current democratic dispensation."

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Sebele I

Sebele I was a chief of the Kwena —a major Tswana tribe in modern-day Botswana— who ruled from 1892 until his death in 1911. During his lifetime, he resisted control of his domains by Cecil Rhodes' British South African Company, administering, by a royal charter signed in October 1889, his homeland in the Bechuanaland Protectorate and other regions of Central Africa. With support from Christian missionaries, Sebele traveled to Britain in 1895 along with Bathoen I and Khama III to protest a new attempt to incorporate the protectorate into Cape Colony and secured support from Queen Victoria in exchange for an eastern strip of territory. Between 1908 and 1909 he resisted the incorporation of Bechuanaland into the Union of South Africa. Chiefs of the Kwena


Pelagiellidae is an extinct family of Paleozoic fossil marine molluscs. Aragonite, with various microstructures - details in reference The taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005 categorizes Pelagiellidae in the superfamilia Pelagielloidea within the Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position; this family has no subfamilies. According to P. Yu. Parkhaev, the family Pelagiellidae is in the order Pelagiellifomes MacKinnon, 1985 within the subclass Archaeobranchia Parkhaev, 2001, in the class Helcionelloida Peel, 1991. Genera in the family Pelagiellidae include: Pelagiella Matthew, 1895 - type genus of the family Pelagiellidae Pelagiella atlantoides - synonym: Cyrtolithes atlantoides Pelagiella emeishanensis - image Proeccyliopterus Kobayashi, 1962 Protoscaevogyra Kobayashi, 1939 Cambretina Horný, 1964 Costipelagiella Horný, 1964