Manuela Ferreira Leite
Maria Manuela Dias Ferreira Leite GCC GCIH known as Manuela Ferreira Leite, is a Portuguese economist and retired politician. She was born in Arganil. Manuela Ferreira Leite comes from a family of many generations of famous lawyers, but she has chosen to follow finance and economics instead, her brother José Eugénio Dias Ferreira is a Lisbon lawyer and a political commentator and sports commentator. She is a daughter of Carlos Eugénio Dias Ferreira, a Licentiate in Law from the Faculty of Law of the University of Lisbon and a lawyer, wife Julieta Teixeira de Carvalho, a Licentiate in Engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico of the Technical University of Lisbon and an engineer, daughter of José Teixeira de Carvalho and wife Etelvina Ferreira de Carvalho, her paternal grandfather José Eugénio Dias Ferreira was a lawyer from the University of Coimbra, being a natural son of Minister and Counselor José Dias Ferreira by an unknown mother. She is a fifth cousin of her non-immediate predecessor Pedro Santana Lopes.
She is a Licentiate in Finances from the ISEG - Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, a noted economics and finance school of the Technical University of Lisbon. Manuela Ferreira Leite has in the past held several positions within the Portuguese government, including Minister of Education during Cavaco Silva's cabinet between 1993 and 1995, 112th Minister of State and Finances during Durão Barroso cabinets between 6 April 2002 and 2004. In both cases her politics of contention was targeted for its alleged excessiveness. In Education, as so many of her predecessors and successors but with worse opposition and manifestations, she had to deal with the issue of tuitions, which though of low value remains hard to afford by many college students. In 2006, she was non-executive administrator of the Portuguese Banco Santander Totta, she was between 2006 and 2008, member of the Council of State, designated by the President of Portugal. She was elected leader of the Social Democratic Party on 31 May 2008, leading the party during the 2009 legislative elections.
She was unable to defeat the Socialist Party led by José Sócrates, although achieving a slight increase in number of votes and seats. As leader of the major party outside the government, she was the Leader of the Opposition, she was succeeded as party leader by Pedro Passos Coelho on 9 April 2010. After leaving PSD leadership she retired from active party politics, she has a weekly programme where she comments about politics and current affairs at the cable news channel TVI 24. She was married to Rui Leite, a Licentiate in Economics from the Instituto Superior de Ciências Económicas e Financeiras of the Technical University of Lisbon and an Economist, from whom she is now divorced and has three children: Nuno Dias Ferreira Leite, married at the Church of Campo Grande in Campo Grande, Lisbon), on 6 July 2006 to Mónica da Cruz Rocha Campos João Dias Ferreira Leite Ana Dias Ferreira Leite, married at the Church of Santos in Santos-o-Velho, Lisbon, on 3 December 2005 to João Maria de Gouveia Durão de Quintanilha e Mendonça, born in Lisbon, Alvalade, on 3 November 1978, only son of three children of João Maria de Azevedo de Quintanilha e Mendonça and wife Maria Joana Guizado de Gouveia Durão, had issue: Maria Ferreira Leite de Quintanilha e Mendonça João Maria Ferreira Leite de Quintanilha e Mendonça Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry, Portugal Grand-Cross of the Order of Christ, Portugal Manuela Ferreira Leite on the Portuguese Ministry of Education website Manuela Ferreira Leite personal website
Order of Merit
The Order of Merit is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign—currently Edward VII's great-granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II—and is restricted to a maximum of 24 living recipients from the Commonwealth realms, plus a limited number of honorary members. While all members are awarded the right to use the post-nominal letters OM and wear the badge of the order, the Order of Merit's precedence among other honours differs between countries; the first mention of a possible Order of Merit was made following the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in correspondence between First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham and William Pitt, though nothing came of the idea. It was thought by Queen Victoria, her courtiers, politicians alike, that a new order, based on the Prussian order Pour le Mérite, would make up for the insufficient recognition offered by the established honours system to achievement outside of public service, in fields such as art, literature and science.
Victoria's husband, Prince Consort, took an interest in the matter. The concept did not wither and, on 5 January 1888, British prime minister Lord Salisbury submitted to the Queen a draft constitution for an Order of Merit in Science and Art, consisting of one grade split into two branches of knighthood: the Order of Scientific Merit for Knights of Merit in Science, with the post-nominal letters KMS, the Order of Artistic Merit for Knights of Merit in Art, with the post-nominal letters KMA. However, Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, advised against the new order because of its selection process. Victoria's son, King Edward VII founded the Order of Merit on 26 June 1902 as a means to acknowledge "exceptionally meritorious service in Our Navy and Our Army, or who may have rendered exceptionally meritorious service towards the advancement of Art and Science". All modern aspects of the order were established under his direction, including the division for military figures.
From the outset, prime ministers attempted to propose candidates or lobbied to influence the monarch's decision on appointments, but the Royal Household adamantly guarded information about potential names. After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent countries, equal in status to the UK, the Order of Merit continued as an honour open to all these realms and, in many, became a part of their national honours systems; the order's statutes were amended in 1935 to include members of the Royal Air Force and, in 1969, the definition of honorary recipients was expanded to include members of the Commonwealth of Nations that are not realms. From its inception, the order has been open to women, Florence Nightingale being the first woman to receive the honour, in 1907. Several individuals have refused admission into the Order of Merit, such as Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, George Bernard Shaw. To date, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, remains the youngest person inducted into the Order of Merit, having been admitted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1968, when he was 47 years of age.
All citizens of the Commonwealth realms are eligible for appointment to the Order of Merit. There may be, only 24 living individuals in the order at any given time, not including honorary appointees, new members are selected by the reigning monarch of the realms Queen Elizabeth II, with the assistance of her private secretaries. Within the limited membership is a designated military division, with its own unique insignia. Honorary members form another group, to which there is no numerical limit, though such appointments are rare. Upon admission into the Order of Merit, members are entitled to use the post-nominal letters OM and are entrusted with the badge of the order, consisting of a golden crown from, suspended a red enamelled cross, itself centred by a disk of blue enamel, surrounded by a laurel wreath, bearing in gold lettering the words FOR MERIT; the ribbon of the Order of Merit is divided into two stripes of blue. Men wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while women carry theirs on a ribbon bow pinned to the left shoulder, aides-de-camp may wear the insignia on their aiguillettes.
Since 1991, it has been required. Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II Secretary and Registrar: The Lord Fellowes There have been no honorary members of the Order of Merit since the death of the last such member, Nelson Mandela, in December 2013; as the Order of Merit is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders and medals, the order's place of precedence varies from country to country. While, in the United Kingdom, the o
Military Order of Saint James of the Sword
This article deals with the Portuguese Order of knighthood. For the Spanish branch, see Order of Santiago; the Ancient, Most Noble and Enlightened Military Order of Saint James of the Sword, of the Scientific and Artistic Merit to 1910 Royal Military Order of Saint James of the Sword to 1789 Knights of Saint James of the Sword is a Portuguese order of chivalry. The Order of Saint James was founded in León-Castile circa 1170, it was founded as an order of Augustinian canons regular to escort pilgrims to the shrine of St. James the Greater in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, but King Ferdinand II of León soon set it to garrison the southern frontiers of León against the Almohads of al-Andalus. In 1170, Ferdinand II granted the new order the castles of Cáceres and Monfragüe, confiscated from Gerald the Fearless in 1169, would make further donations thereafter; the new Leonese order was soon operating in neighboring kingdoms. His nephew, King Alfonso VIII of Castile granted them the castles of Mora and Oreja in 1171, merged the arriving knights of Santiago with the older Castilian brotherhood of knights of Ávila in 1172.
In January 1174, Alfonso VIII granted them the citadel of Uclés, which would serve as the headquarters of the Order of Santiago as a whole after the reunification of the León and Castile in 1230. A Portuguese branch emerged when King Afonso I of Portugal donated Arruda dos Vinhos to the Order of Santiago; this was followed up by donations of the Castle of Abrantes. Given the poor relations between Afonso and Ferdinand II, the arrival of the Leonese order in Portugal is a little surprising; some historians have conjectured Afonso was trying to exploit a quarrel between order's grand master Pedro Fernández and king Ferdinand II, but it is that the Order's entry was part of some diplomatic agreement between the two kings. Nonetheless, the donation documents explicitly name Rodrigo Álvarez as the administrator of all three Portuguese donations. Although a founding knight of Santiago, Rodrigo Álvarez was known to be dissatisfied with its rules. So it is possible Afonso may have been trying to encourage a switch or schism in the Order at this stage.
The foundation of the Order of Évora in 1175/76 reveal Afonso's keen interest in a Portugal-based order. Whatever the intentions of the original invitation, the Santiago knights evidently did not meet Afonso's expectations; the crown took back Monsanto in 1174, in 1179 Afonso expelled the Order of Santiago from Portugal and canceled all their donations, as a consequence of a war that erupted between Portugal and León that year. The Order of Santiago would only return to Portugal after Afonso I's death; the establishment of the Order of Santiago in León, Castile and Portugal was endorsed by papal legate Cardinal Hyacinthus of Acardo on a visit to Iberia in 1172-73. The approval of the Order was confirmed three years by Pope Alexander III in a bull issued July 1175. In 1186, King Sancho I of Portugal donated to the returning Order of Santiago the Portuguese dominions of Palmela and Alcácer do Sal, but in 1190–91, all three citadels were conquered in an offensive led by the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur.
They were recovered sometime between 1194 and 1204. The Order of Santiago established its Portuguese headquarters at Palmela shortly before 1210, definitively by 1212. One of the more notable of Portuguese Santiago knights was Paio Peres Correia. Between 1234 and 1242, Correia led the conquest of much of the southerly Moorish dominions of Baixo Alentejo and the Algarve. In 1242, Paio Peres Correia was elevated to Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, the only known Portuguese to have held the supreme title of the Castilian-based Order. In 1249, Paio Peres Correia and the Order of Santiago helped Afonso III of Portugal sweep up the final Moorish possessions in the Algarve; the possessions of the Order of Santiago in Portugal were expanded and confirmed by Afonso III in 1255. After the death of Correia in 1275, the Order of Santiago returned into Castilian hands. Thus, in 1288, King Denis of Portugal separated the Portuguese branch from the Castilian-Leonese Order; this was confirmed by Pope John XXII in 1320.
The Order of Santiago possessed many domains granted by the Portuguese crown all of them south of the Tagus river, clustered in the Sado region and lower Alentejo. As the most southerly of the four Portuguese military orders, the Santiago knights were the first frontline against incursions from the Moorish Algarve in the 13th century; these domains were partitioned into "comendas", granted by the Order in commendam to a Santiago knight entrusted with the obligation of defending them. After the completion of the conquest of the Algarve, the comendas continued to be a source of revenue for the Order, granted to distinguished individual knights of the Order, still contingent on military service, run according to the Order's regulations. In principle, the comendador was just a temporary manager of the Order's property, although over time some comendadors treated the comenda as their own property; the vast size and compactness of the domains of the Order of Santiago, its self-contained system of knights and commendas, the extensive privileges of the Order, including civil and criminal jurisdiction, over these domains, has led some
Patricio Aylwin Azócar was a Chilean politician from the Christian Democratic Party, author and former senator. He was the first president of Chile after dictator Augusto Pinochet, his election marked the Chilean transition to democracy in 1990. Despite resistance from elements of the Chilean military and government after his election, Patricio Aylwin was staunch in his support for the Chilean National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation which exposed the Chilean government's brutalities. Aylwin, the eldest of the five children of Miguel Aylwin and Laura Azócar, was born in Viña del Mar. An excellent student, he enrolled in the Law School of the University of Chile where he became a lawyer, with the highest distinction, in 1943, he served as professor of administrative law, first at the University of Chile and at the School of Law of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. He was professor of civic education and political economy at the National Institute, his brother Andrés was a politician.
On 29 September 1948, he was married to Leonor Oyarzún Ivanovic. They had 14 grandchildren. Patricio Aylwin's involvement in politics started in 1945, he was elected president of the Falange in 1950 and 1951. When that party became the Christian Democratic Party of Chile, he served seven terms as its president between 1958 and 1989. In 1965 he was elected to the National Congress as a Senator. In 1971, he became the president of the Senate. During the government of Popular Unity, headed by Salvador Allende, he was the president of his party, he led the democratic opposition to Allende within and without Congress, he is credited, to some degree, with trying to find a peaceful solution to the country’s political crisis. Distrusting Allende, Aylwin "demanded that the president appoint only military men to his cabinet as proof of his honest intent," which Allende did only and Aylwin "apparently sided with pro-coup forces, believing that the military would restore democracy to the nation."He declared after the coup on Chilean National Television: "We have the conviction, of which, the call Chilean Road of conduction of socialism, pushed and hoisted like a flag for the Popular Unity, exhibited much abroad, it was failed, that knew the militants of the Popular Unity and Allende knew it, for that reason they prepared themselves through the organization of armed military services strongly equipped that constituted a true parallel army, to give a self-coup and to assume by the violence the totality of the power, about those circumstances, we thought that the action of the Armed Forces was anticipated to that risk, to save to the country to fall in to a civil war or in a communist tyranny."Aylwin was president of the Christian Democrats until 1976, after the death of the party's leader, Eduardo Frei, in 1982, he led his party during the military dictatorship.
He helped establish the Constitutional Studies Group of 24 to reunite the country's democratic sectors against the dictatorship. In 1979 he served as a spokesman in the group that opposed the plebiscite that approved a new constitution. In 1982 Aylwin was elected vice president of the Christian Democrats, he was among the first to advocate acceptance of the Constitution as a reality in order to facilitate the return to democracy. The opposition met the legal standards imposed by the Pinochet regime and participated in the 1988 plebiscite. On 5 October 1988, the Chilean national plebiscite was held. A "Yes" vote would grant Pinochet eight more years as president. Despite the widespread expectation that Pinochet would be voted an extended term, the "No" campaign triumphed, in part because of a superb media campaign depicted in the 2012 film No. Patricio Aylwin was at the center of the movement. After the plebiscite, he participated in negotiations that led the government and the opposition to agree on 54 constitutional reforms, thereby making possible a peaceful transition from 16 years of dictatorship to democracy.
Patricio Aylwin was elected president of the Republic on 14 December 1989. Although Chile had become a democracy, the Chilean military remained powerful during the presidency of Aylwin, the Constitution ensured the continued influence of Pinochet and his commanders, which prevented his government from achieving many of the goals it had set, such as the restructuring of the Constitutional Court and the reduction of Pinochet's political power, his administration, initiated direct municipal elections, the first of which were held in June 1992. In spite of the severe limits imposed on Aylwin's government by the Constitution, over four years, it "altered power relations in its favor in the state, in civil society, in political society." Pinochet was determined that the military not be punished for its role in overthrowing Allende's government or for the years of military dictatorship. Aylwin did attempt to bring to justice those in the military; the Aylwin Government did much to reduce inequality during its time in office.
A tax reform was introduced in 1990 which boosted tax revenues by around 15% and enabled the Aylwin Government to increase government spending on social programs from 9.9% to 11.7% of GDP. By the end of the Aylwin government, unprecedented resources were being allocated to social programs, including an expanded public health programs and training programs for young Chileans
Order of Christ (Portugal)
The Military Order of Christ the Order of the Knights of Our Lord Jesus Christ, is the former Knights Templar order as it was reconstituted in Portugal after the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312 by the papal bull, Vox in excelso, issued by Pope Clement V. The Order of Christ was founded in 1319, with the protection of the Portuguese king, Denis I, who refused to pursue and persecute the former knights as had occurred in all the other sovereign states under the political influence of the Catholic Church. Swayed by Philip IV of France, Pope Clement had the Knights Templar annihilated throughout France and most of Europe on charges of heresy, but Denis revived the Templars of Tomar as the Order of Christ for their aid during the Reconquista and in the reconstruction of Portugal after the wars. Denis negotiated with Clement's successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets and property. There exists a parallel Supreme Order of Christ of the Holy See.
The order's origins lie in the Knights Templar, founded circa 1118. The Templars were persecuted by the king of France and disbanded by the pope in 1312. King Dinis I of Portugal created the Order of Christ in 1317 for those knights who survived their mass slaughter throughout Europe. In Portugal, the Order of Christ accumulated great riches and power during the Age of Discoveries. In 1789, Queen Maria I of Portugal secularized the order. In 1910, with the end of the Portuguese monarchy, the order was extinguished. However, in 1917, the order was revived, with its Grand Master; the Military Order of Christ, together with the Military Orders of Aviz and of St. James of the Sword, formed the group of the "Ancient Military Orders", governed by a chancellor and a council of eight members, appointed by the President of the Republic to assist him as Grand Master in all the order's administrative matters; the Order can be conferred for outstanding services to the Republic on military officers, despite its name, on civilians and on members of: Parliament or other branches of government, the diplomatic corps, the Courts of Justice, the Civil Service, other public authorities.
The Order of Christ, as awarded by the Portuguese government today, comes in five classes: Grand Cross, which wears the badge of the Order on a sash on the right shoulder, the star of the Order in gold on the left chest. The badge of the Order is a gilt cross with enamel, similar to the Order's emblem illustrated here, but with a longer lower arm. During the monarchy there were separate badges for civil and military knights: civil knights wore a badge similar to the modern version, but with the Sacred Heart of Christ above it; the star of the Order has 22 asymmetrical arms of rays, in gilt for Grand Cross and Grand Officer, in silver for Commander. The central disc is with a miniature of the modern badge in it. During the monarchy the Sacred Heart of Christ was placed at the top of the star; the ribbon of the Order is plain red. Henry the Navigator Manuel I Infante Ferdinand Sebastian of Portugal Vasco da Gama Pedro Álvares Cabral João Gonçalves Zarco Gonçalo Velho Cabral Bartolomeu Dias D. Beatrice Francisco de Almeida Miguel Corte-Real Gaspar Corte-Real Tristão da Cunha Martim Afonso de Sousa João de Castro Cristóvão da Gama Tomé de Sousa Fernão de Magalhães known as Ferdinand Magellan Vicente Sodré Damião de Góis Pedro Teixeira Alexandre de Gusmão Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira Henrique Dias António Filipe Camarão Jácome Ratton Albert Coyette Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean-Baptiste Bessières Castro Marim Convento de Cristo Belém Tower Castle of Almourol Castle of Monsanto Castle of Castelo Branco Sagres Brazilian Football Confederation Clube de Futebol Os Belenenses Futebol Clube Cesarense Madeira National Corps of Scouts - Portuguese Catholic Scouting Olympic Committee of Portugal Portuguese Air Force Portuguese Athletic Federation Portuguese Football Federation Portuguese Navy Portuguese Roller Sports Federation Principality of Pontinha Flag of the city of São Paulo Honorific orders of Portugal Order of Christ History of the Order of Christ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. GUIMARÃES, J. Vieira, A Ordem de Cristo, Lisboa, I. N. 1936 OLIVAL, The Military Orders and the Portuguese Expansion, Portuguese Studies Review Monographs, Vol. 3, Peterborough: Baywolf Press and The Portuguese Studies Review, 2018
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres is a Portuguese politician and diplomat, serving as the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations. He was the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees between 2005 and 2015. Guterres was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002 and was the Secretary-General of the Socialist Party from 1992 to 2002, he served as President of the Socialist International from 1999 to 2005. In both a 2012 and 2014 poll, the Portuguese public ranked him as the best Prime Minister of the previous 30 years. Guterres was born and raised in Lisbon, the son of Virgílio Dias Guterres and Ilda Cândida de Oliveira, he attended the Camões Lyceum where he graduated in 1965, winning the National Lyceums Award as the best student in the country. He studied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon, he graduated in 1971 and started an academic career as Assistant Professor teaching Systems Theory and Telecommunications Signals, before leaving academic life to start a political career.
Guterres' political career began in 1974. Shortly thereafter, he became a full-time politician. In the period following the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974 that put an end to Caetano's dictatorship, Guterres became involved in Socialist Party leadership and held the following offices: Head of Office of the Secretary of State of Industry Deputy for Castelo Branco in the Portuguese National Parliament Leader of the parliamentary bench of the Socialist Party, succeeding Jorge Sampaio Guterres was a member of the team that negotiated the terms of Portugal's entry into the European Union in the late 1970s, he was a founding member of the Portuguese Refugee Council in 1991. In 1992, after the Socialists' third consecutive defeat in Parliamentary elections, Guterres became Secretary-General of the Socialist Party and leader of the opposition during Aníbal Cavaco Silva's government. At the time, he was the party's third leader in six years, he was selected as one of the 25 vice-presidents of the Socialist International in September 1992.
His election represented a break with tradition for the Socialists: not only was Guterres not associated with either the faction around then-President and former Prime Minister Mário Soares or the party's left wing led by Guterres' predecessor Sampaio, but he was a devout Catholic, running counter to the party's historical secularism. He sought to consult with Portugal's civil society in formulating policy, meeting a range of intellectuals and entrepreneurs from across the country and the political spectrum in the run-up to the next general election. Cavaco Silva did not seek a fourth term as prime minister of Portugal and the Socialist Party won the 1995 parliamentary election. President Soares appointed Guterres as prime minister and his Cabinet took the oath of office on 28 October that year. Guterres ran on a platform of keeping a tight hold on budget spending and inflation in a bid to ensure that Portugal met the Euro convergence criteria by the end of the decade, as well as increasing rates of participation in the labor market among women, improving tax collection and cracking down on tax evasion, increased involvement of the mutual and non-profit sectors in providing welfare services, a means-tested guaranteed minimum income, increased investment in education.
He was one of seven Social Democratic prime ministers in the European Union, joining political allies in Spain, Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands. With a style markedly different from that of his predecessor, based on dialogue and discussion with all sections of society, Guterres was a popular prime minister in the first years of his office. Portugal was enjoying a solid economic expansion which allowed the Socialists to reduce budget deficits while increasing welfare spending and creating new conditional cash transfer programs, his government accelerated the program of privatizations, undertaken by Cavaco Silva's government: a total of 29 companies were privatized between 1996 and 1999, with proceeds from privatizations in 1996-7 being greater than those of the previous six years, the public sector's share of GDP being halved from 11 percent in 1994 to 5.5 percent five years later. Share ownership was widened, with 800,000 people investing in Portugal Telecom upon its privatization in 1996 and 750,000 applying for shares in Electricidade de Portugal.
In 1998, Guterres presided over Expo 98 in Lisbon, commemorating the 500th anniversary of the voyage of Vasco da Gama. In 1998, two nationwide referenda were held; the first one was held in June, asked the voters whether abortion rules should be liberalized. The Socialist Party split over the issue of liberalization, Guterres himself led the pro-life side, which won the referendum. A second referendum was held in this time over the regionalization of the mainland. In this referendum, both Guterres and his party supported the approval of such an administrative reform. In this second referendum, Guterres suffered a political defeat, as the proposal was rejected by the voters. Contrary to his party stance and following the removal of homosexuality from the list of mental illnesses by the World Health Organization in 1990, Guterres said, in 1995, that "he did not like homosexuality" and that he considered it "something that bothered him". On foreign policy, Guterres campaigned for United Nations intervention in East Timor in 1
Sash of the Two Orders
The Sash of the Two Orders was a decoration consisting of a sash and breast star that combined the Orders of Christ and Aviz. The sash was a stripe of red for a stripe of green for the Order of Aviz; the Breast Star consisted of the star of the Order of Christ and the crosses of the two orders that made up the sash would lie in the middle of the breast star. The order was retired as the Sash of the Three Orders gained prominence