Princess Louise of Prussia
Princess Louise of Prussia was the second child and only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. She was the sister of Frederick III of Germany and aunt of Wilhelm II of Germany. Louise was seven years younger than Frederick and two older than his wife, Princess Royal. Louise was born on 3 December 1838 to Prince Wilhelm of Prussia and her parents were an unhappy and estranged couple, and Louise had only one other sibling, Prince Frederick, who was seven years older. Upon her birth, Augusta declared that her duty in perpetuating the Hohenzollern dynasty was complete, while Wilhelm showed little affection to his only son, he lavished attention on Louise, and often his unexpected visits to her schoolroom resulted in them playing together on the floor. Louise was betrothed to Frederick, Prince Regent of Baden in 1854, Frederick had been regent because of his brother Louiss insanity, and was proclaimed Grand Duke of Baden when doctors declared that there was no chance of recovery.
As the only daughter of the Prussian crown prince, their marriage caused Baden to gain a deal of importance. Within a few weeks of their marriage, the new duchess was already pregnant with their first child. Louise was a wife and mother, writing to a friend that since we last met, my life has become so much more beautiful, more precious, to me. Louise and Frederick disliked the stiffness of the Karlsruhe court, and they were popular in Baden, and everyone spoke with affectionate pride of their grand duke and duchess in Constance, where the couple had a summer residence. The two often visited each other, in Queen Victorias letters and Frederick were always referred to with pleasure or sympathy as good Fritz and Louise of Baden. Louise doted on her however, and Vicky wrote to her mother that the grand duchess spoilt him quite dreadfully. He continued that his aunt learned admirably to combine the Prussian element with the Baden character, the Austro-Prussian War caused a degree of friction between Baden and Prussia, as the former, despite their close familial connections to Berlin, chose to support the Austrians.
As the daughter of the Prussian king, Baden was not included in the list of states forced to pay indemnities to Prussia. Suspicious of the grand duchess influence on her father, he did his best to block her request for clemency on behalf of Alsace Catholics to the emperor, because of her status as Grand Duchess, Louise was very involved in her duchys charitable organizations, particularly issues concerning women. She helped found a charity for women called the Baden Frauenverein. Louise maintained a correspondence with Florence Nightingale, who believed the grand duchess letters could have been written by any administrator in the Crimean War, the grand duchess had a lifelong friendship with Clara Barton, whom she met during the Franco-Prussian War. Despite her old age, Louise was present to welcome back wounded German soldiers upon their return to Germany from French prison camps, within two years, four of Louises closest family members died - her father, younger son and mother
House Order of Hohenzollern
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers. The House Order of Hohenzollern was instituted on December 5,1841 by joint decree of Prince Konstantin of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and these two principalities in southern Germany were Catholic collateral lines of the House of Hohenzollern, cousins to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia. On August 23,1851, after the two principalities had been annexed by Prussia, the order was adopted by the Prussian branch of the house. Also, although the two principalities had become a region of the Prussian kingdom, the princely lines continued to award the order as a house order. The Prussian version was known as the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. The Princely House Order continued to be awarded, after the fall of the German Monarchy, Prince Karl Antons second son, Karl Eitel Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, had become prince and king of Romania as Carol I.
Carol I had died childless and was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand I and this form of the order existed until the Romanian monarchy was abolished in 1947, King Michael awarded a slightly altered order in exile. The Royal House Order of Hohenzollern came in the classes, Grand Commander Commander Knight Member Member was a lesser class for soldiers who were not officers. The Members Cross, especially swords, was a rare distinction for non-commissioned officers. Another decoration, the Members Eagle was often given as an award to lesser officials such as schoolteachers. The Eagles were solely civilian awards, and could not be awarded with swords, all other grades could be awarded with swords. When awarded with swords it was worn on the ribbon of the Iron Cross, all grades could be awarded with swords. During World War I, the grade of the Princely House Order was often awarded to officers. 40, a regiment raised in the principalities of Hohenzollern. Soldier in the regiments sister reserve and Landwehr regiments received the decoration.
Unlike the Royal House Order, awards of the Princely House Order were made on the ribbon of the order regardless of whether they were with or without swords. As with the Prussian and Hohenzollern versions, crossed swords could be used to indicate a wartime or combat award, the badge of the House Order of Hohenzollern was a cross pattée with convex edges and curved arms
Frederick William II of Prussia
Frederick William II was King of Prussia, from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-elector of Brandenburg and sovereign prince of the Canton of Neuchâtel, pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick II. Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, and his religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of notable buildings. Frederick William was born in Berlin, the son of Prince Augustus William of Prussia and his mothers elder sister, was the wife of Augustus Williams brother King Frederick II. Frederick William became heir-presumptive to the throne of Prussia on his fathers death in 1758, the boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, averse to sustained effort of any kind, and sensual by nature. His marriage with Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and he married Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt on 14 July 1769 in Charlottenburg.
He was a talented cellist, for his part, Frederick William, who had never been properly introduced to diplomacy and the business of rulership, resented his uncle for not taking him seriously. The misgivings of Frederick II appear justified in retrospect, Frederick William terminated his predecessors state monopolies for coffee and tobacco and the sugar monopoly. However, under his reign the codification known as Allgemeines Preußisches Landrecht, initiated by Frederick II, on 26 August 1786 Wöllner was appointed privy councillor for finance, and on 2 October 1786 was ennobled. Though not in name, he in fact prime minister, in all internal affairs it was he who decided. Bischoffswerder, still a major, was called into the king′s counsels. From this position Wöllner pursued long lasting reforms concerning religion in the Prussian state, the king proved eager to aid Wöllners crusade. On 18 December 1788 a new law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all published books. This forced major Berlin journals like Christoph Friedrich Nicolais Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, people like Immanuel Kant were forbidden to speak in public on the topic of religion.
Finally, in 1791, a Protestant commission was established at Berlin to watch over all ecclesiastical, although Wöllners religious edict had many critics, it was an important measure which, in fact, proved an important stabilizing factor for the Prussian state. The edict was a step forward regarding the rights of Jews and Herrnhut brethren. But far more fateful for Prussia was the attitude towards the army
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was the Queen of Prussia and the first German Empress as the consort of William I, German Emperor. Augusta was the daughter of Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and Maria Pavlovna of Russia. Augusta received an education, including drawing lessons from the court painter, Luise Seidler, as well as music lessons from the court bandmaster. Augusta was only fifteen years old when, in 1826, she first met her future husband, Wilhelm thought the young Augusta had an excellent personality, yet was less attractive than her older sister Marie, whom Wilhelms younger brother, had already married. Above all, it was Wilhelms father who pressed him to consider Augusta as a potential wife, at this time, Wilhelm was in love with the Polish Princess Elisa Radziwill. The Crown Prince at the time was Wilhelms elder brother, Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm and he and his wife Elisabeth Ludovika had been married three years and had no children. Although it was not anticipated that they would remain childless, the court did expect that Wilhelm, as heir presumptive to the throne, should make a dynastic marriage and produce further heirs.
It was suggested by some courtiers that if Eliza Radziwell was adopted by a family of adequate rank, in 1824, the Prussians turned to the childless Alexander I of Russia to adopt Elisa, but the Russian Tsar declined. The second adoption plan by Elisas uncle, Prince Augustus of Prussia, another factor was the Mecklenburg relations of the deceased Queen Louises influence in the German and Russian courts. Thus, in June 1826, Wilhelms father felt forced to demand the renunciation of a marriage to Elisa. Thus, Wilhelm spent the few months looking for a more suitable bride. Eventually, Wilhelm asked for Augustas hand in marriage on 29 August, Augusta happily agreed and on 25 October 1828, they were engaged. Augusta liked her future husband and hoped for a happy marriage, on 11 June 1829, after a strenuous three-day trip from Weimar to Berlin, Wilhelm married his fiancée, fourteen years younger than he was, in the chapel of Schloss Charlottenburg. In a letter which Wilhelm wrote on 22 January 1831 to his sister Charlotte, Prince Friedrich, was born that year on 18 October 1831, three years after their marriage and Louise, was born on 3 December 1838, seven years later.
Augusta was very interested in politics, like so many other liberally-minded people of the time, she was hopeful regarding the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm IV, her brother-in-law, who was regarded as a potentially modern and open king. However, he refused to grant a constitution to Prussia, a united landtag was created by the King in reaction to the crop failures and hunger revolts of 1847, but was soon dissolved a few months later. Because the letters and diaries of that time were destroyed by Augusta. After, in May 1848,800 members of the German National Assembly met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche to discuss German unification and Prince Wilhelm returned from London the following month
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada and he occupied this post until being succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. After the end of his tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties. Though he retired from life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War. He was Queen Victorias last surviving son, Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, as with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported that he became the Queens favourite child, following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D. C.
where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant. Arthur made an impression on many in Canada, as he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations. Arthur was promoted to the rank of colonel on 14 June 1871, substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876, colonel on 29 May 1880 and. He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890 and he went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890 to 1893. The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latters forced retirement in 1895. But this desire was denied to Arthur, and instead he was given, between 1893 and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command, the regiment had recently been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery.
With the Princes agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaughts Own Rifles on 1 May 1900 and he was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment, known as The British Columbia Regiment, in 1923. He held that appointment until his death, on his mothers birthday in 1874, Arthur was created a royal peer, being titled as the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex. Through his childrens marriages, Arthur became the father-in-law of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden, Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife, arthurs first two children predeceased him, Margaret while pregnant with his sixth grandchild. For many years, Arthur maintained a liaison with Leonie, Lady Leslie, sister of Jennie Churchill, alongside his military career, he continued to undertake royal duties beyond, or vaguely associated with, the army. On the return from a posting in India, he again and he toured Canada in 1906
Paul Frederick, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Paul Friedrich ruled as Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1837 to 1842. He was born in Ludwigslust the son of Hereditary Grand Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Paul Friedrich was educated at Geneva and Rostock. Paul Friedrich became heir-apparent to the throne of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in 1819, upon the death of his father, on 1 February 1837 he succeeded his grandfather, Friedrich Franz I. His reign saw improvements in the infrastructure and judicial system of the Grand Duchy, Paul Friedrich was largely interested only in military matters and spent most of his time drilling his troops. As Paul Friedrich reached his age, he adopted a more reclusive lifestyle. Paul Friedrich died in 1842 of a cold caught while rushing to a fire in his capital city, Paul Friedrich married Princess Alexandrine of Prussia at Berlin on 25 May 1822
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia
Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia was a German princess, and a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She served as the Viceregal Consort of Canada, when her husband served as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916, king Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Queens Margrethe II of Denmark and Anne-Marie of Greece are among her great-grandchildren. Princess Luise Margarete was born at Marmorpalais near Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia and her father was Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia, the son of Karl of Prussia and his wife Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Her mother was Princess Maria Anna of Anhalt, daughter of Leopold IV of Anhalt-Dessau and her father, a nephew of the German Emperor Wilhelm I, distinguished himself as a field commander during the Battle of Metz and the campaigns west of Paris in the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War. Her father was a cousin of the German Emperor Friedrich III. On 13 March 1879, Princess Luise Margarete married Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, Prince Arthur was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
The couple received a number of expensive gifts, the Queens gift consisted of a diamond tiara. Many members of England and Germanys royal families attended, these included the Prince, after her marriage, Princess Louise was styled Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Connaught and her name was Anglicised as Louise Margaret. The Duchess of Connaught spent the first twenty years of her accompanying her husband on his various deployments throughout the British empire. The Duke and Duchess of Connaught acquired Bagshot Park in Surrey as their country home and she accompanied her husband to Canada in 1911, when he began his term as Governor-General. In 1916, she became colonel-in-chief of the 199th Canadian Infantry Battalion, in 1885, she became chief of the 64th Regiment of Infantry Field Marshal General Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia, Prussian Army. The Duchess of Connaught died of influenza and bronchitis at Clarence House and she became the first member of the British Royal Family to be cremated.
This was done at Golders Green Crematorium, the procedure of burying ashes in an urn was still unfamiliar at the time, and her urn was transported in an ordinary coffin during the funeral ceremonies. Her ashes were buried at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore. The Duke of Connaught survived her by almost twenty-five years
Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886. He is sometimes called the Swan King or der Märchenkönig and he held the titles of Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, and Duke in Swabia. He succeeded to the throne aged 18, two years Bavaria and Austria fought a war against Prussia, which they lost. However, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 Bavaria sided with Prussia against France and he commissioned the construction of two lavish palaces and the Neuschwanstein Castle, and was a devoted patron of the composer Richard Wagner. Ludwig spent all his royal revenues on these projects, borrowed extensively and this extravagance was used against him to declare him insane, an accusation which has since come under scrutiny. Today, his architectural and artistic legacy includes many of Bavarias most important tourist attractions, born in Nymphenburg Palace, he was the elder son of Maximilian II of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach, and his wife Princess Marie of Prussia.
His younger brother, born three years later, was named Otto, like many young heirs in an age when kings governed most of Europe, Ludwig was continually reminded of his royal status. King Maximilian wanted to both of his sons in the burdens of royal duty from an early age. Ludwig was both extremely indulged and severely controlled by his tutors and subjected to a regimen of study. There are some who point to these stresses of growing up in a family as the causes for much of his odd behavior as an adult. Ludwig was not close to either of his parents, King Maximilians advisers had suggested that on his daily walks he might like, at times, to be accompanied by his future successor. The King replied, But what am I to say to him, after all, my son takes no interest in what other people tell him. Later, Ludwig would refer to his mother as my predecessors consort and he was far closer to his grandfather, the deposed and notorious King Ludwig I, who came from a family of eccentrics. Ludwigs childhood years did have happy moments and he lived for much of the time at Castle Hohenschwangau, a fantasy castle his father had built near the Alpsee near Füssen.
It was decorated in the Gothic Revival style with frescoes depicting heroic German sagas. The family visited Lake Starnberg, as an adolescent, Ludwig became close friends with his aide de camp, Prince Paul, a member of Bavarias wealthy Thurn und Taxis family. The two young men together, read poetry aloud, and staged scenes from the Romantic operas of Richard Wagner. The friendship ended when Paul became engaged in 1866, during his youth Ludwig initiated a lifelong friendship with his cousin, Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria, Empress of Austria
Order of the Crown (Prussia)
The Order of the Crown was a Prussian order of chivalry. Officially the Order of the Red Eagle and the Order of the Crown were equal, most officials did however prefer to be appointed in the older Order of the Red Eagle. The Order of the Crown was often used as a decoration of someone who had to be rewarded while the Prussian government did not want to award the Order of the Red Eagle. The badge of the Order for the 1st to 4th classes was a gilt cross pattée, the obverse gilt central disc bore the crown of Prussia, surrounded by a blue enamel ring bearing the motto of the German Empire Gott Mit Uns. The reverse gilt disc has the Prussian royal monogram, surrounded by a blue ring with the date 18 October 1861. The star of the Order was a gilt eight-pointed star, a silver eight-pointed star, or a silver four-pointed star, the gilt central disc again bore the crown of Prussia, surrounded by a blue enamel ring bearing the motto Gott Mit Uns. The ribbon of the Order was blue, the order could be awarded in dozens of variations.
For example with superimposed Cross of Geneva, with swords and with oak leaves, the following lists show a fair cross section of individuals who were known to be conferred with the Order in its several classes, in order of precedence. Sir Christopher George Francis Maurice Cradock Baron Giacomo Natoli - 1st Class Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - 1st Class, Count Charles John dOultremont, Knight Grand Cross. Ernst von Bibra - 3rd Class 1869 Gen. Major-General Sir John McNeill - 1st class,1899 - in connection with the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II to the United Kingdom