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Order of St. Olav

The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on 21 August 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, but no appointments were awarded by his successor, King Haakon VII; the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdom's only order of chivalry for the next 80 years; the Grand Master of the order is the reigning monarch of Norway. It is used to reward individuals for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country and humanity. Since 1985, appointments to the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty may be appointed as a matter of courtesy; the reigning monarch of Norway is the order's Grand Master. The order consists of three grades, of which two are divided into two classes, may be awarded for either civilian or military contributions, in descending order of distinction.

The collar is awarded as a separate distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross -- awarded in rare cases to individuals for merit. If the collar is not worn the badge may be worn on a sash on the right shoulder; the collar of the Order is in gold, with five enamelled and crowned monograms "O", five enamelled and crowned coat-of-arms of Norway, 10 gold crosses bottony each flanked by two battle axes with silver blades and golden shafts. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes; the obverse central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle-axe. The cross is topped by a crown; the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, with gilt crowned monograms "O" between the arms of the cross.

The central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring. The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes. In exceptional circumstances the Order may be awarded "with diamonds", in which case a ring of diamonds replaces the white-blue-white enamel ring surrounding the central disc on the front of the badge; the insignia are expected to be returned either upon the receiver's advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. The insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen; the King makes appointments upon the recommendation of a six-member commission, none of whom may be a member of the government, consisting of a chancellor, vice chancellor, the Lord Chamberlain, three other representatives. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, the monarch approves them. Nominations to the order are directed at the commission through the county governor. Princes and Princesses with succession rights to the throne are appointed to the highest degree upon reaching their age of majority.

The Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian honour conferred by Norway and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. In the order of precedence used at the royal court of Norway, bearers of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav with collar are ranked 15th in the order of precedence, directly after the Mistress of the Robes and generals and directly before recipients of the War Cross with Sword. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th; this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by the last name. Six of the listed are not heads of royals. Before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, appointments to the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits. Many holders of the Grand Cross who are not heads of state are not listed here.

Orders and medals of Norway St Olav's medal The Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court Statues of the Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court

Assault Suits Valken

Assault Suits Valken, is a 2D mecha game developed by Masaya released in 1992 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The second entry in the Assault Suits series, it is a prequel to Target Earth; the game was localized and published overseas by Konami. The story follows Jake Brain who pilots a giant mecha and fights in a war engulfing the entire world; the game takes place in the future, during a time. There is a massive war taking place all over the earth for control of these resources, as well as for territorial rights on the moon; the two warring governments, the Axis and Federation, have the ability to go into space and create giant space stations and weapons of mass destruction. Jake is the game's protagonist, he is a soldier drafted into pilots a Federation Assault Suit. In the prologue text he states he only fights because he is a soldier, not concerned with patriotism or politics. Survival for a soldier means defeating the enemy; the Suit has a humanoid shape, with arms, legs, a torso, a head.

It is equipped with a variety of weapons and other special accessories, giving it full land and minor air capabilities. Jake and his platoon, which operate from the warship Versis are tasked with destruction of Bildvorg, the most powerful mech of the Axis forces; the various missions in the game lead up to the completion of this objective.. Versis sends out 2 other suits, one is unnamed and another is named Apollo in stage 4, killed offscreen by one suit, fast. In that mission the player saves an enemy suit entering the Earth's atmosphere, whereas Beldark kills Jake's ally Apollo soon after. Although Cybernator was released after Target Earth, Cybernator takes place a decade before Target Earth. In Assault Suit Valken 2, Jake makes a cameo appearance as a 30-year-old veteran soldier who assists in battles as an NPC; the game has two endings. The bad ending can be acquired if the player fails any mission in the game, such as failing to stop Arc Nova from falling and/or allowing the enemy space shuttle to escape in the 5th mission.

In this ending, the Versis is critically damaged and most of her crew are killed, including Crea, which leaves Jake devastated in the credits. The game over screen states the player has not completed their mission. If the player succeeds in the side missions, the Versis survives and Jake returns to the carrier, the war is over and Jake and Crea embrace each other on the Versis' deck as the Cybernator suit falls into pieces. Toshiro Tsuchida served as producer for the game. Afterwards, he worked on the game Front Mission; the soundtrack was composed by Masanao Akahori, was rearranged on a ROMpler synthesizer and released as a CD in Japan. The original Japanese releases featured artwork done by Satoshi Urushihara. Designer Satoshi Nakai was insistent on the game including destructive environments. Cybernator was the subject of censorship during its localization; the Japanese version featured written dialog accompanied by a portrait of the speaker, but these portraits were removed during localization.

There is a scene absent in which the president of the enemy forces, whose banner is that of the European Union, after realizing that his nation has been defeated, commits suicide. Some written dialog is taken out, which shows the soldier rescued in the fourth level being in the robot fought before the final boss; however the few human enemies in the game remain with no censorship. The instruction manual of the English version is filled with inconsistent information. For example, the sixth mission takes place in the Alps, where Versis tries to fly over the mountains to reach the Allied front lines, but according to the manual, the player's aim is to raid the enemy commander's mountain retreat. Another example of inaccurate information would be concerning the laser weapon, the strongest the player would receive in the game minus the cheat weapon the Napalm Flamethrower, it stated the laser takes a long time to recharge yet it recharges at least as fast as the Vulcan's reload, unlike the Vulcan the laser recharges to a full load automatically without needing to expend its power/ammo first if they stop firing it.

The instruction manual stated the suit to be a colossal 5 stories tall and 5 tons, contrary to promo material stating it to be 4 stories tall. Assault Suits Valken was released in Japan for the Super Nintendo on December 12, 1992; when the game was released outside of Japan, the title was changed to Cybernator. It was released in North America on April 1993, in Europe in 1993; the game received a port to the PlayStation 2 in 2004 in Europe and Japan, under the title Assault Suits Valken. Cybernator was released on the Virtual Console in PAL regions on December 7, 2007, in North America on December 17, 2007, both for the Wii and in North America on August 7, 2014 and in PAL regions on February 26, 2015, both for the Wii U. In 2014, the game was re-released in Japan through the game distribution service EGG; the game received a favorable review from Famitsu magazine. In 1996, Next Generation stated that the game "was the game that introduced many U. S. gamers to classically Japanese design values - not only because it was a class title looks-wise, but because it overflowed with

New Zealand DF class locomotive (1979)

The New Zealand DF class locomotive of 1979 is a class of 30 Co-Co diesel-electric locomotives built by General Motors Diesel of Canada between 1979 and 1981. Between 1992 and 1997, all the locomotives were rebuilt as the DFT class, a turbocharged version of the DF; the class should not be confused with the English Electric NZR DF class of 1954. The DFs were powered by an EMD 12-645 engine, the same prime mover chosen for the DC class, but were able to make greater use of that power by having six traction motors and Co-Co arrangement as opposed to the four traction motors and A1A-A1A wheel arrangement of the DCs; this gave the DF several advantages: a tractive effort of 198 kN and a maximum speed of 113 km/h, compared to the DCs 140 kN and 90–100 km/h. The most noticeable visual difference between the DF and the DC is that the DF is longer with the headlight arrangement on the cabs differing: the DC has the lights arranged horizontally, while the DF has them arranged vertically; the DF is more confused with the DX class, as both are of similar dimensions although the DX has the horizontal headlight arrangement.

The first 20 members of the DF class arrived in New Zealand in 1979, ten worked on the East Coast Main Trunk, Kinleith and Murupara Branches, making use of the opened Kaimai Tunnel. At the time, they were the most powerful locomotives in the South Island, with a total power output of 1,230 kilowatts; the next ten DFs arrived in 1981 and were sent to work in the Bay of Plenty, some to supplement the South Island fleet, which by this time had entered service on the Main South Line and Midland Line as far as Arthur's Pass. In 1986 the DF fleet was reallocated, concentrating 22 of the class in the South Island, reallocating the remaining eight North Island DFs from Hamilton to Wellington, for use between Wellington and Gisborne, on the Wairarapa Line and Palmerston North - Gisborne Line. In 1988, the fleet was again reallocated due to the opening of the North Island Main Trunk electrification, with 20 DFs based in Auckland for use in Northland, between Auckland and the ECMT and its branches; the remaining units were based in the South Island.

This reduced the number in the South Island. The main downside to the DF was the lack of power output from the diesel engine; this hindered the DF. While the locomotives had a comparable tractive effort to the DX class, they had little more than half the power of a DX. In 1992, DF 6260 was rebuilt with some other minor alterations; the rebuilt DF was reclassified DFT and renumbered 7008. After 18 months of trial, the decision was made to convert the remaining 29 DFs to DFTs, with the last unit converted in February 1997; the turbocharged locomotives can now generate 1,800 kW, now comfortably fit between the DC class and the DX class in terms of power output. Three DFTs/DFBs were in service in Auckland hauling six-car SA trains on the Auckland suburban network, leased by Auckland Transport. Most were in four- or five-car configurations with a DC class locomotive; the locomotives used on 6-car SA sets were DFBs 7010, 7200 and 7348, DFT 7104. These began service on 20 September 2010 with the introduction of a new timetable.

DFB 7010 was released back to KiwiRail in November 2012 leaving three units operating. Other DFTs have been assigned periodically to cover for when these units undergo maintenance, with DFT 7051 and DFB 7186 most filling this role during the 2011 Rugby World Cup when extra six-car trains were in use; the class remains predominantly employed on general freight duties on all routes nationwide, with the general exception of through trains on the NIMT and the Midland Line coal workings. The units operate both in multiple with the other mainline locomotive classes or as single units, depending on availability and the level of motive power required. Since October 2016, DFBs that are fitted with a fire suppression system, have been assigned to all the North Island KiwiRail Scenic Journeys passenger services, are used on the Coastal Pacific in the South Island. Since July 2015, up to five DFB locomotives have been the main motive power on the Wairarapa Connection passenger service and Masterton to Wellington freight services, replacing six DC class locomotives used for the service since mid-2014.

The units used on the services were required to be fitted with fire suppression equipment by the Pike River Mine disaster enquiry. In July 2016, Transdev Wellington took over operation of the Wairarapa Connection service, with KiwiRail still providing and operating the DFB locomotives on a "hook-and-tow" basis. Three DFB locomotives are to be used by the Waikato Connection from 2020. In common with NZR practice at the time the class was numbered with reference to the power output, with the first 20 units numbered 1651 to 1670. With the introduction of the TMS system in 1980 these locomotives were renumbered in order with new four digit numbers starting with 6 in which the last number acted as a check number; the second batch all received TMS numbers while under construction. They were renumbered again when rebuilt to DFT standard in the 7xxx series, with these numbers allocated as they were rebuilt with no refer

Charles Cook (footballer, born 1972)

Charles Cook is a professional football manager and former player. He played for English non-league sides Maidenhead United, Hampton & Richmond Borough, Ware F. C. and Hitchin Town. He played for Grange Quins in the MacWhirter Welsh Football League Division Two, while he coached part-time with the Cardiff City youth academy, he worked with the Cardiff City Ladies at Ninian Park before they were disbanded and he was reassigned to the Academy. He is a coach at Cardiff City. Cook qualified to play for the Turks and Caicos Islands national football team through four-year residency from 1999 to 2003 while he played for the KPMG United FC, he had moved from the British Virgin Islands national football team where he was a technical director alongside coach Gary White. He made his playing debut for Turks and Caicos in a March 2000 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Saint Kitts and Nevis and earned a total of 7 caps, scoring no goals, he represented the country in 6 World Cup qualification games.

While playing for Turks and Caicos, Charlie received the Golden Boot at the first National Soccer Resort tournament in Miami, January 2003. In 2006, he was appointed coach of the Turks and Caicos Islands national football team. Charles Cook at Soccerway Profile at Charles Cook at Charles Cook at

JSP model 2 architecture

JSP Model 2 is a complex design pattern used in the design of Java Web applications which separates the display of content from the logic used to obtain and manipulate the content. Since Model 2 drives a separation between logic and display, it is associated with the model–view–controller paradigm. While the exact form of the MVC "Model" was never specified by the Model 2 design, a number of publications recommend a formalized layer to contain MVC Model code; the Java BluePrints, for example recommended using EJBs to encapsulate the MVC Model. In a Model 2 application, requests from the client browser are passed to the controller; the controller performs any logic necessary to obtain the correct content for display. It places the content in the request and decides which view it will pass the request to; the view renders the content passed by the controller. Model 2 is recommended for medium- and large-sized applications. In 1998, Sun Microsystems published a pre-release of the JavaServer Pages specification, version 0.92.

In this specification, Sun laid out two methods. The first model was a simplistic model whereby JSP pages were disjointed entities. Logic could be contained within the page itself, navigation between pages was achieved by way of hyperlinks; this fit with the then-common usage of template technology. ColdFusion and Active Server Pages are examples of contemporary technologies that implemented this model; the second model referred to by the document was an improved method that combined servlet technology with JSP technology. The specific difference listed was that a servlet would intercept the request, place the content to render into a request attribute call a JSP to render the content in the desired output format; this model differed from the previous model in the fact that JSP technology was used as a pure template engine. All of the logic was separated out into a servlet, leaving the JSP with the sole responsibility of rendering the output for the content provided. In December 1999, JavaWorld published an article by Govind Seshadri entitled Understanding JavaServer Pages Model 2 architecture.

In this article, Govind accomplished two major milestones in the use of the term "Model 2". The first milestone was to formalize the term "Model 2" as an architectural pattern rather than one of two possible options; the second milestone was the claim. Govind believed that because "Model 2" architecture separated the logic out of the JSP and placed it in a servlet, the two pieces could be seen as the "View" and the "Controller" in an MVC architecture; the "Model" part of the MVC architecture was left open by Govind, with a suggestion that nearly any data-structure could meet the requirements. The specific example used in the article was a Vector list stored in the user's session. In March 2000, the Apache Struts project was released; this project formalized the division between View and Controller and claimed implementation of the "Model 2" pattern. Once again, the implementation of the "Model" was left undefined with the expectation that software developers would fill in an appropriate solution.

Database interaction via JDBC and EJBs were options suggested on the Struts homepage. More Hibernate, iBatis, Object Relational Bridge were listed as more modern options that could be used for a model. Since the release of Struts, a number of competing frameworks have appeared. Many of these frameworks claim to implement "Model 2" and "MVC". In result, the two terms have become synonymous in the minds of developers; this has led to the use of the term "MVC Model 2" or "MVC2" for short. A common misconception is that a formalized MVC pattern is required to achieve a Model 2 implementation. However, the Java BluePrints warn against this interpretation: The literature on Web-tier technology in the J2EE platform uses the terms "Model 1" and "Model 2" without explanation; this terminology stems from early drafts of the JSP specification, which described two basic usage patterns for JSP pages. While the terms have disappeared from the specification document, they remain in common use. Model 1 and Model 2 refer to the absence or presence of a controller servlet that dispatches requests from the client tier and selects views.

Furthermore, the term "MVC2" has led many to a mistaken belief that Model 2 represents a next-generation MVC pattern. In fact, MVC2 is a shortening of the term "MVC Model 2"; the confusion over the term "MVC2" has led to additional confusion over Model 1 code, resulting in common usage of the nonexistent term "MVC1". Apache Struts is an open-source framework for implementing web-applications based on a Model 2 architecture. Understanding JavaServer Pages Model 2 architecture by Govind Seshadri A History of MVC, Including Model 2 ASP. NET Presentation Patterns - In this article Dino Esposito discusses how Model2 is used in ASP. NET MVC

Indiana Colony

The Indiana Colony refers to a group of Indiana residents who settled the area known today as Pasadena, California. The group was incorporated on January 31, 1874, by Indiana residents who sought warmer weather after the exceptionally cold winter of 1872–73; the settlers met in the home of Thomas Elliott, Daniel Berry was selected to visit Southern California with a direction to find suitable land at a suitable price. Berry visited San Diego, San Fernando, Rancho Santa Anita and Rancho San Pascual. After meeting Judge Benjamin Eaton and Benjamin Davis "Don Benito" Wilson, he was able to negotiate the purchase of lands in the eastern part of Rancho San Pascual near the Arroyo Seco; the recession of 1873 caused a few initial investors to withdraw from the settlement plans. Berry reincorporated the company into the Southern California Orange Grove Association enlisting any interested party and salvaging the purchasing power of the settlement; the nearly 4,000-acre property would become The Indiana Colony, the genesis of present-day Pasadena, California.

The midwest of 1873 had been hit by the hardest winter in up-to-date history which had many of those in Indianapolis longing for warmer climate and an environment where they could live among citrus groves and perennial flowers. With the laying of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, the idea of moving west became more possible and affordable, it was at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Elliott that a group of neighbors including Mrs. Elliot's brother, Daniel M. Berry, that the idea of going west was first discussed...adamantly. Berry was a former teacher become journalist who had a great interest in his brother-in-law's granary, he was an asthmatic and the midwest weather went hard on him. He contacted Harris Newmark who had purchased Rancho Santa Anita and was able to get pertinent information on the southland. Newmark stopped by Indianapolis and gave a first-hand account of California to the Elliotts et al. From that meeting the Hoosiers formed "The California Colony of Indiana", it took little time to fill the limited roll of the organizations membership.

Next was the task of investigating the California properties. From a committee of four it was Daniel Berry, left to set off to scout land in Southern California for the group of Indianapolis investors, he visited five regions: San Diego, San Fernando, Rancho Santa Anita and Rancho San Pascual. He was given a budgetary target of $5 per acre with. San Diego seemed an ideal spot, the price was right, but a series of windmills would have to be set up to pump water; the Company rejected the idea. Of San Bernardino he said, too hot. Of Anaheim he didn't care for the superabundance of fleas nor the number of "musketers". Of San Fernando he said, the price at $2 per acre was acceptable, but the area was only good for growing grain. There was too little access to water for citrus growing; the Indianans had their hearts set on orchards. Rancho Santa Anita was the collective lands of today's Arcadia, Duarte, El Monte, Baldwin Park; the property had everything required for citrus growing, but at $20 per acre the place was too expensive.

On September 12, 1873, Berry met Judge Benjamin Eaton who represented Dr. John S. Griffin of the Fair Oaks Ranch on Rancho San Pascual where he had his first good night's sleep in years, he fell in love with Rancho San Pascual, to keep his find a secret, he attached a cryptic name to the place as "Muscat" for the grapes that were grown so abundantly over the hillsides. The land was being offered for $10 per acre, but there was indecision between Dr. Griffin and Benjamin Wilson on dividing properties. Berry wrote Elliott requesting the money to purchase of Rancho San Pascual; the mail turn around response was two weeks. The Company decided to step part way to the asking price of Santa Anita with an offer of $15 per acre; this negotiation was never destined to be met, for one, the owner Newmark was not at home. Stock Market had been ruined the financial plans for the Indiana Colony. Elliott retained a few of the original investors and forwarded only $200 as a down payment on $25,000 of Muscat property.

Berry turned promoter and selectively enlisted more investors into the company under a new California incorporation, "The Southern California Orange Grove Association." He salvaged the purchasing power of the company. As Griffin and Wilson settled their land divisions, the association negotiated for a strip of 2,576 acres near the Arroyo Seco. Griffin offered an additional 1,386 acres which he acquired from Wilson, free of charge and taxes to the Colony as well, it was considered a gesture of good faith, but it was the sloughing of what was considered to be worthless highland property that would one day become Altadena. The lower tract of land would become The Indiana Colony; the name lasted for a while until. Up to this time, the mail was being brought up from Los Angeles by one resident's son, going to school there. Mail for the colony came to Los Angeles earmarked for "Indiana Colony," but when the community applied for a post office, the Postmaster General rejected the name Indiana Colony.

Thus began the search for a new name for the town which would end up being Pasadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury Early Pasadena History