Prince August, Duke of Dalarna
Prince Nikolaus August of Sweden and Norway, Duke of Dalarna was the youngest of the five children of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg. Born in Drottningholm Palace in Ekerö, Stockholm County, his eldest sibling was King Carl XV of Sweden, during parts of 1849-1853, he was a student at Uppsala University. On 10 December 1851, he was made a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. On 16 April 1864 in Altenburg, the Duke married Princess Therese Amalie of Saxe-Altenburg, Duchess of Saxony, the marriage did not produce issue. In Sweden, his wife was styled Princess Teresia, the Prince was very interested in trains and locomotives, and a locomotive was named after him. Since it was thought the Prince was not very bright, this led to the expression dummare än tåget. Prince August died at the age of 41 of pneumonia at the Royal Palace of Stockholm, Stockholm
Marie Julie Clary was born in Marseille, the daughter of François Clary, a wealthy silk manufacturer and merchant of Irish heritage, and his second wife Françoise Rose Somis. Her sister Désirée Clary, six years younger, became Queen of Sweden and Norway when her husband and their brother, Nicholas Joseph Clary, was created 1st Comte Clary and married Anne Jeanne Rouyer. On 1 August 1794, at Cuges, she married Joseph Bonaparte and she accompanied her spouse to Italy when he became ambassador to Rome in 1797, and settled with him in Paris in 1800. In 1804, when her brother-in-law Napoleon made himself emperor, he named his brother Joseph Imperial Prince, during the coronation of the emperor and empress the same year, Julie was given the task to carry the train of the empress with her sisters-in-law. Joseph was made King of Naples in 1806, thereby making Julie queen consort of Naples and she preferred to stay separated from him in Mortefontaine and was ceremoniously treated as queen in the Imperial court of Paris.
She finally joined Joseph in Naples before April 1808, when she was sent there by Napoleon to support him, as he by that time faced a rebellion. When they left, the Napolitans were convinced that they had removed many valuables with them, and commented, The King arrived like a sovereign, the Queen arrived in rags and left like a sovereign. In 1808, Joseph was made King of Spain and Julie thereby formally became Queen of Spain and she was the first queen of Spain not of royal birth. However, she did not join him when he traveled to Spain and in fact never lived there and she was kept informed from Vichy and Plombières about her husbands adulterous relationships in Spain. In Spain, she was referred to as Reina ausente, napoleons army was defeated at the Battle of Vitoria on 21 June 1813. After the deposition of Napoleon, Julie bought the castle of Prangins in Switzerland, during the Hundred Days in 1815, Julie was among those to welcome Napoleon to the Palace in Paris, dressed in Imperial court robe, alongside his former stepdaughter Hortense.
Julie went with her daughters to Frankfurt, where she stayed for six years and she settled in Brussels and in Florence, Italy, at the Serristori Palace. She did not socialize with the French people and she was described as charming, quiet and peaceful and generally well liked. In 1823, she parted with her sister Desiree, who, as the Queen of Sweden, in 1840, Joseph joined Julie in Florence. In spite of his adultery, she referred to Joseph as my beloved husband, Joseph Bonaparte died on 28 July 1844, aged 76. Julie died eight months in Florence, on 7 April 1845 and they were buried side by side at the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence. Joseph and Julie Bonaparte had three daughters, Julie Joséphine Bonaparte, zénaïde Laetitia Julie Bonaparte, had twelve children. Charlotte Napoléone Bonaparte, married in 1826 Napoléon Louis, eldest son of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, reinas de España, Casa de Borbón, I, Alderabán, El legado de la historia, Madrid,1999
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Frederick VI of Denmark
Frederick VI was King of Denmark from 13 March 1808 to 3 December 1839 and King of Norway from 13 March 1808 to 7 February 1814. From 1784 until his accession, he served as regent during his fathers illness and was referred to as the Crown Prince Regent. For his motto he chose God and the just cause and since the time of his reign, Frederick was born at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Frederick belonged to the House of Oldenburg and his parents were King Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain. He was born after 15 months of marriage, just a day before his fathers 19th birthday, as the eldest son of the ruling king, he automatically became crown prince at birth. On 30 January of the year, he was baptised at Christiansborg Palace by Ludvig Harboe. His godparents were King Christian VII, the dowager queen Juliana Maria and his half-uncle, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent and lover of Caroline Matilda, Fredericks mother. Both were ideologically influenced by Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau, while Struensee was in power, young Frederick was raised at Hirschholm Palace following the educational approach advocated by Rousseau in his famous work Émile.
Instead of receiving direct instruction, Frederick was expected to learn everything through his own efforts through playing with two boys as per Struensees instructions. On 8 January 1772, after the revolt against Struensee, Fredericks 18-year-old half-uncle Hereditary Prince Frederick was made regent, the real power, was held by Hereditary Prince Fredericks mother, Queen Dowager Juliana Maria, aided by Ove Høegh-Guldberg. It is said that during the coup, he engaged in a fistfight with his half-uncle over the regency and he continued as regent of Denmark under his fathers name until the latters death in 1808. During the regency, Frederick instituted widespread liberal reforms with the assistance of Chief Minister Andreas Peter Bernstorff, crises encountered during his reign include disagreement with the British over neutral shipping. This resulted in two British attacks on Copenhagen, the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801 and the Battle of Copenhagen of 1807, the conflict continued in the Gunboat War between Denmark-Norway and the United Kingdom, which lasted until the Treaty of Kiel in 1814.
There was speculation that he was to marry a Prussian princess and they married in Gottorp on 31 July 1790 and had eight children. Their eldest daughter, Princess Caroline married her father’s first cousin, the youngest, Princess Wilhelmine, became the wife of the future Frederick VII of Denmark. None of Frederick VIs sons survived infancy and when he died, he was succeeded by his cousin Christian VIII of Denmark, Frederick became King of Denmark on 13 March 1808. When the throne of Sweden seemed likely to become vacant in 1809, Fredericks brother-in-law, Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenborg, was first elected to the throne of Sweden, followed by the French Marshal Bernadotte. During the Napoleonic Wars, he tried to maintain Danish neutrality, however after the British bombardment of Copenhagen, after the French defeat in Russia in 1812, the Allies again asked him to change sides but he refused
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration. Prisons have only used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries. Far more common earlier were various types of punishment, public humiliation, penal bondage. Prisons contained both felons and debtors - the latter were allowed to bring in wives and children, the jailer made his money by charging the inmates for food and drink and legal services and the whole system was ripe with corruption. One reform of the century had been the establishment of the London Bridewell as a house of correction for women and children. This was the only place any medical services were provided, during the eighteenth century, British justice used a wide variety of measures to punish crime, including fines, the pillory and whipping. Transportation to America was often offered, until 1776, as an alternative to the death penalty, when they ran out of prisons in 1776 they used old sailing vessels which came to be called hulks as places of temporary confinement.
He was particularly appalled to discover prisoners who had been acquitted but were still confined because they couldnt pay the jailers fees and he proposed that each prisoner should be in a separate cell with separate sections for women felons, men felons, young offenders and debtors. The prison reform charity, the Howard League for Penal Reform and these were never built due to disagreements in the committee and pressures from wars with France and jails remained a local responsibility. But other measures passed in the few years provided magistrates with the powers to implement many of these reforms. Quakers such as Elizabeth Fry continued to publicize the dire state of prisons as did Charles Dickens in his novels David Copperfield and Little Dorrit about the Marshalsea. Samuel Romilly managed to repeal the death penalty for theft in 1806, the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, founded in 1816, supported both the Panopticon for the design of prisons and the use of the treadwheel as a means of hard labor.
By 1824,54 prisons had adopted this means of discipline, robert Peels Gaols Act of 1823 attempted to impose uniformity in the country but local prisons remained under the control of magistrates until the Prison Act of 1877. The American separate system attracted the attention of some reformers and led to the creation of Millbank Prison in 1816 and Pentonville prison in 1842. By now the end of transportation to Australia and the use of hulks was in sight, the main principles were separation and hard labour for serious crimes, using treadwheels and cranks. In 1877 he encouraged Disraelis government to remove all prisons from local government and he established a tradition of secrecy which lasted till the 1970s so that even magistrates and investigators were unable to see the insides of prisons. By the 1890s the prison population was over 20,000, in 1894-5 Herbert Gladstones Committee on Prisons showed that criminal propensity peaked from the mid-teens to the mid-twenties. Cross-country walks were encouraged, and no one ran away, Prison populations remained at a low level until after the second world war when Paterson died and the movement was unable to update itself
A crown prince or crown princess is the heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The wife of a prince is titled crown princess. The term is now borne as a title mainly in Asia and the Middle East, heirs apparent to non-imperial and non-royal monarchies, crown prince is not used as a title, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent. g. Former Crown Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan, compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title than the heir apparent and it is the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. It generally requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld, reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran. Paras, Crown Prince of Nepal Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia, Prince of the Said, meaning Prince of Upper Egypt Persia, Pahlavi dynasty and Qajar dynasty, the full style was Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun Vali Ahd, Shahzada, i. e.
His August Imperial Highness the Heir Apparent, the above component vali ahd meaning successor by virtue of a covenant was adopted by many oriental monarchies, even some non-Muslim, e. g. g. He was not necessarily the son, wonja. Southeast Asian traditions, Siam Makutrajakuman in Thailand since 1886, krom Phrarajawangboworn Sathanmongkol or Phra Maha Uparaja or commonly called Wang Na in Thailand prior to 1886. Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Anom in Yogyakarta sultanate and Surakarta, raja Muda or Tengku Mahkota in the Malay sultanates of Malaysia. org- here napoleonic section
The Riddarholm Church is the burial church of the Swedish monarchs. It is located on the island of Riddarholmen, close to the Royal Palace in Stockholm, the congregation was dissolved in 1807 and today the church is used only for burial and commemorative purposes. Swedish monarchs from Gustavus Adolphus to Gustaf V are entombed here, as well as the earlier monarchs Magnus III and it has been discontinued as a royal burial site in favor of the Royal Cemetery and today is run by departments of the Swedish Government and Royal Court. It is one of the oldest buildings in Stockholm, parts of it dating to the late 13th century, after the Protestant Reformation, the monastery was closed and the building transformed into a Protestant church. A spire designed by Willem Boy was added during the reign of John III, coats of arms of knights of the Order of the Seraphim are on the walls of the church. When a knight of the Order dies, his coat of arms is hung in the church, gamla stan Storkyrkan The Riddarholm Church at the Royal Courts website
Charles XIII of Sweden
Charles XIII & II Carl, Karl XIII, was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway from 1814 until his death. He was the son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia. Though known as King Charles XIII in Sweden, he was actually the seventh Swedish king by that name, Prince Charles was appointed grand admiral when he was but few days old. He was described as a dancer at the amateur theatre of the royal court. Reportedly he was not very close to his mother, the Queen preferred her youngest children, Sophie Albertine and Frederick Adolf. Charles was, his fathers favorite, and similar to him in personality and he was described as close to his brother Gustav during their childhood. This was in the period following the December Crisis. In 1770, he made a journey through Germany and France alone, upon the departure of his mother to Prussia, and the return of his brother, Gustav III managed to win him to his side. In 1772 he cooperated in the Revolution of 1772 of his elder brother and he was given the task to use his connections in the Caps party to neutralize it and secure the southern provinces by use of the military, tasks he performed successfully.
As a sign of recognition, he was given the title Duke of Södermanland by him, Duke Charles was early on the object of his mothers plans to arrange political marriages for her children. On the wish of his mother, he was to be married to her niece, his cousin Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt, the government, refused to issue negotiations because of the costs. As the King had not consummated his own marriage, he wished to place the task of providing an heir to the throne to his brother, Charles agreed to the marriage in August 1773, and the marriage took place the following year. After a false alarm of a pregnancy of Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte in 1775, the royal couple lived de facto separate private lives and both had extramarital affairs. Charles was described as dependent and easily influenced and his numerous affairs gave him the reputation of being a libertine. He unsuccessfully courted Magdalena Rudenschöld, and her refusal of his advances has been pointed out as the cause of the treatment he exposed her to as regent during the Armfelt conspiracy.
After the late 1790s, when his health deteriorated by a series of attacks, his relationship to his consort improved. The Duke was known for his interest in the supernatural and mysticism and he was of the Freemasons. He was reportedly a client of the fortune teller Ulrica Arfvidsson, in 1811, he founded the Order of Charles XIII, a Swedish order of chivalry awarded only to Protestant Freemasons
Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries, founded in 1477. It ranks among the best universities in Northern Europe in international rankings, the university uses Gratiae veritas naturae as its motto and embraces natural sciences. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment, in historiography, politics, many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala. It shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University, Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities. The university has nine faculties distributed over three “disciplinary domains” and it has about 24,000 full-time students and 2,400 doctoral students. It has a staff of roughly 1,800 out of a total of 6,500 employees. Twenty-five per cent of the 674 professors at the university are women, of its turnover of SEK5.9 billion in 2013, 30% was spent on education on basic and advanced level, while 66% was spent on research and research programs.
Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a presence in the area around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University initially grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, and had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages. As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had initially been chartered through a papal bull, Uppsalas bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, and established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms. This included the right to establish the four faculties of theology, law and philosophy, and to award the bachelors, licentiate.
The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the universitys Chancellor, Swedish students generally travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany, especially Wittenberg. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, and Charles, Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology, of the other four, a fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, who was appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, an eighth chair, in Medicine, was established in 1595 but received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was approximately 150, in 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place
Marie of Hesse-Kassel
Marie Sophie Frederikke of Hesse-Kassel was queen consort of Denmark and Norway. She served as regent of Denmark in 1814–1815, Marie was the eldest child of Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Louise of Denmark, born in Hanau. Her paternal grandparents were Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain and her maternal grandparents were Frederick V of Denmark and Louise of Great Britain, another daughter of George II and Caroline of Ansbach. Her father was the son of the ruler of Hesse-Kassel. Thus he acted in such positions as were offered to members of royal houses by their reigning relatives. Denmark offered more and better positions than the small Hesse-Kassel, Marie Sophie was largely raised in Denmark, where her father held notable positions, such as the governorships of provinces. Her mother was the third and youngest daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark and his consort, as such, she was the niece of King Christian VII and the Prince Regent Frederick, as well as their first cousin.
She spent her childhood at Gottorp Castle, were her father resided as governor and she was given a German education, and German was her first language. She was affected by her fathers interest in mysticism, and was fascinated by dreams. On 31 July 1790 in Gottorp, she married her first cousin Frederick, crown prince and regent of Denmark, who would in 1808 ascend as King Frederick VI. In the aftermath of the defeat of Denmarks ally, the French emperor Napoleon I, Denmark-Norway fell apart, Marie was selected by her cousin as his spouse mainly as a way for him to demonstrate his independence from his Court, who wanted a more political dynastic match. The marriage was greeted with enthusiasm by the public, as she was regarded as completely Danish and not as a foreigner. Her official entrance into Copenhagen 14 September 1790 was described as a triumph, while her first language was, in fact, she soon learned to speak Danish. She endured great pressure by the demand to produce a son, when her last childbirth in 1808 resulted in an injury which prevented further intercourse, she was forced to accept her spouses adultery with Frederikke Dannemand.
The relationship between Marie and Frederick VI was described as a friendship, and the political turmoil of the time reportedly created a trusting relationship between them. Marie followed her spouse to Holstein in 1805, where she lived with him until he became King in 1808, in 1808, Frederick became king, and Marie queen. Queen Marie was regent of Denmark from 5 September 1814 to 1 June 1815 and she managed the affairs of state very well, according to critics. In 1807-14, she wrote the Exposé de la politique du Danemarc, an analysis of the political condition of Denmark
Joseph is a masculine given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yossef, Tiberian Hebrew and Aramaic Yôsēp̄. The name can be translated from Hebrew יוסף יהוה yosef YHWH as signifying Yahweh will/shall increase/add, the name appears already in the book of Genesis, Joseph is Jacobs eleventh son and Rachels first son, and known in the Jewish Bible as Yossef ben-Yaakov. The form Joseph is used mostly in English and German-speaking countries, in Arabic, including in the Quran, the name is spelled يوسف or Yūsuf. It is especially common in contemporary Israel, as either Yossi or Yossef, and in Italy, diminutives of Joseph include Joe and Joey. The feminine form of the name, Josephine, is abbreviated to Jo. Joseph Dempsie, British actor Joseph Dennie, American writer Josef Dobrovský, Czech philologist and historian Joe DiMaggio, New York Yankees hall of famer Joe Dolan, Irish Showband singer Joseph W. DJ Run, of rap group Run-DMC Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement Joseph Smith, III, son of Joseph Smith and an American Mormon.
Saint Joseph Josef Jozef József Yosef, a variation of the name in Hebrew, and the Dutch eye dialect of the name Yusuf, as rendered in Islam/Arabic Joe