Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg
Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg is the fourth child and only daughter of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa. She has three older brothers – Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, Prince Félix and Prince Louis, and one younger – Prince Sébastien, alexandras godparents are Michel, 14th Prince of Ligne, and Princess Maria-Anna Galitzine, born an Archduchess of Austria. Princess Alexandra attended primary school at Angelsberg and finished her education at the Lycée Vauban in Luxembourg. She received her baccalauréat with honors in the literature stream and she attended university in the United States at Franciscan University of Steubenville. Princess Alexandra is currently preparing her Master in conflict resolution in Dublin, the Princess has worked in the field of journalism in the Middle East. Princess Alexandra is interested in politics and religious studies and she works as a volunteer to help refugees. Excluded from the line of succession from birth until 2011, when absolute primogeniture was adopted in respect to Grand Duke Henris descendants, Prince Louis gave up his place in the line of succession when he married Tessy Antony.
Princess Alexandra takes part in events involving her family, She was a bridesmaid at the 2013 marriage of her brother Prince Félix of Luxembourg to Claire Lademacher. She undertakes occasional solo engagements, for visiting a sports day for school students with disabilities. Princess Alexandra is the godmother to Prince Louis and Princess Tessys son, Prince Gabriel de Nassau and Prince Félix and Princess Claires daughter, Princess Amalia of Nassau
William III of the Netherlands
William III was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866, William was the son of King William II and Anna Pavlovna of Russia. On the abdication of his grandfather William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange, on the death of his father in 1849, he succeeded as King of the Netherlands. William married his cousin Sophie of Württemberg in 1839 and they had three sons, William and Alexander, all of whom predeceased him. After Sophies death in 1877 he married Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont in 1879 and they had one daughter Wilhelmina, William was born on 19 February 1817 in the Palace of the Nation in Brussels, which was part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. He was the eldest son of the future king William II of the Netherlands and he had three brothers, one of whom died in infancy, and one sister. In 1827, at the age of ten, he was made a colonel in the Royal Netherlands Army.
In the 1830s, he served as lieutenant in the Grenadiers Regiment, in 1834, he was made honorary commander of the Grenadiers Regiment of Kiev nr.5 in the Imperial Russian Army. He married his first cousin, daughter of King William I of Württemberg and Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia and this marriage was unhappy and was characterized by struggles about their children. Sophie was an intellectual, hating everything leaning toward dictatorship. William was simpler, more conservative, and loved the military and he prohibited intellectual exercise at home, for which action Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who corresponded with Princess Sophie, called him an uneducated farmer. Another cause of tension was his capriciousness, he could rage against someone one day. William loathed the 1848 constitutional changes initiated by his father and Johan Rudolf Thorbecke and his father saw them as key to the monarchys survival in changing times. Sophie, who was a liberal, shared this view, William himself saw them as useless limitations of royal power, and would have preferred to govern as an enlightened despot in the mold of his grandfather, William I.
He considered relinquishing his right to the throne to his younger brother Henry and his mother convinced him to cancel this action. The Dutch constitution provided no way to relinquish ones claim to the throne, on 17 March 1849 his father died and William succeeded to the throne of the Netherlands. He was at that moment a guest of the Duchess of Cleveland in Raby Castle, representatives of the Dutch government traveled to London to meet their new king in London. William was reluctant to return, but he was convinced to do so, upon arrival the new Queen welcomed her spouse with the question did you accept
Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Prince Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, has been heir apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his fathers accession in 2000. He was named after his fathers youngest brother Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Guillaume has four younger siblings, Prince Félix, Prince Louis, Princess Alexandra and Prince Sébastien. He began his higher studies in the United Kingdom where he studied at University College and Brunel University. In 2006 he entered Institut Philanthropos in Fribourg, where he spent a year studying philosophy and he studied letters and political science at the Institut Albert-le-Grand in Angers, receiving his bachelors degree with honors in 2009. His degree was issued by Université dAngers, as a result of an agreement between the two schools. Guillaume has been apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his fathers accession in 2000. If he succeeds to the ducal throne, he will reign as the fifth of his name, Guillaume V. He has been chairman of the Board of Economic Development of Luxembourg since 2001.
He was formerly active with the Kraizberg Foundation, an institution for the disabled. On 26 April 2012, the announced the engagement of the Hereditary Grand Duke to the Belgian Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy. The civil wedding took place on Friday,19 October 2012, Guillaume is interested in music and sports, he plays piano and enjoys football and volleyball. He speaks Luxembourgish, German and English and he regularly represents his parents in many foreign activities
Order of Adolphe of Nassau
After the duchy of Nassau was annexed by Prussia in 1866 and Adolphe became Grand Duke of Luxembourg in 1890, he revived the order as an order of merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The award recognises those persons that have performed meritorious actions or heroic deeds in the name of Luxembourg, members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the Grand Master of the Order, the Order of Adolphe of Nassau may be issued to foreigners and is common as a diplomatic order. The decoration was issued as well in World War II to a handful of Allied officers who had helped liberate Luxembourg from the rule of Nazi Germany. The badge of the order is a cross, enamelled in white and featuring eight points. The central disc of the front side bears the gold letter A in Gothic script the crowned by an imperial crown, the whole is encircled by a laurel crown on a blue-enamelled background on which the motto Virtute is inscribed in gold letters. The other side has the inscriptions 1292 and 1858, in letters on a white-enamelled background.
The military division shows two crossed swords under the central medallion. The classes of the crown have a gold crown attached above the badge, the plaque of the civil division of the Order is an eight-pointed faceted silver star, or a faceted silver Maltese Cross with silver rays between the arms. The central disc is the same to that of the badge, the plaque of the military division shows two additional crossed swords under the central medallion, with gold hilts and silver blades, and the corresponding badge shows two crossed swords in gold. The cross is shaped in the form as the batch, but non-enamelled. The medal is shaped, made of gold, silver or bronze. The ribbon of the order is blue moiré with an orange stripe at each edge. The order rewards those who have excelled in the arts and sciences, all the grades of the Order of Civil and Military Merit of Adolph of Nassau are bestowed by a decree signed by the Grand Duke and countersigned by the chancellor of the order. When the order is conferred on foreign nationals, the consent of the government must be sought.
By statute of the order and princesses of the Grand-Ducal House of Luxembourg are Grand Crosses of the Order by birth, but they dont wear the order decoration until they are 18 years old. Honorary distinctions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Official website of the Luxembourg gouvernement World Medals Index, Luxembourg and Military Order of Merit of Adolph of Nassau
Monarchy of the Netherlands
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the constitution of the Netherlands. William became the leader of the Dutch Revolt and the independent Dutch Republic, as stadtholder, he was followed by several of his descendants. In 1747, the function of stadtholder became a position in all Provinces of the thus crowned Dutch Republic. The last stadtholder was William V and his son William I, became the first king. The cycle of monarchs is described in the first section of Chapter 2 of the constitution, the monarchy of the Netherlands passes by right of succession to the heirs of William I. The heir is determined through two mechanisms, absolute cognatic primogeniture and proximity of blood, the Netherlands established absolute cognatic primogeniture instead of male preference primogeniture by law in 1983. Proximity of blood limits accession to the throne to a person who is related to the current monarch within three degrees of kinship.
For example, the grandchildren of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, have no succession rights because their kinship with Beatrix when she was queen was of the fourth degree. Also, succession is limited to heirs, precluding a claim to the throne by children born out of wedlock. A special case arises if the king dies while his wife is pregnant, so, if the old king dies while his wife is pregnant with their first child, the unborn child is immediately considered born and immediately becomes the new king. If the pregnancy ends in stillbirth, his or her reign is expunged, If the monarch is a minor, a regent is appointed and serves until the monarch comes of age. There are a number of cases within the constitution. First, if there is no heir when the monarch dies the States-General may appoint a successor upon the suggestion of the government and this suggestion may be made before the death of the reigning monarch, even by the monarch himself. Second, some people are excluded from the line of succession and they are, Any heir who marries without the permission of the States-General loses the right of succession.
A person who is or has become truly undesirable or unfit as monarch can be removed from the line of succession by an act of the States-General and this clause has never been executed and is considered an emergency exit. An example would be an heir apparent who commits treason or suffers a serious accident, as with most monarchies, the Netherlands cannot be without a monarch — the constitution of the Netherlands does not recognize a situation in which there is no monarch. This is because there must be a head of state in order for the government to function, for this reason the new monarch assumes his role the moment the previous monarch ceases to hold the throne. The only exception is if there is no heir at all, the monarch is expected to execute his duties and responsibilities for the good of the nation
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Military Order of William
The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William, is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Orders motto is Voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw, the chivalric order was established on 30 April 1815 by King William I and was presented for feats of excellent bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration to senior military officers. To date the Order is extremely rarely awarded and only for excellent bravery in battle, in the spring of 1940 it was decided that civilians would receive the Military Order of William for heroic acts in the resistance. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, several men, the Grand Cross was awarded to Prince William of Orange, the Duke of Wellington, Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt, Graf von Bülow von Dennewitz and Graf von Gneisenau. Until 1940, a total of 5,874 persons had been awarded the Military Order of William, in 1940, the Order was awarded to soldiers who had served with extreme valour in the defence of Netherlands from the 10 May attack by Nazi-Germany.
Of the 3,500 servicemen who served in the Netherlands United Nations Detachment in Korea, since 1940,199 names have been added to the register of the Military Order of William. The latest conflict that has been cause for the honour to be awarded is the war in Afghanistan. Kroon was honoured for bravery and devotion to duty during his service in Afghanistan from March to August,2006. By 1945, the classes of the Military William Order were in existence. The Grand Cross could be awarded as a presentation to heads of state which had displayed feats of loyalty to the Netherlands during wartime. Only US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the British King George VI were conferred such an honour, in the 19th century, the Grand Cross was often conferred on foreign monarchs as a mere mark of respect. The 4th Class could be awarded as a presentation to military commands which had displayed feats of gallantry during wartime. The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the 4th Class and in gilt for higher classes, the obverse bears a golden firesteel at the centre, and the motto Voor Moed – Beleid – Trouw on the arms of the Maltese Cross.
The reverse central disc bears a crowned monogram W surrounded by a laurel wreath, the badge hangs from a royal crown. The star of the Grand Cross is a silver, 8-pointed star with straight rays, the breast cross of the Commander is completely identical to the obverse of the badge of the Order. The ribbon of the Order is orange with blue stripes near the border, to be awarded the Military William Order a military unit must distinguish itself in battle to such a degree as would warrant the personal presentation of the Military William Order. The units Regimental Colour are decorated with the badge of the 4th Class itself, the version of the Military William Order for unit members is known as the Orange Lanyard. Only those who served in a unit at the particular time of action are entitled to wear the Orange Lanyard
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands
Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau is the second daughter of King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima. Princess Alexia is member of the Dutch Royal House and second in the line of succession to the Dutch throne, Princess Alexia was born in the HMC Bronovo in The Hague. Her baptism took place on 19 November 2005 in Wassenaar, Alexia has an elder sister, Catharina-Amalia, The Princess of Orange, and a younger sister, Ariane. She speaks Dutch and Spanish, in February 2016, while on a skiing holiday with her family in Austria, Princess Alexia broke her right femur. She was transported via helicopter to a hospital and had surgery to repair the injury. After a few days in hospital she was released and will require the use of crutches while she heals, updates on Princess Alexias condition have been posted on the official website of the Dutch monarchy. The accident occurred in the area as the avalanche which resulted in eventually fatal injuries to her paternal uncle and godfather, Prince Friso.
Alexias full title and style is, Her Royal Highness Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the countrys first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism, ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born in Mvezo to the Thembu royal family and he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943, after the National Partys white-only government established apartheid—a system of racial segregation that privileged whites—he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANCs Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial.
Influenced by Marxism, he joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, in 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk negotiated an end to apartheid and organised the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory, internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy. Mandela became a statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Mandela was a figure for much of his life. Widely regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba. Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata, given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning troublemaker, in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba. His patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africas modern Eastern Cape province, one of Ngubengcukas sons, named Mandela, was Nelsons grandfather and the source of his surname. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrates unreasonable demands
Order of the Crown (Netherlands)
The Order of the Crown is a house order of the Dutch Royal House. The order came into being as a result of Queen Julianas reorganization of the Order of the House of Orange in 1969, the 18 classes of the House order were no longer felt to be appropriate in the ever more egalitarian Dutch society of the 1960s. The Order was divided into five subdivisions, as a house order it is not subject to ministerial responsibility or influence, but is awarded at the discretion of the Dutch monarch alone. The Order of the Crown is intended for foreigners who have rendered special service to the Dutch King or his House, the former queen, instituted a silver medal to commemorate state visits. The Order of the Crown has the five grades and three medals. This allows the Dutch monarch to dispense the decorations according to rank especially during state visits, Princess of Wales received the Grand-cross order of the Order of the Crown, whereas Charles, Prince of Wales has been given the Grand-Cross of the Order of Oranje-Nassau