Oregon Geographic Names is a compilation of the origin and meaning of place names in the U. S. state of Oregon, published by the Oregon Historical Society. The book was published in 1928, it was edited by Lewis A. McArthur; as of 2011, the book is in its seventh edition, compiled and edited by Lewis L. McArthur. In its introduction, it identifies six periods in the history of the state which have contributed to the establishment of local names: The thousands of years of Native American life. Entries are listed in alphabetical order beginning with A B Crossing, a railroad station in Coos County; the last entry is an island near Brookings, Oregon. The first three editions were published by Binford & Mort; the seventh edition includes a CD-ROM with a complete biographic and geographic index as well as various maps of Oregon locations. Lewis L. McArthur died in 2018, his daughter, Mary McArthur took over editorship for the book's upcoming 8th edition
The Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross known as the Vietnamese Gallantry Cross or Vietnam Cross of Gallantry is a military decoration of the former Government of South Vietnam. The medal was created on August 15, 1950 and was awarded to military personnel and Armed Forces units and organizations in recognition of deeds of valor or heroic conduct while in combat with the enemy. Individuals who received the medal, a citation were cited at the Armed Forces, Division, Brigade or Regiment level; the Republic of Vietnam authorized members of units and organizations that were cited, to wear the Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Emblem with Palm and Frame. The medal is gold in color, 35 mm wide, it consists of a Celtic cross with two crossed swords between the arms. The cross is superimposed over a wreath; the center of the cross contains a disc with the outline of the country of Vietnam between two palm branches joined at the bottom. A scroll is on top of the map and is inscribed "QUOC-GIA LAO-TUONG"; the suspension ribbon of the medal is 35 mm wide and is made up of the following stripes: 9 mm of Old Glory Red.
The center stripe has sixteen strands of Old Glory Red. DegreesThe Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross was awarded in four degrees, with a basic medal followed by higher degrees which were the equivalent of personal citations on an organizational level; the degrees of the Gallantry Cross are as follows: Gallantry Cross with Palm: cited at the Armed Forces level Gallantry Cross with Gold Star: cited at the Corps level Gallantry Cross with Silver Star: cited at the Division level Gallantry Cross with Bronze Star: cited at the Regiment or Brigade levelRibbon devicesThe devices to the Gallantry Cross are not worn but instead are upgraded to the next higher device which would replace the previous device for wear on the decoration. U. S. Marine Corps uniform regulations in 2003 state the recipient should wear only one Gallantry Cross award regardless of the number received. For multiple awards, wear as many authorized devices as will fit on one medal suspension ribbon or ribbon bar. Wear the devices for subsequent awards in order of seniority from the wearer's right.
The first palm is 6⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Subsequent palms are 3⁄8 inch on the service ribbon. Stars are 3⁄8 inch. Service versionsThe Gallantry Cross was awarded to members of all military branches, as well as service members of foreign and allied militaries; the named decorations were the Air Gallantry Cross and Navy Gallantry Cross. These decorations were awarded under a different authority, with different criteria, were considered separate decorations; the Unit Citation Emblem of the colors of the Gallantry Cross is awarded to personnel in the South Vietnamese military and Allied military units that have been cited and presented a decoration, prescribed to be awarded on a collective basis. Known as the Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation with Palm, the Unit Citation Emblem in the colors of the Gallantry Cross with Palm, was created on January 20, 1968 and was issued with the Gallantry Cross ribbon bar with a 5⁄32 by 9⁄16 inch bronze palm and a gold frame; the former South Vietnamese military awarded the Gallantry Cross to specific military units that distinguished themselves to the same level as would be required for the individual award.
Regulations for the issuance of the Vietnam Gallantry Cross permit the wearing of both the individual and unit award since both are considered separate awards. The Gallantry Cross was awarded to every Allied nation; the Gallantry Cross became the most awarded Vietnamese decoration to foreigners, second only to the Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal. FourragereThe South Vietnamese military Fourragere in the colors of the Gallantry Cross represented a military unit cited two times, it was a brilliant golden-yellow, with red intermixed. Department of the Army message 111030Z from April 1974, established the policy that only one emblem for a unit award was authorized to be worn at a time; this change resulted in the fourragere being no longer authorized for wear, as it was representative of multiple awards. U. S. authorizationRepublic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation: U. S. Department of Defense: U. S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam and its subordinate units, 8 Feb 1962 to 28 Mar 1973 U.
S. Army and its subordinate units, 20 July 1965 to 28 Mar 1973 This permits all personnel who served in Vietnam to wear the RVN Gallantry Cross unit citation. Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation. S. Navy and Marine Corps: In addition to specific ships/units, all personnel who served "in country" Vietnam, 8 February 1962 to 28 March 1973; the United States military began authorizing the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross in March 1968 with retroactive presentation of the decoration to 1961. In 1974, Army General Order Number 8 confirmed eligibility for the Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm and Frame Unit Citation to every military unit of the United States Army which had served under the Military Assistance Command from 1961 to 1974, orders, specific as to dates and units, do exist for specific Army commands as well as for members of other services not affected by the Army General Order. Award requestsThe National Personnel Reco
A fire proximity suit is a suit designed to protect a firefighter or volcanologist from high temperatures. They were first used in the 1930s. Made of asbestos fabric, current models use vacuum-deposited aluminized materials. Fire proximity suits first appeared during the 1930s, were made of asbestos fabric. Today they are manufactured from vacuum-deposited aluminized materials that reflect the high radiant loads produced by the fire. An early manufacturer of the aluminized suits was the Bristol Uniforms company under of Patrick Seager Hill. There are three basic types of these aluminized suits: Approach suit—used for work in the general area of high temperatures such as steel mills and smelting facilities; these provide ambient heat protection up to ≈200 °F. Proximity suit—used for aircraft rescue and fire fighting and, in more insulated versions, for kiln work requiring entry into the heated kiln; the former provide ambient heat protection up to ≈500 °F, while the latter provide much higher degrees of protection, sometimes up to ≈2,000 °F.
Entry suit—used for entry into extreme heat and situations requiring protection from total flame engulfment. Most made of Zetex or Vermiculite and not aluminized; these provide ambient protection up to ≈2,000 °F ) for short duration, prolonged radiant heat protection up to ≈1,500 °F. Complete proximity protection for AR-FF requires: Aluminized hood or helmet cover with neck shroud Aluminized jacket and pants complete with vapor barrier insulated liner Aluminized lined gloves Aluminized AR-FF boots Self-contained breathing apparatus Hazmat suit "Fire Rescue", Flight, 20 November 1941 – contemporary article on asbestos suits
The Calcutta Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology is a non-profit, voluntary organisation involved in research, publication and service programs in gerontology. It is located in India, it was established in 1988. The aims and objectives of this organization is to provide a meaningful life to the elderly and to integrate them with the mainstream of the society; the Calcutta Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology is a non-profit, secular organisation has designed and evaluated number of programs for the elderly belonging to different Socio Economic Statuses. The institute offers a one-year postgraduate diploma course in Gerontology and Age Management, in collaboration with the prestigious and historic University of Calcutta. Official website Article on its association with CU By Indrani Chakravarty, Calcutta Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology
The Second Federal Republic of Mexico is the name given to the second attempt to achieve a federalist government in Mexico. Called the United Mexican States, a federal republic was implemented again on August 22, 1846 when interim president José Mariano Salas issued a decree restoring the 1824 constitution. Like the Mexican Empire, the First Federal Republic and the Centralist Republic it was a chaotic period, marked by political instability that resulted in several internal conflicts. Mexico's loss of the war with the United States saw half the territory Mexico claimed become part of the United States. Though Antonio López de Santa Anna played a major role in much of this history, he returned to the presidency yet again, selling northern territory coveted by the United States contiguous to territory it just gained in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; the sale of the Mesilla Valley was for many the final straw, liberals promulgated of the Plan of Ayutla, calling for the overthrow of Santa Anna.
Santa Anna went into the liberals set about implementing their vision of Mexico. Liberals enacted a series of separate reforms and the Constitution of 1857, collectively known as the Liberal Reform, which sparked a civil war, known as the War of the Reform; the conservatives lost the War of the Reform. After losing the war, conservatives sought another political alternative, which involved the second French intervention in Mexico, with Mexican conservative support, established the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican conservatives' political interests were in tandem with the expansionism of Napoleon III of France. Conservatives invited Maximilian Habsburg to serve as monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. Mexican republicans fought against the French invaders and were defeated on the battlefield, but Benito Juárez did not resign the presidency, operated a government in exile, which the United States continued to recognize as the legitimate Mexican government; the republic was restored by Juárez in 1867 after the withdrawal of the French and the execution of Maximilian.
With conservatives discredited by their support of the ill-fated monarchy, Juárez was able to implement liberal policies. This period of federalism in Mexico is known as the Restored Republic, lasting from 1867 to the 1876 coup of liberal army general, Porfirio Díaz, ushering in a long period of authoritarian rule and economic development known as the Porfiriato; the liberal constitution remained nominally in force, with regular elections held that were seen as fraudulent. The Constitution of 1857 was supplanted by the Mexican Constitution of 1917, as an outcome of the Mexican Revolution. In the midst of war with the United States, Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga staged a coup against the government of interim President José Joaquín de Herrera. Shortly afterwards, the Congress appointed him interim president. On July 28, 1846 Mariano Paredes left the presidency to command the army in battle against the invaders from the United States, vice president Bravo took office. On August 4 the federalists led an uprising.
Mariano Salas took office as provisional president on August 6. With the constitution again in force, centralism ended and the federal system was restored; the war between Mexico and the United States began on May 13, 1846, but there had been battles before that date. Mexico, in turn, declared war on the United States on May 23. After the declarations of war, US forces invaded Mexican territory in Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila and Alta California, while at the same time blocking the ports of Tampico, Guaymas and San Blas and occupying Santa Fe, San Diego and Los Angeles; the main US force continued through to the Rio Grande and into Mexico, defeating the forces of Pedro Ampudia in the Battle of Monterrey. On December 24, the Congress declared Antonio López de Santa Anna acting president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice president. Gómez Farías assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, fighting the US. After the battles of Angostura, Padierna and Molino del Rey, the Castle of Chapultepec was defended by young cadets who became known as Niños Héroes.
During the assault, the castle's commanders, were taken prisoner. The fall of Chapultepec had two immediate consequences: the US occupation of Mexico City and the resignation of Santa Anna from the presidency on September 16, 1847. Following the resignation of Santa Anna, Manuel de la Peña y Peña assumed the office. On September 26 he established the seat of federal power in nearby Toluca and in Querétaro, where Congress convened. On November 11, De la Peña left office to serve as chancellor and negotiate peace with the United States Congress. Anaya, refusing to satisfy the land claims of the United States, resigned on January 8, 1848. Manuel de la Pena y Pena was again named provisional president, was dedicated to negotiating peace. On February 2 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, in which Mexico ceded 2,400,000 square kilometres of northern territory. De la Peña was able to save for Mexico the Baja Peninsula a
The Legend of Zelda: Spirit Tracks is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo DS handheld game console. An installment in The Legend of Zelda series, it was released worldwide in December 2009; the game was re released for the Wii U Virtual Console in October 2016. Like its predecessors The Wind Waker and Phantom Hourglass, Spirit Tracks features a cel-shaded art style. Link, the protagonist of Spirit Tracks, travels across the game's overworld using a cannon-equipped steam train much like the steamboat in Phantom Hourglass; the player is able to control Phantoms, play an instrument known as the Spirit Flute. Spirit Tracks is the first Zelda title to feature multiple endings which affect Link's ultimate outcome. Spirit Tracks continues its style of gameplay from The Legend of Zelda: Phantom Hourglass, in which players use the stylus to control Link and use weapons and items; the game is divided into an overworld, which Link traverses using the Spirit Tracks, towns and dungeons which he travels by foot.
The player alternates between exploring the overworld and exploring towns and dungeons in order to complete the game's main story, but may opt to complete sidequests for further rewards. In the overworld and dungeons, the player is able to make notes on their current map as an aid in puzzle solving and continuing the story. In the overworld, Link is able to direct his train across land, with the ability to control speed and forward or reverse direction, to turn at track intersections, to blow the train's whistle to scare animals off the tracks; the player is able to automatically set a route for the train by drawing on the map, though not all locations are available. Link is given a cannon that he can use to defend the train from attacks. Link eventually gains a cargo car, which he can use to move goods between towns; some missions require Link to transport a passenger along the rails, require the player to keep the passenger happy. As the game progresses, the player opens more of the map. In towns and dungeons, the player controls Link using the stylus, directing the character where to go.
The stylus is used to perform attacks and dodges and to select items such as bombs and a boomerang, used for combat and puzzle solving. Certain items, in particular Zelda's pan flute, require the player to blow into the DS's microphone. In the case of the pan flute, completing songs can unlock new magical songs, reveal hidden secrets, heal Link, or restore more of the Spirit Tracks. In certain dungeons, the ethereal Zelda can inhabit Phantom Guardians; the player can direct the possessed Phantom along a stylus-drawn path to attack enemies or follow Link. Several puzzles of the game require the player to manipulate Link and the Zelda-possessed Phantom to complete a goal. In towns, the player can have Link speak to its residents, buy goods at local stores, learn helpful tips. Unlike The Legend of Zelda: Phantom Hourglass, Spirit Tracks does not feature Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection multiplayer. However, up to four players can play via DS Download Play, using only one game card, only one game system per player.
This multiplayer mode is non-canonical, as all four players play as different Links, each with different-colored tunics. Each player attempts to collect as many Force Gems as possible within a set time limit. Opposition includes the other players. Results of the most recent game played will show up on a bulletin in most in-game cities. "Tag Mode", an item trading system, is available between local players. Spirit Tracks features major changes from Phantom Hourglass. While Phantom Hourglass required the player to traverse through the same floors of the Temple of the Ocean King multiple times, Spirit Tracks uses a spiral staircase to access upper floors. Unlike Phantom Hourglass is the lack of the "curse" that the hourglass protected Link from for a limited amount of time. In the Zelda timeline, Spirit Tracks takes place one hundred years after the events of The Wind Waker and Phantom Hourglass, at the end of the "Adult Timeline"; the game is set in the land of New Hyrule, a kingdom founded by Tetra after the events of Phantom Hourglass.
An incarnation of the protagonist Link, an engineering apprentice ready to become a qualified train engineer, travels to Hyrule Castle to receive his engineer's certificate from current incarnation of Princess Zelda. Although Zelda's adviser, Chancellor Cole, believes that the ceremony is pointless, as the Spirit Tracks that make up the train systems around Hyrule are disappearing, Zelda continues on with the ceremony. Once finished, Zelda secretly gives Link a note to meet her in her quarters and warns him to not trust Chancellor Cole. There, Zelda implores Link to help her escape the castle and take her to the Tower of Spirits with his train, where she believes the mystery of the disappearing tracks can be solved. To sneak out of the castle, Zelda gives Link the Recruit Uniform of the castle guards to blend in, distracting them while Zelda sneaks past. While en route to the Tower of Spirits with Link's engineering teacher Alfonzo, the tracks they are on disappear, nearly causing the train to tip over.
As Link and Zelda watch, the Tower breaks into pieces. They are ambushed by Chancellor Cole, revealing himself to be a horned demon, with a henchman named Byrne. Alfonzo and Link are unable to protect Zelda