Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the countrys economic and historic center. Istanbul is a city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side, the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around 14.7 million residents. Istanbul is one of the worlds most populous cities and ranks as the worlds 7th-largest city proper, founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as a capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine, the Latin. Overlooked for the new capital Ankara during the period, the city has since regained much of its prominence.
The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in, music and cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network, considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years, the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin.
He attempted to promote the name Nova Roma and its Greek version Νέα Ῥώμη Nea Romē, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect, even if not historically inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase εἰς τὴν Πόλιν and this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name Der Saadet meaning the gate to Prosperity in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first, a Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol plenty of Islam because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire
Mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area. When Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was taken to Troy by Paris, upon Agamemnons return from Troy, he was murdered by Aegisthus, the lover of his wife, Clytemnestra. In some versions Clytemnestra herself does the killing, or they act together as accomplices, Agamemnons father, murdered the children of his twin brother Thyestes and fed them to Thyestes after discovering Thyestes adultery with his wife Aerope. Thyestes fathered Aegisthus with his own daughter and this son vowed gruesome revenge on Atreus children, Aegisthus successfully murdered Atreus and restored his father to the throne. Aegisthus took possession of the throne of Mycenae and jointly ruled with Thyestes, during this period Agamemnon and his brother, took refuge with Tyndareus, King of Sparta. There they respectively married Tyndareus daughters Clytemnestra and Helen and Clytemnestra had four children, one son and three daughters, Iphigenia and Chrysothemis.
Menelaus succeeded Tyndareus in Sparta, while Agamemnon, with his brothers assistance, drove out Aegisthus and he extended his dominion by conquest and became the most powerful prince in Greece. Thus misfortune hounded successive generations of the House of Atreus, until atoned by Orestes in a court of justice held jointly by humans, Agamemnon gathered the reluctant Greek forces to sail for Troy. Preparing to depart from Aulis, which was a port in Boeotia, including a plague and a lack of wind, prevented the army from sailing. Finally, the prophet Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be propitiated by the sacrifice of Agamemnons daughter Iphigenia and her death appeased Artemis, and the Greek army set out for Troy. Several alternatives to the human sacrifice have been presented in Greek mythology, hesiod said she became the goddess Hecate. Agamemnon was the commander-in-chief of the Greeks during the Trojan War, during the fighting, Agamemnon killed Antiphus and fifteen other Trojan soldiers.
The Iliad tells the story about the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in the year of the war. Following one of the Achaean Armys raids, daughter of Chryses, Chryses pleaded with Agamemnon to free his daughter but was met with little success. Chryses prayed to Apollo for the return of his daughter. After learning from the Prophet Calchas that the plague could be dispelled by returning Chryseis to her father, Agamemnon reluctantly agreed, however, as compensation for his lost prize, Agamemnon demanded a new prize. As a result, Agamemnon stole an attractive slave called Briseis, one of the spoils of war, the greatest warrior of the age, withdrew from battle in response to Agamemnons supposedly evil deed and allegedly put the Greek armies at risk of losing the war. Although not the equal of Achilles in bravery, Agamemnon was a representative of kingly authority, as commander-in-chief, he summoned the princes to the council and led the army in battle
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to points by grounding a ball on the other teams court under organized rules. It has been a part of the program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court, the team may touch the ball up to 3 times but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point, the ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing, the game took some of its characteristics from tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be a sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft ×50 ft court, and any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, and no limit to the number of contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents court. In case of an error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve, Volleyball rules were slightly modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs. The first official ball used in volleyball is disputed, some say that Spalding created the first official ball in 1896. In 1917, the game was changed from 21 to 15 points, in 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries. The first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900, an international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, and the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women.
The sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, and in countries including China. Beach volleyball, a variation of the played on sand. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled, nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s
Many countries have had or currently have laws restricting immigration. Whether a person is permitted to stay in a country legally may be decided by quotas or point systems or may be based on such as family ties. Article 13 on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares the right to any country, including ones own. Illegal immigration, as well as immigration in general, is overwhelmingly upward, however, it is noted that illegal immigrants tend not to be the poorest within the populations they emigrate from. Living in another country illegally includes a variety of restrictions as well as the risk of being detained and deported or of facing other sanctions, if the status of being illegal is any way perceivable to host community residents, illigal migrants may additionally face visible or verbal disdain. There have been campaigns in many countries since 2007 discouraging the use of the illegal immigrant. They are generally based on the argument that the act of immigrating illegally does not make the people themselves illegal, related terms that do not directly describe people are still used.
For example, Associated Press still uses the illegal immigration to describe the action of entering or residing in a country illegally. In contrast, in some contexts the term illegal immigrants is shortened, often pejoratively, there are multiple models that try to explain illegal immigration from the perspective of the immigrants. Gaining employment and legal status are mainly what is perceived as successful result of the illegal immigration, there are two contradicting views on the impact of illegal immigrants on the labor market in terms of competition between host community workers and newcomers. According to this view it is assumed that illegal workers tend to add to, and compete with, Illegal workers may find employment by accepting lower wages than host community workers, sometimes below the minimum wage and off-the-books. This may result in a downward spiralling of wages, economist George Borjas has calculated that real wages of US workers without a high school degree declined by 9% from 1980–2000 and claims that this was due to competition from illegal immigrants.
Since the decline of middle-class blue-collar jobs in manufacturing and industry, in the US, only 12% of the labor force has less than high school education, but 70% of illegal workers from Mexico lack a high school degree. The majority of new blue-collar jobs qualify as Masseys underclass work, and suffer from unreliability, subservient roles and, from this it is assumed that the willingness to take undesirable jobs is what gives illegal immigrants their employment. Entry-level white-collar and service jobs offer advancement opportunities only for people with work permits, the advantage decreases with the skill level of the firms workers, In recent years, developing countries have pursued the benefits of globalization by adopting measures to liberalize trade. Illegal immigrants are not impoverished by standards of the home country, the poorest classes in a developing country may lack the resources needed to mount an attempt to cross illegally, or the connections to friends or family already in the destination country.
Other examples do show that increases in poverty, especially associated with immediate crises. It marked the start of a swell in Mexican immigration
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros is, with a length of 480 km, the longest river that runs solely in the interior of the Balkans. It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, east of Svilengrad, the river flows eastwards, forming the border between Bulgaria and Greece, and between Turkey and Greece. At Edirne, the flows through Turkish territory on both banks, turns towards the south and forms the border between Greece on the west bank and Turkey on the east bank to the Aegean Sea. Turkey was given a sector on the west bank opposite the city of Edirne. The river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez, where it forms a delta, the Tundzha is its chief tributary, the Arda is another one. The lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border, the upper Maritsa valley is a principal east-west route in Bulgaria. The unnavigable river is used for production and irrigation. There are a number of bridges over the river, including the one at Svilengrad, the origin of the name Maritsa and Meriç is certainly the same, but it is uncertain.
It may come from the name Mary, the earliest known name of the river is the Thracian Evgos. Thereafter, the river has began to be known as Hebros, Hebros is probably derived from the Indo-European arg, white river, while according to an alternative belief Hebros means goat in Thracian. As the first attested name Europe referred only to Thrace proper, similar rivers such as the Ebro in Spain, from which the name of the Iberian peninsula derives, may have common elements in the etymology. In 1371, the river was the site of the Battle of Maritsa, known as the battle of Chernomen, vukašin Mrnjavčević and Jovan Uglješa died in the battle. Maritsa has become one route for migrants arriving into the EU, many people, from Asia and Africa have used the Maritsa route after agreements sometimes seem to temporarily block other routes e. g. across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and Spain. For about 4 months every year, the low lands around the river are flooded and this causes significant economic damage, which is estimated at several hundreds million Euro.
Recent large floods took place in 2006 and 2007, Maritsa Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Maritsa River. La Maritza is a 1968 song written by Jean Renard and Pierre Delanoë, hebrus Valles on Mars is named after this river. The Bulgarian Maritsa motorway, which follows the course of the river from Chirpan to the Turkish border at Kapitan Andreevo, is named in honour of the river
Alexandroupoli is a city in Greece and the capital of the Evros regional unit in East Macedonia and Thrace. It is an important port and commercial center of northeastern Greece, Alexandroupoli is one of the newest cities in Greece, as it was only a fishing village until the late 19th century. However, the city is located at the site of ancient Sale. Alexandroupoli benefits from its position at the centre of land and sea routes connecting Greece with Turkey, the modern city was founded in the middle of the 19th century by fishermen from the villages of Makri and Maroneia and it became known as Dedeağaç. According to the legend, the name was based on a wise old Turkish man or dede who spent much of his time in the shade of a tree and was eventually buried beside it. In 1920, the King of Greece, Alexander I, visited the city, the request was duly approved by the central Greek government, and Alexandroupoli has been the citys name ever since. Alexandroupoli is about 14.5 km west of the delta of the river Evros,40 km from the border with Turkey,346 km from Thessaloniki on the newly constructed Egnatia highway, and 750 km from Athens.
At the 2001 census, the city had a population of 48,885. Besides Alexandroúpolis, its other largest settlements are the villages of Mákri, Ávas, Sykorráchi, Aisými, the settlements history goes back to the 19th century, when the area was part of the Ottoman Empire. The work was part of an effort to modernise the Empire, the settlement soon grew into a fishing village known as Dedeağaç. In 1873 it was made the town of a Kaza, to which it gave its name. In 1884 it was raised in rank from a Kaza to a Sanjak. In 1889 the Greek archbishopric of Aenus was transferred to Dedeağaç, in the late 19th and early 20th century, Dedeağaç was part of the Adrianople Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Dedeağaç was captured by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, the officers in charge saw that reconstruction incorporated wide streets running parallel to each other, allowing the quick advance of troops, and avoided cul-de-sacs. This was very unlike the narrow alleys, cobbled streets, the city returned to Ottoman control by the end of the war, but the brief Russian presence had a lasting effect on the design of Alexandroúpolis streets.
The building of a station in Dedeağaç led to the development of the village into a town. The town became the seat of a Pasha as the capital of a sanjak, Ottoman control of the town would last until the Balkan Wars. On 8 November 1912, Dedeağaç and its station was captured by Bulgarian forces with the assistance of the Hellenic Navy and Greece were allies during the First Balkan War, but opponents in the Second Balkan War
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece