Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, jewelry, cars, movie theatres, ocean liners, everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners, it took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour and faith in social and technological progress. Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism, it featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the Art Deco style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the Art Deco style became more subdued.
New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel, plastic. A sleeker form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s. Art Deco is one of the first international styles, but its dominance ended with the beginning of World War II and the rise of the functional and unadorned styles of modern architecture and the International Style of architecture that followed. Art Deco took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, though the diverse styles that characterize Art Deco had appeared in Paris and Brussels before World War I; the term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858. In 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term objets d'art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de l'Opéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers, other craftsmen were given the status of artists by the French government. In response to this, the École royale gratuite de dessin founded in 1766 under King Louis XVI to train artists and artisans in crafts relating to the fine arts, was renamed the National School of Decorative Arts.
It took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. During the 1925 Exposition the architect Le Corbusier wrote a series of articles about the exhibition for his magazine L'Esprit Nouveau under the title, "1925 EXPO. ARTS. DÉCO." which were combined into a book, "L'art décoratif d'aujourd'hui". The book was a spirited attack on the excesses of the lavish objects at the Exposition; the actual phrase "Art déco" did not appear in print until 1966, when it featured in the title of the first modern exhibit on the subject, called Les Années 25: Art déco, Stijl, Esprit nouveau, which covered the variety of major styles in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major academic book on the style: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Hillier noted that the term was being used by art dealers and cites The Times and an essay named "Les Arts Déco" in Elle magazine as examples of prior usage.
In 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, who until late in the 19th century had been considered as artisans; the term "arts décoratifs" had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status. The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, decorative artists were given the same rights of authorship as painters and sculptors. A similar movement developed in Italy; the first international exhibition devoted to the decorative arts, the Esposizione international d'Arte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration and L'Art décoratif moderne. Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, in the Salon d'automne.
French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts. In 1911, the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912. No copies of old styles were to be permitted; the exhibit was postponed until 1914 because of the war, postponed until 1925, when it gave its name to the whole family of styles known as Déco. Parisian department stores and fashion designers played an important
Modernisme known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain. Nowadays it is considered a movement based on the cultural reivindication of a catalan identity, its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Modernisme was a literary movement. Although Modernisme was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in Catalonia the trend acquired its own unique personality. Modernisme's distinct name comes from its special relationship with Catalonia and Barcelona, which were intensifying their local characteristics for socio-ideological reasons after the revival of Catalan culture and in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development. At the end of the 19th century, architectural tendencies arise in Europe that break with the traditional criteria and seek new ways of building with the intention of the twentieth century, which give great relevance to aesthetics.
This movement is a consequence of the Second Industrial Revolution, which has taken root in the various countries, the advances derived from it, such as electricity, the railroad and the steam engine, which have changed the way of living population and have led to the growth of cities, in which industries have been established that run a growing number of bourgeois. Modernisme was, therefore, an urban and bourgeois style, on horseback between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was an international movement with different names being developed all over the western world: Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Modern Style or Glasgow Style in Scotland and the United Kingdom, Jugendstil in Germany, Secession in Austria, Liberty in Italy, etc. In Catalonia, it had his own personality to speak of Catalan modernisme, due to the large quantity and quality of the works carried out and the great number of leading artists who cultivated this style. Stylistically, it is a heterogeneous movement, with many differences between artists, each one with its personal stamp, but with the same spirit, an eagerness to modernize and Europeanise Catalonia.
The recovery of the medieval architectural past advocated by John Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc and the aesthetics of William Morris, Walter Crane, Mackintosh, among others, were accepted as the basis for artistic renewal. The Modernistas believed in the creative imagination as a creator of symbols in contrast to eclectics who thought of art as an objective representation of reality. In fact, Modernisme represents all over the world and in Catalonia the freedom to create new forms unacceptable, removing the art of academicism; these new trends become evident in different arts such as architecture, painting, decorative arts, in literature and music. It is considered that Catalan Modernisme began in 1888 as the first universal exhibition in Barcelona but there are features of Modernisme in the new Provincial School of Architecture, inaugurated in Barcelona in 1871 and directed by the architect Elies Rogent i Amat, and before this milestone trends of Modernisme are presented in the work of architects such as Josep Domènech i Estapà, although he himself, refused to be a follower of Modernisme.
The circumstance occurred that to the demolition of the walls of Barcelona and to become effective the construction of the Barcelona extension until uniting the different municipalities of the plain, it is put underway the growth of the city taking the dimension from on from the big city, as a result of it a large number of witnesses of that urbanization and construction fever. Catalan nationalism was an important influence upon Modernista artists, who were receptive to the ideas of Valentí Almirall and Enric Prat de la Riba and wanted Catalan culture to be regarded as equal to that of other European countries; such ideas can be seen in some of Rusiñol's plays against the Spanish army, in some authors close to anarchism or in the articles of federalist anti-monarchic writers such as Miquel dels Sants Oliver. They opposed the traditionalism and religiousness of the Renaixença Catalan Romantics, whom they ridiculed in plays such as Santiago Rusiñol's Els Jocs Florals de Canprosa, a satire of the revived Jocs Florals and the political milieu which promoted them.
Modernistes rejected bourgeois values, which they thought to be the opposite of art. They adopted two stances: they either set themselves apart from society in a bohemian or culturalist attitude or they attempted to use art to change society At the end of the 19th century, product of industrialization, throughout Europe there was an intellectual debate in kee
Brutalist architecture or Brutalism is an architectural style which emerged in the late 1930s and early 1940s and gained popularity in the late 1950s and early to mid 1960s. It descended from the modernist architectural movement of the late 19th century and of the first half of 20th century, it is characterized by simple, block-like structures that feature bare building materials. Exposed concrete is favored in construction, however some examples are made of brick. Though beginning in Europe, Brutalist architecture can now be found around the world; the style has been most used in the design of institutional buildings such as libraries, public housing and city halls. Brutalism's stark, geometric designs contrast with the more ornate features of some 1910s, 1920s and 1930s architecture. Brutalist designs have been polarising. Specific buildings, as well as the movement as a whole, have drawn a range of criticism and support from architects and the public. Many brutalist buildings have become architectural and cultural icons, with some obtaining listed status.
The term "Brutalism" was coined by the Swedish architect Hans Asplund to describe Villa Göth, a modern brick home in Uppsala, designed in 1949 by his contemporaries Bengt Edman and Lennart Holm. He used the Swedish term Nybrutalism, picked up in the early 1950s by a group of visiting English architects, including Michael Ventris, Alison and Peter Smithson; the Smithsons' Hunstanton School completed in 1954 in Norfolk, the Sugden House completed in 1955 in Watford, represent the earliest examples of Brutalism in the United Kingdom. The term gained wider recognition when the British architectural historian Reyner Banham used it, to identify both an ethic and aesthetic style, in both his 1955 essay, The New Brutalism, 1966 book, The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic?, to characterize a somewhat established cluster of architectural approaches in Europe. In the 1955 essay, Reyner Banham associated the term New Brutalism with Art Brut and Le Corbusier's béton brut, meaning raw concrete in French, for the first time.
The best known proto-Brutalist architecture is the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, in particular his 1952 Unité d'habitation in France, the 1953 Secretariat Building in Chandigarh and the 1955 church of Notre Dame du Haut in Ronchamp, France. Brutalism gained considerable momentum in the United Kingdom during the mid-twentieth century, as economically depressed communities sought inexpensive construction and design methods for low-cost housing, shopping centres, government buildings. Brutalism began to be favoured by governmental and institutional clients, with numerous examples in English-speaking countries, Western Europe, the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc, places as disparate as Japan, Brazil, the Philippines, Israel. Examples are massive in character, fortress-like, with a predominance of exposed concrete construction, or, in the case of the "brick Brutalists," they ruggedly combine detailed brickwork and concrete. There is an emphasis on graphic expressions in the external elevations and in the whole-site architectural plan the main functions and people-flows of the buildings.
Brutalism became popular for educational buildings but was rare for corporate projects, which preferred International Style. Brutalism became favoured for many government projects, rectangle tower blocks, shopping centres. Combined with the progressive intentions behind Brutalist streets in the sky housing such as the Smithsons' Robin Hood Gardens, completed in 1972, Brutalism was promoted as a positive option for forward-moving, modern urban housing. Brutalist buildings are constructed with repeated modular elements forming masses representing specific functional zones, distinctly articulated and grouped together into a unified whole. Concrete is used for its raw and unpretentious honesty, contrasting with the refined and ornamented buildings constructed in the elite Beaux-Arts style. Surfaces of cast concrete are made to reveal the basic nature of its construction, showing the texture of the wooden planks used for the in-situ casting forms. Brutalist building materials include brick, steel, rough-hewn stone, gabions.
Conversely, not all buildings exhibiting an exposed concrete exterior can be considered Brutalist, may belong to one of a range of architectural styles including Constructivism, International Style, Expressionism and Deconstructivism. Another common theme in Brutalist designs is the exposure of the building's functions—ranging from their structure and services to their human use—in the exterior of the building. In the Boston City Hall, designed in 1962, the strikingly different and projected portions of the building indicate the special nature of the rooms behind those walls, such as the mayor's office or the city council chambers. From another perspective, the design of the Hunstanton School included placing the facility's water tank a hidden service feature, in a prominent, visible tower. Brutalism as an architectural philosophy, associated with a socialist utopian ideology, which tended to be supported by its designers Alison and Peter Smithson, near the height of the style; this style had a strong position in the architecture of European communist countries from the mid-1960s to the late 1980s.
In Czechoslovakia Brutalism was presen
Rådhuset metro station
Rådhuset is a rapid transit station in Kungsholmen in central Stockholm, part of the Stockholm metro. The station is located on the blue line between T-Centralen and Fridhemsplan and was opened on 31 August 1975. Like some other stations on the Stockholm metro, it uses organic architecture, which leaves the bedrock exposed and unsculptured, appearing to be based on natural cave systems; the underground station is named after Rådhuset right above the surface. The City Hall and the Police Headquarters are located in the vicinity. Media related to Rådhuset Metro station at Wikimedia Commons Images of Rådhuset Bags at Rådhuset
Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building. It is characterized by an absence of continuity, or symmetry, its name comes from the idea of "Deconstruction", a form of semiotic analysis developed by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Architects whose work is described as deconstructionism include Peter Eisenman, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas, Daniel Libeskind, Bernard Tschumi, Coop Himmelbau. Besides fragmentation, Deconstructivism manipulates the structure's surface skin and creates by non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture; the finished visual appearance is characterized by controlled chaos. Deconstructivism came to public notice with the 1982 Parc de la Villette architectural design competition, in particular the entry from Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman and the winning entry by Bernard Tschumi, as well as the Museum of Modern Art’s 1988 Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition in New York, organized by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley.
Tschumi stated that calling the work of these architects a "movement" or a new "style" was out of context and showed a lack of understanding of their ideas, believed that Deconstructivism was a move against the practice of Postmodernism, which he said involved "making doric temple forms out of plywood". Other influential exhibitions include the 1989 opening of the Wexner Center for the Arts in Columbus, designed by Peter Eisenman; the New York exhibition has featured works by Frank Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Coop Himmelbau, Bernard Tschumi. Since their exhibitions, some architects associated with Deconstructivism have distanced themselves from it; the term "Deconstructivism" in contemporary architecture is opposed to the ordered rationality of Modernism and Postmodernism. Though postmodernist and nascent deconstructivist architects both published in the journal Oppositions, that journal's contents mark a decisive break between the two movements. Deconstructivism took a confrontational stance to architectural history, wanting to "disassemble" architecture.
While postmodernism returned to embrace the historical references that modernism had shunned ironically, deconstructivism rejected the postmodern acceptance of such references, as well as the idea of ornament as an after-thought or decoration. In addition to Oppositions, a defining text for both deconstructivism and postmodernism was Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, it argues against the purity and simplicity of modernism. With its publication and rationalism, the two main branches of modernism, were overturned as paradigms; the reading of the postmodernist Venturi was that ornament and historical allusion added a richness to architecture that modernism had foregone. Some Postmodern architects endeavored to reapply ornament to economical and minimal buildings, described by Venturi as "the decorated shed." Rationalism of design was dismissed but the functionalism of the building was still somewhat intact. This is close to the thesis of Venturi's next major work, that signs and ornament can be applied to a pragmatic architecture, instill the philosophic complexities of semiology.
The deconstructivist reading of Complexity and Contradiction is quite different. The basic building was the subject of problematics and intricacies in deconstructivism, with no detachment for ornament. Rather than separating ornament and function, like postmodernists such as Venturi, the functional aspects of buildings were called into question. Geometry was to deconstructivists what ornament was to postmodernists, the subject of complication, this complication of geometry was in turn, applied to the functional and spatial aspects of deconstructivist buildings. One example of deconstructivist complexity is Frank Gehry's Vitra Design Museum in Weil-am-Rhein, which takes the typical unadorned white cube of modernist art galleries and deconstructs it, using geometries reminiscent of cubism and abstract expressionism; this subverts the functional aspects of modernist simplicity while taking modernism the international style, of which its white stucco skin is reminiscent, as a starting point. Another example of the deconstructivist reading of Complexity and Contradiction is Peter Eisenman's Wexner Center for the Arts.
The Wexner Center takes the archetypal form of the castle, which it imbues with complexity in a series of cuts and fragmentations. A three-dimensional grid, runs somewhat arbitrarily through the building; the grid, as a reference to modernism, of which it is an accoutrement, collides with the medieval antiquity of a castle. Some of the grid's columns intentionally don't reach the ground, hovering over stairways creating a sense of neurotic unease and contradicting the structural purpose of the column; the Wexner Center deconstructs the archetype of the castle and renders its spaces and structure with conflict and difference. Some Deconstructivist architects were influenced by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. Eisenman was a friend of Derrida, but so his approach to architectural design was developed long before he became a Deconstructivist. For him Deconstructivism should be considered an extension of his interest in radical formalism; some practitioners of deconstructivism were influenced by the formal experimentation and geometric imbalances of Russian constructivism.
There are additional references in deconst
Mid-century modern is the design movement in interior, graphic design and urban development from 1933 to 1965. The term, employed as a style descriptor as early as the mid-1950s, was reaffirmed in 1983 by Cara Greenberg in the title of her book, Mid-Century Modern: Furniture of the 1950s, celebrating the style, now recognized by scholars and museums worldwide as a significant design movement; the Mid-Century modern movement in the U. S. was an American reflection of the International and Bauhaus movements, including the works of Gropius, Florence Knoll, Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Although the American component was more organic in form and less formal than the International Style, it is more related to it than any other. Brazilian and Scandinavian architects were influential at this time, with a style characterized by clean simplicity and integration with nature. Like many of Wright's designs, Mid-Century architecture was employed in residential structures with the goal of bringing modernism into America's post-war suburbs.
This style emphasized creating structures with ample windows and open floor plans, with the intention of opening up interior spaces and bringing the outdoors in. Many Mid-century houses utilized then-groundbreaking post and beam architectural design that eliminated bulky support walls in favor of walls made of glass. Function was as important as form in Mid-Century designs, with an emphasis placed on targeting the needs of the average American family. In Europe the influence of Le Corbusier and the CIAM resulted in an architectural orthodoxy manifest across most parts of post-war Europe, challenged by the radical agendas of the architectural wings of the avant-garde Situationist International, COBRA, as well as Archigram in London. A critical but sympathetic reappraisal of the internationalist oeuvre, inspired by Scandinavian Moderns such as Alvar Aalto, Sigurd Lewerentz and Arne Jacobsen, the late work of Le Corbusier himself, was reinterpreted by groups such as Team X, including structuralist architects such as Aldo van Eyck, Ralph Erskine, Denys Lasdun, Jorn Utzon and the movement known in the United Kingdom as New Brutalism.
Pioneering builder and real estate developer Joseph Eichler was instrumental in bringing Mid-Century Modern architecture to subdivisions in the Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay region of California, select housing developments on the east coast. George Fred Keck, his brother Willam Keck, Henry P. Glass, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Edward Humrich created Mid-Century Modern residences in the Chicago area. Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House is difficult to heat or cool, while Keck and Keck were pioneers in the incorporation of passive solar features in their houses to compensate for their large glass windows; the city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-century modern architecture. Architects include: Welton Becket: Bullock's Palm Springs John Porter Clark: Welwood Murray Library. J. Robinson House. John Lautner: Desert Hot Springs Motel. John Black Lee: Specialized in residential houses. Lee House 1, Lee House 2 for which he won the Award of Merit from the American Institute of Architects, Day House, * System House, Rogers House, Ravello Frederick Monhoff: Palm Springs Biltmore Resort Richard Neutra: Grace Lewis Miller house.
M. Schindler: Paul and Betty Popenoe Cabin, Coachella. Home develope
Fallingwater is a house designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1935 in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, 43 miles southeast of Pittsburgh. The house was built over a waterfall on Bear Run in the Mill Run section of Stewart Township, Fayette County, located in the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains; the house was designed as a weekend home for the family of Liliane Kaufmann and her husband, Edgar J. Kaufmann, Sr. owner of Kaufmann's Department Store. After its completion, Time called Fallingwater Wright's "most beautiful job," and it is listed among Smithsonian's "Life List of 28 places to visit before you die." The house was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. In 1991, members of the American Institute of Architects named Fallingwater the "best all-time work of American architecture" and in 2007, it was ranked 29th on the list of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. At age 67, Frank Lloyd Wright was given the opportunity to construct three buildings.
With his three works of the late 1930s—Fallingwater. Edgar J. Kaufmann, Sr. was a Pittsburgh president of Kaufmann's Department Store. Edgar and Liliane's only child, Edgar Kaufmann Jr. became the catalyst for his father’s relationship with Frank Lloyd Wright. In the summer of 1934, Edgar Jr. read Frank Lloyd Wright’s An Autobiography, traveled to meet Wright at his home in Wisconsin in late September. Within three weeks, Edgar Jr. began an apprenticeship at the Taliesin Fellowship, a communal architecture program established in 1932 by Wright and his wife, Olgivanna. It was during a visit with Edgar Jr. at Taliesin in November 1934 that Edgar and Liliane Kaufmann first met Frank Lloyd Wright. The Kaufmanns lived in "La Tourelle", a French Norman estate in Fox Chapel designed in 1923 for Edgar J. Kaufmann by Pittsburgh architect Benno Janssen. However, the family owned a remote property outside Pittsburgh — a small cabin near a waterfall —, used as a summer retreat; when these cabins deteriorated, Mr. Kaufmann contacted Wright.
On December 18, 1934, Wright visited Bear Run and asked for a survey of the area around the waterfall. One was prepared by Fayette Engineering Company of Uniontown, including all the site's boulders and topography, forwarded to Wright in March 1935; as reported by Frank Lloyd Wright's apprentices at Taliesin, Edgar Kaufmann Sr. was in Milwaukee on September 22, nine months after their initial meeting, called Wright at home early Sunday morning to surprise him with the news that he would be visiting Wright that day. Kaufmann could not wait to see Wright's plans. Wright had told Kaufmann in earlier communication that he had been working on the plans, but had not drawn anything. After breakfast that morning, amid a group of nervous apprentices, Wright calmly drew the plans in the two hours in which it took Kaufmann to drive to Taliesin. Wright designed the home above the waterfall, rather than below to afford a view of the cascades as Kaufmann had expected, it has been said that Kaufmann was very upset that Wright had designed the house to sit atop the falls.
Kaufmann had wanted the house located on the southern bank of Bear Run. He told Wright; the Kaufmanns planned to entertain large groups of people, so the house needed to be larger than the original plot allowed. Mr. and Mrs. Kaufmann requested separate bedrooms, as well as a bedroom for their adult son, an additional guest room, for a total of four bedrooms. A cantilevered structure was used to address these requests; the structural design for Fallingwater was undertaken by Wright in association with staff engineers Mendel Glickman and William Wesley Peters, responsible for the columns featured in Wright’s revolutionary design for the Johnson Wax Headquarters. Preliminary plans were issued to Kaufmann for approval on October 15, 1935, after which Wright made an additional visit to the site and provided a cost estimate for the job. In December 1935, an old rock quarry was reopened to the west of the site to provide the stones needed for the house’s walls. Wright visited only periodically during construction, assigning his apprentice Robert Mosher as his permanent on-site representative.
The final working drawings were issued by Wright in March 1936, with work beginning on the bridge and main house in April. The construction was plagued by conflicts between Wright and the construction contractor. Uncomfortable with what he saw as Wright's insufficient experience using reinforced concrete, Kaufmann had the architect's daring cantilever design reviewed by a firm of consulting engineers. Upon receiving their report, Wright took offense requesting that Kaufmann return his drawings and indicating that he was withdrawing from the project. Kaufmann relented to Wright's gambit, the engineer’s report was subsequently buried within a stone wall of the house. For the cantilevered floors and his team used upside-down T-shaped beams integrated into a monolithic concrete slab which formed both the ceiling of the space below and provided resistance against compression; the contractor, Walter Hall an engineer, produced independent computations and argued for increasing the reinforcing steel in the first floor’s slab.
Wright refused the suggestion. While some sources state that the contractor doubled the amount of reinforcement, others say that Kaufmann's consulting engineers – at Kaufmann's request – redrew Wright's reinforcing drawings and doubled the amount of steel specified by Wright. In addit