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Organisation of African Unity

The Organisation of African Unity was an intergovernmental organization established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with 32 signatory governments. One of the main heads for OAU's establishment was Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, it was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, replaced by the African Union. Some of the key aims of the OAU were to encourage political and economic integration among member states, to eradicate colonialism and neo-colonialism from the African continent. Although it achieved some success, there were differences of opinion as to how, going to be achieved; the OAU was founded in May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by 32 African states with the main aim of bringing the African nations together and resolve the issues within the continent. Its first conference was held on 1 May 1963 in Addis Ababa. At that conference, the late Gambian historian—and one of the leading Gambian nationalists and Pan-Africanists at the time—Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof delivered a speech in front of the member states, in which he said: "It is 75 years when the European Powers sat round the table in Germany each holding a dagger to carve up Africa for its own benefit.… Your success will inspire and speed up the freedom and total independence of the African continent and eradicate imperialism and colonialism from the continent and neo-colonialism from the globe… Your failure, which no true African in Africa is praying for, will prolong our struggle with bitterness and disappointment.

I therefore adjure that you ignore any suggestion outside Africa and holding that the present civilization, which some of the big powered are boasting of, sprang up from Africa, realising that the entire world has something earthly to learn from Africa, you would endeavour your utmost to come to agreement, save Africa from the clutches of neo-colonialism and resurrect African dignity and national stability." The OAU had the following primary aims: To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states; the OAU was dedicated to the eradication of all forms of colonialism and white minority rule as, when it was established, there were several states that had not yet won their independence or were white minority-ruled. South Africa and Angola were two such countries; the OAU proposed two ways of ridding the continent of colonialism and white minority rule.

First, it would defend the interests of independent countries and help to pursue the independence those of still-colonised ones. Secondly, it would remain neutral in terms of world affairs, preventing its members from being controlled once more by outside powers. A Liberation Committee was established to aid independence movements and look after the interests of already-independent states; the OAU aimed to stay neutral in terms of global politics, which would prevent them from being controlled once more by outside forces – an especial danger with the Cold War. The OAU had other aims, too: Ensure. Raise the living standards of all Africans. Settle arguments and disputes between members – not through fighting but rather peaceful and diplomatic negotiation. Soon after achieving independence, a number of African states expressed a growing desire for more unity within the continent. Not everyone was agreed on how this unity could be achieved and two opinionated groups emerged in this respect: The Casablanca bloc, led by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, wanted a federation of all African countries.

Aside from Ghana, it comprised Algeria, Morocco, Egypt and Libya. Founded in 1961, its members were described as "progressive states"; the Monrovian bloc, led by Senghor of Senegal, felt that unity should be achieved through economic cooperation. It did not support the notion of a political federation, its other members were Nigeria, Liberia and most of the former French colonies. Some of the initial discussions took place at Liberia; the dispute was resolved when Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I invited the two groups to Addis Ababa, where the OAU and its headquarters were subsequently established. The Charter of the Organisation was signed by 32 independent African states. At the time of the OAU's disbanding, 53 out of the 54 African states were members; the organisation was derided as a bureaucratic "talking shop" with little power. It struggled to enforce its decisions, its lack of armed force made intervention exceedingly difficult. Civil wars in Nigeria and Angola continued unabated for years, the OAU could do nothing to stop them.

The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states limited the effectiveness of the OAU. Thus, when human rights were violated, as in Uganda under Idi Amin in the 1970s, the OAU was powerless to stop them; the Organisation was praised by Ghanaian former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan for bringing Africans together. In its 39 years of existence, critics argue that the OAU did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders dubbing it as a "Dictators' Club" or "Dictator's Trade Union"; the OAU was, successful in some respects. Many of its members were members of the UN, they stood together within the latter organisation to safeguard African interests – in respect of lingering colonialism, its pursuit of African unity, was in some wa

Trona Railway

The Trona Railway is a 30.5 mi short-line railroad owned by Searles Valley Minerals. The TRC interchanges with the Union Pacific Railroad at California; the railroad was built by the American Trona Company in 1914, to serve the mining company's shipping from Searles Station to a junction with the Southern Pacific Railroad. The company and its Trona Railway has had various subsequent owners, including American Potash & Chemical Corporation, Kerr-McGee Corporation, IMC Global, Sun Capital, LLC, before the current ownership of Searles Valley Minerals, Inc. On Dec. 27 2007, Karnavati Holdings, a subsidiary of Nirma Limited, acquired all of Searles Valley Minerals, Inc. The Trona Railway connects Trona with the Southern Pacific Railroad at Searls Station; the main line is 30.6 miles long, has a maximum grade of 1.9% and has gentle curves, which permit a maximum speed of 70 miles per hour. In the 1920s, the Epsom Salts Monorail delivered epsomite to the Trona Railway at Magnesium Siding, about 11 miles south of Trona.

This unique system extended 28 miles eastwards into the Owlshead Mountains, was in use from 1924 to 1926, was dismantled in the late 1930s. The idea of building a standard gauge railroad to replace mule-drawn wagons came from Stafford W. Austin, the receiver of the American Trona Corporation; the railroad would connect Searles Valley with a lower cost connection to the markets within the United States and to ocean ports for exports. On 27 September 1913 the wife of Joseph Hutchinson broke ground with an old fashioned plow, to start the construction of Trona Railroad; the work force of 400 included American, Greek, Mexican, Irish and Swedish workers. They finished the task within 6 months despite battling occasional sandstorms; the construction was event-free, apart from one runaway tank car down the track from Searles Station. This derailed several cars without causing injuries; the construction of the 31-mile-long track was completed by end of March 1914, the first excursion was conducted in May 1914.

The operation began with two new oil-fired Baldwin 2-8-0 steam locomotives. They weighed their boilers produced steam at 200 pounds pressure; when they were coupled together, they had a combined pulling capacity of 500 tons. In addition to carrying inbound fuel oil and outbound fertilizer and chemical products from the new chemical plants in Searles Valley, the Trona Railway carried passengers to and from Trona. Regular passenger services continued until 1937. A self-propelled coach for pupils of Westend, South Trona and Borosolvay to attend the school in Trona ran up to 1941; this coach was sold in 1941 to the California Western Railroad as their number M-200 for the Skunk Train from Willits, California, to Fort Bragg, California. It was sold to the Niles Canyon Railway in 1975. In 1914 Searles Lake was one of only two known potash deposits outside of Germany. By 1916 potash was transported via the Trona Railway to farmers, who needed fertilizer, to feed the nation during World War I; the name Three Elephant Route was created, because many of the railroad's employees were British and did not understand, why the company should hang on to its heritage of 20 mule teams.

As the story goes, they felt that three elephants could have done the job as well, if not better, than a herd of mules. The slogan was used as a logo, which adorned Trona Railway equipment into the late 1940s. In April 1949 the Trona Railway purchased two new Baldwin DT-6-6-2000 locomotives to replace three steam locomotives that were operating at the time; these had 2000 hp motors. These locomotives were unique in. Locomotive No 52 was a smaller Baldwin AS 616. Two more AS 616 locomotives were added to the fleet to bring the total to five. A small diesel-electric locomotive called. A crew car was used for safety inspections of the rail track and to bring employees to the site of track maintenance; the Baldwins were sold about 1993, replaced by the current EMD SD40 and SD45 locomotives, most of which are still in the color schemes of their former owners, Union Pacific and Southern Pacific. The TRC handles 18,000 cars annually. Commodities hauled include: Sulfuric acid Soda ash Potash Salt cake Borax Coal Minerals Material for the U.

S. Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake Fickewirth, Alvin A.. California railroads: an encyclopedia of cable car, common carrier, industrial, logging, motor road, streetcar and terminal railroads in California. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-87095-106-8. Stindt, Fred A.. American Shortline Railway Guide. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 0-89024-290-9. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - California and Nevada. Kent, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. ISBN 1-874745-08-0

Palmira, regina di Persia

Palmira, regina di Persia is an opera by Antonio Salieri: more it is a dramma eroicomico. The opera is set to a libretto by Giovanni de Gamerra. Salieri mingled elements of comic opera and heroic opera to produce a work, a popular success at the time of its first performance partly due to the grandiose staging, called for; the opera was first performed at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna on 14 October 1795, staged 39 times in the Austrian capital between and 1798. It was given in Germany in translation. Set in ancient Persia, three Kings, arriving variously on a camel, an elephant and a horse, vie for the honour of killing a monster and winning the hand of the Persian princess Palmira. John A. Rice: "Palmira, regina di Persia", Grove Music Online ed L. Macy,, subscription access. John A. Rice: "Palmira, regina di Persia" in'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie ISBN 0-333-73432-7

NGC 524

NGC 524 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation Pisces. It is at a distance of about 90 million light-years away from Earth. In the central bulge of the galaxy is visible gas forming a spiral structure, it is the largest galaxy in a small galaxy group, the NGC 524 group, associated with NGC 488 and its group. It was discovered by William Herschel in 1786. Two supernovae have been observed in the galaxy, SN 2000cx, a type Ia-p peaking at 14.5 magnitude, SN 2008Q, type Ia. Lenticular galaxy List of NGC objects Pisces Media related to NGC 524 at Wikimedia Commons NGC 524 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images SEDS

Ruska Roma

The Ruska Roma known as Russian Gypsies or Xaladitka Roma, are the largest subgroup of Romani people in Russia and Belarus. Known as Ruska Roma, they live in Russia and Belarus, but in Eastern and Central Ukraine, France and the United States; the Ruska Romani language contains some German and Russian words, as well as a small amount of Ukrainian and Russian grammar. Most Ruska Roma are Orthodox Christians, while those living in predominantly Muslim areas tend to be Muslim, their traditional professions include horse trading, music and fortune-telling. As of 2016 most Romani singers, actors and musicians in Russia are of the Ruska Roma, their musical culture is considered to be the leading Romani culture in Russia, is copied by other Roma. The Ruska Roma traditional clothing is based on Russian and Kalderash traditional clothing, is used by singers and dancers. At the beginning of the 19th century there existed several Romani choruses consisting of Ruska Roma who were servants, they were considered to be so talented.

Romani choruses of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg were popular during the 19th century. Russian noblemen sometimes married Romani chorus girls. In Russia, Ruska Roma were nomadic horse traders and singers, they stayed in cottages of Russian peasants during the winter. They paid for their lodging with work on the horses. Ruska Roma were popular among peasants who liked their music and dances and considered Roma to be beautiful. In 1812, when Napoleon I invaded Russia, the Romani diaspora of Moscow and Saint Petersburg gave large sums of money and good horses for the Russian army. Many young Romani men took part in the war as uhlans. At the end of the 19th century Rusko Rom Nikolai Shishkin created a Romani theater troupe. One of its plays was in the Romani language. After the October Revolution, some Romani families left Russia; some young Romani men took part in the civil war. In the 1920s and'30s, Roma of the Soviet Union produced a literary norm of the Romani language, based on a dialect of Ruska Roma.

Romani literature and press appeared. In the 1930s the Roma of the U. S. S. R. were subjected to mass repressions. Romani press and literature were forbidden. During World War II some of the Ruska Roma entered the army, as volunteers, they took part in the war as soldiers, infantrymen, artillerymen, drivers and doctors. Some teenagers, old men and adult men were partisans. Romani actors, musicians, dancers performed for soldiers in the front line and in hospitals. A huge number of Roma, including many of the Ruska Roma, died or were murdered in territories occupied by the enemy, in battles, in the siege of Leningrad. After World War II Ruska Roma's music became popular. Romen Theatre, Romani singers and ensembles prospered. All Roma of the U. S. S. R. began to perceive Ruska Roma's culture as the basic Romani culture. After the Decree of nomadic life interdiction, the second wave of Ruska Romani settling happened. In the 1980s, some representatives of artistic Ruska Romani families made a considerable contribution to "informal" music: jazz, Russian chanson.

In the 1990s, Ruska Roma's music lost its popularity and now have quite a small audience, but is still popular at Russian weddings and birthday celebrations. Nikolai Shishkin, Russian theatre personality Valentina Ponomaryova, theatre actors Jardani Jovanovich, fictional birthname of John Wick Kalderash Lovari Servitka Roma Russian Roma. Factsheets on Romani culture The passion of the Roma à la russe The Kolpakov Trio Brings The Roma Renaissance About Ruska Roma's costume, with photos


The Caffitaly System is a capsule system for making espresso and other coffee drinks in home espresso machines. The name is a portmanteau of caffè, the Italian word for coffee, Italy. Caffitaly is based in Italy. Caffitaly was developed by Caffita System SpA and has been adopted by other manufacturers, notably Bewley's of Ireland, Princess of the Netherlands, Germany's Tchibo, Julius Meinl, Italy's Caffe Cagliari, Crem Caffe, Swiss Chicco D'oro, Três Corações in Brazil, US's Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf, Australia's MAP Coffee and Israeli Espresso Club as well as Löfbergs in Sweden, it is similar in principle to the competing Nespresso and Tassimo capsule systems, in which a sealed capsule containing a premeasured amount of coffee is inserted into the machine, through which hot water is forced at high pressure into a coffee cup. The capsule can be disposed of once the coffee is made, the machine requires little maintenance or cleaning. Like similar proprietary coffee-making systems, Caffitaly can be seen as an example of the razor and blades business model, in which the low price of the coffeemaker is recouped through a higher profit margin on the coffee capsules it uses.

Caffita sponsored the Lampre-Caffita cycling team in 2005. Caffitaly Systems produces the CBTL Capsule System for The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf and the MAP Italian Coffee Capsule System for Map Coffee Australia. Danesi of Italy meanwhile has associated themselves with Caffitaly system brewing machines, selling in the USA through Boston King Coffee. In Australia and Gloria Jeans promote and make their own capsules for the system, with the latter selling Gloria Jeans branded machines. Coles currently make their own capsules for the machine under the "Mr. Barista" brand name. Official homepage