Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Klyment Vasilyovich Kvitka was a Ukrainian musicologist and ethnographer, the husband of poet Lesya Ukrainka. The Kvitka family played an important role in the initiative of the preservation of kobzar music by means of sound recording using the invented phonograph
Lev Sergeyevich Termen, or Léon Theremin in the United States, was a Russian and Soviet inventor, most famous for his invention of the theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments and the first to be mass-produced. He devised the interlace technique for improving the quality of a video signal, still used in video and television technology, his listening device, "The Thing", hung for seven years in plain view in the United States Ambassador's Moscow office and enabled Soviet agents to eavesdrop on secret conversations. Léon Theremin was born in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire in 1896 into a family of French Huguenot and German ancestry, he had a sister named Helena. In the seventh class of his high school before an audience of students and parents he demonstrated various optical effects using electricity. By the age of 17, when he was in his last year of high school, he had his own laboratory at home for experimenting with high-frequency circuits and magnetic fields, his cousin, Kirill Fedorovich Nesturkh a young physicist, a singer named Wagz invited him to attend the defense of the dissertation of Abram Fedorovich Ioffe.
Physics lecturer Vladimir Konstantinovich Lebedinskiy had explained to Theremin the dispute over Ioffe's work on the electron. On 9 May 1913 his cousin attended Ioffe's dissertation defense. Ioffe's subject was on the elementary photoelectric effect, the magnetic field of cathode rays and related investigations. In 1917 Theremin wrote that Ioffe talked of electrons, the photoelectric effect and magnetic fields as parts of an objective reality that surrounds us everyday, unlike others that talked more of somewhat abstract formulae and symbols. Theremin wrote that he found this explanation revelatory and that it fit a scientific – not abstract – view of the world, different scales of magnitude, matter. From on Theremin endeavoured to study the microcosm, in the same way he had studied the macrocosm with his hand-built telescope. Kyrill introduced Theremin to Ioffe as a young experimenter and physicist, future student of the university. Theremin recalled that while still in his last year of school, he had built a million-volt Tesla coil and noticed a strong glow associated with his attempts to ionise the air.
He wished to further investigate the effects using university resources. A chance meeting with Abram Fedorovich Ioffe led to a recommendation to see Karl Karlovich Baumgart, in charge of the physics laboratory equipment. Karl reserved a room and equipment for Theremin's experiments. Abram Fedorovich suggested Theremin look at methods of creating gas fluorescence under different conditions and of examining the resulting light's spectra. However, during these investigations Theremin was called up for World War I military service. Although only in his second academic year, the deanery of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy recommended that Theremin go to the Nikolayevska Military Engineering School in Petrograd, which only accepted students in their fourth year. Theremin recalled that Ioffe reassured him that the war would not last long and that military experience would be useful for scientific applications. Beginning his military service in 1916, Theremin finished the Military Engineering School in six months, progressed through the Graduate Electronic School for Officers, attained the military radio-engineer diploma in the same year.
In the course of the next three and a half years he oversaw the construction of a radio station in Saratov to connect the Volga area with Moscow, graduated from Petrograd University, became deputy leader of the new Military Radiotechnical Laboratory in Moscow, finished as the broadcast supervisor of the radio transmitter at Tsarskoye Selo near Petrograd. During the Russian civil war, in October 1919 White Army commander Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich advanced on Petrograd from the side of Detskoye Selo intending to capture the radio station to announce a victory over the Bolsheviks. Theremin and others evacuated the station. Theremin detonated explosives to destroy the 120-meter-high antennae mast before traveling to Petrograd to set up an international listening station. There he trained radio specialists but reported difficulties obtaining food and working with foreign experts whom he described as narrow-minded pessimists. Theremin recalled that on an evening when his hopes of overcoming these obstructing experts reached a low ebb, Abram Fedorovich Ioffe telephoned him.
Ioffe asked Theremin to come to his newly founded Physical Technical Institute in Petrograd, the next day he invited him to start work at developing measuring methods for high-frequency electrical oscillations. The day after Ioffe's invitation, Theremin started at the institute, he worked in diverse fields: applying the Laue effect to the new field of X-ray analysis of crystals. He built a high-frequency oscillator to measure the dielectric constant of gases with high precision. While adapting the dielectric device by adding circuitry to generate an audio tone, Theremin noticed that the pitch changed when his hand moved around. In October 1920 he first demonstrated this to Ioffe who called in other professors and students to hear. Theremin recalled trying to find the notes for tunes he remembered from when he played the cello, such as the S
Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is more scientific in focus. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist. Historical musicology and systematic musicology are equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, the musical implications of physiology, sociology and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music; when musicologists carry out research using computers, their research falls under the field of computational musicology. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more affiliated with teacher education, educational research, related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology, sometimes considered more affiliated with health fields, other times regarded as part of musicology proper.
The parent disciplines of musicology include: General history Cultural studies Philosophy Ethnology and cultural anthropology Archeology and prehistory Psychology and sociology Physiology and neuroscience Acoustics and psychoacoustics Computer/information sciences and mathematicsMusicology has two central oriented sub-disciplines with no parent discipline: performance practice and research, the theory and composition of music. The disciplinary neighbors of musicology address other forms of art, performance and communication, including the history and theory of the visual and plastic arts and of architecture. Musical knowledge is applied in medicine and music therapy—which are parent disciplines of applied musicology. Music history or historical musicology is concerned with the composition, performance and criticism of music over time. Historical studies of music are for example concerned with a composer's life and works, the developments of styles and genres, e.g. baroque concertos, the social function of music for a particular group of people, e.g. court music, or modes of performance at a particular place and time, e.g. Johann Sebastian Bach's choir in Leipzig.
Like the comparable field of art history, different branches and schools of historical musicology emphasize different types of musical works and approaches to music. There are national differences in various definitions of historical musicology. In theory, "music history" could refer to the study of the history of any type or genre of music, e.g. the history of Indian music or the history of rock. In practice, these research topics are more considered within ethnomusicology and "historical musicology" is assumed to imply Western Art music of the European tradition; the methods of historical musicology include source studies, philology, style criticism, musical analysis, iconography. The application of musical analysis to further these goals is a part of music history, though pure analysis or the development of new tools of music analysis is more to be seen in the field of music theory. Music historians create a number of written products, ranging from journal articles describing their current research, new editions of musical works, biographies of composers and other musicians, book-length studies or university textbook chapters or entire textbooks.
Music historians may examine issues in a close focus, as in the case of scholars who examine the relationship between words and music for a given composer's art songs. On the other hand, some scholars take a broader view, assess the place of a given type of music, such as the symphony in society using techniques drawn from other fields, such as economics, sociology, or philosophy. New musicology is a term applied since the late 1980s to a wide body of work emphasizing cultural study and criticism of music; such work may be based on feminist, gender studies, queer theory, or postcolonial theory, or the work of Theodor W. Adorno. Although New Musicology emerged from within historical musicology, the emphasis on cultural study within the Western art music tradition places New Musicology at the junction between historical and sociological research in music. New musicology was a reaction against traditional historical musicology, which according to Susan McClary, "fastidiously declares issues of musical signification off-limits to those engaged in legitimate scholarship."
Charles Rosen, retorts that McClary, "sets up, like so many of the'new musicologists', a straw man to knock down, the dogma that music has no meaning, no political or social significance." Today, many musicologists no longer distinguish between musicology and new musicology, since many of the scholarly concerns once associated with new musicology have now become mainstream, they feel the term "new" no longer applies. Ethnomusicology comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, it is considered the anthropology or ethnography of music. Jeff Todd T
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases and solids including topics such as vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer; the application of acoustics is present in all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, architecture, industrial production and more. Animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay's'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ἀκουστικός, meaning "of or for hearing, ready to hear" and that from ἀκουστός, "heard, audible", which in turn derives from the verb ἀκούω, "I hear". The Latin synonym is "sonic", after which the term sonics used to be a synonym for acoustics and a branch of acoustics. Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively. In the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras wanted to know why some combinations of musical sounds seemed more beautiful than others, he found answers in terms of numerical ratios representing the harmonic overtone series on a string, he is reputed to have observed that when the lengths of vibrating strings are expressible as ratios of integers, the tones produced will be harmonious, the smaller the integers the more harmonious the sounds. If, for example, a string of a certain length would sound harmonious with a string of twice the length. In modern parlance, if a string sounds the note C when plucked, a string twice as long will sound a C an octave lower.
In one system of musical tuning, the tones in between are given by 16:9 for D, 8:5 for E, 3:2 for F, 4:3 for G, 6:5 for A, 16:15 for B, in ascending order. Aristotle understood that sound consisted of compressions and rarefactions of air which "falls upon and strikes the air, next to it...", a good expression of the nature of wave motion. In about 20 BC, the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius wrote a treatise on the acoustic properties of theaters including discussion of interference and reverberation—the beginnings of architectural acoustics. In Book V of his De architectura Vitruvius describes sound as a wave comparable to a water wave extended to three dimensions, when interrupted by obstructions, would flow back and break up following waves, he described the ascending seats in ancient theaters as designed to prevent this deterioration of sound and recommended bronze vessels of appropriate sizes be placed in theaters to resonate with the fourth, fifth and so on, up to the double octave, in order to resonate with the more desirable, harmonious notes.
During the Islamic golden age, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is believed to postulated that the speed of sound was much slower than the speed of light. The physical understanding of acoustical processes advanced during and after the Scientific Revolution. Galileo Galilei but Marin Mersenne, discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings. Galileo wrote "Waves are produced by the vibrations of a sonorous body, which spread through the air, bringing to the tympanum of the ear a stimulus which the mind interprets as sound", a remarkable statement that points to the beginnings of physiological and psychological acoustics. Experimental measurements of the speed of sound in air were carried out between 1630 and 1680 by a number of investigators, prominently Mersenne. Meanwhile, Newton derived the relationship for wave velocity in solids, a cornerstone of physical acoustics; the eighteenth century saw major advances in acoustics as mathematicians applied the new techniques of calculus to elaborate theories of sound wave propagation.
In the nineteenth century the major figures of mathematical acoustics were Helmholtz in Germany, who consolidated the field of physiological acoustics, Lord Rayleigh in England, who combined the previous knowledge with his own copious contributions to the field in his monumental work The Theory of Sound. In the 19th century, Wheatstone and Henry developed the analogy between electricity and acoustics; the twentieth century saw a burgeoning of technological applications of the large body of scientific knowledge, by in place. The first such application was Sabine’s groundbreaking work in architectural acoustics, many others followed. Underwater acoustics was used for detecting submarines in the first World War. Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society. Sound measurement and analysis reached new levels of accuracy and sophistication through the use of electronics and computing; the ultrasonic frequency range enabled wholly new kinds of application in industry.
New kinds of transducers were put to use. Acoustics is defined by ANSI/
Mykola Vitaliyovych Lysenko was a Ukrainian composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. Lysenko was born in Hrynky, Kremenchuk county, Poltava Governorate, the son of Vitaliy Romanovych Lysenko. From childhood he became interested in the folksongs of Ukrainian peasants and by the poetry of Taras Shevchenko; when Shevchenko's body was brought to Ukraine after his death in 1861, Lysenko was a pallbearer. During his time at Kiev University, Lysenko collected and arranged Ukrainian folksongs, which were published in seven volumes. One of his principal sources was the kobzar Ostap Veresai. Lysenko was a student of Biology at the Kharkiv University, studying music privately. On a scholarship which he won from the Russian Music Society he pursued further professional music studies at the Leipzig Conservatory, it is there that he understood the importance of collecting and creating Ukrainian music rather than duplicating the work of Western classical composers. On his return to Kiev he continued to create Ukrainian themed compositions.
His Ukrainophilic approach to composition was not supported by the Russian Imperial Music Society which promoted a Great Russian cultural presence in Ukraine. As a result, Lysenko severed his relationship with them, never to compose any music set to the Russian language, nor allow any translations of his works into the Russian language; the Ems Ukaz, which banned use of Ukrainian language in print, was one of the obstacles for Lysenko. In order to improve his orchestration and composition skills the young Lysenko traveled to St. Petersburg where he took orchestration lessons from Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov in the mid-1870s, but his fervent Ukrainian national position and disdain for Great Russian autocracy impeded his career, he supported the 1905 revolution and was in jail in 1907. In 1908, he was the head of the Ukrainian Club, an association of Ukrainian national public figures in Kiev. For his opera libretti Lysenko insisted on using only the Ukrainian language. Tchaikovsky was impressed by Lysenko's Taras Bulba and wanted to stage the work in Moscow, but Lysenko's insistence on it being performed in the Ukrainian language, not Russian, prevented the performance from taking place in Moscow.
In his years, Lysenko raised funds to open a Ukrainian School of Music. His death was mourned throughout Ukraine. Lysenko's daughter Mariana followed her father's footsteps as a pianist, his son Ostap taught music in Kiev. Lysenko composed 133 art songs many of which on lyrics by Taras Shevchenko as well as Lesia Ukrainka, Ivan Franko, Heinrich Heine, Oleksandr Oles, Adam Mickiewicz and others, he arranged 500 folk songs for voice and piano and piano, or choir a cappella. Lysenko wrote three cantatas for choir and orchestra, all to Taras Shevchenko's texts: Raduisia nyvo nepolytaia, Biut’ porohy, Na vichnu pamiat’ Kotliarevs’komu Lysenko's larger works for piano include Ukrainian Suite in Form of Ancient Dances, two rhapsodies, Heroic scherzo and Sonata in A minor, he wrote dozens of smaller works like nocturnes, songs without words, program pieces. Some of his piano works show influence of Frédéric Chopin's style. Lysenko's chamber music includes a string quartet, a trio for two violins and viola, a number of works for violin and piano.
Lysenko wrote a number of operatic works, including Natalka Poltavka and Taras Bulba. Lysenko made the first musical-ethnographic studies of the blind kobzar Ostap Veresai which he published in 1873-4. In this work Lysenko demonstrated the way in which Ukrainian melodic material differs from Russian analogues by its unique use and approach to chromaticism. Lysenko continued to research and transcribe the repertoire of other kobzars from other regions such as Opanas Slastion from Poltava and Pavlo Bratytsia from Chernihiv, he made a thorough study of other Ukrainian folk instruments such as the torban. His collection of essays about Ukrainian folk instruments, makes him the founder of Ukrainian organology and one of the first organologist in the Russian Empire. Lysenko music school Mykola Lysenko International Music Competition List of Ukrainian composers The World of Mykola Lysenko: Ethnic Identity and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Ukraine. Taras Filenko, Tamara Bulat. Ukraine Millennium Foundation.
2001. Hardcover. 434 pages. ISBN 966-530-045-8. Ukraine Millennium Foundation Review by Natalie Kononenko Lysenko String Quartet in d minor Sound-bites and short bio Free scores by Mykola Lysenko at the International Music Score Library Project
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things, it is an old science. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate and long timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, they are studied together. Human anatomy is one of the essential basic sciences; the discipline of anatomy is divided into microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, in the study of cells.
The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have improved advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. Derived from the Greek ἀνατομή anatomē "dissection", anatomy is the scientific study of the structure of organisms including their systems and tissues, it includes the appearance and position of the various parts, the materials from which they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct from physiology and biochemistry, which deal with the functions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. For example, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, position, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as the liver; the discipline of anatomy can be subdivided into a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, includes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sight of the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, along with histology, embryology. Anatomy can be studied using both invasive and non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining information about the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methods used include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organs studied, endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrument is inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used to explore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography using X-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualize blood vessels; the term "anatomy" is taken to refer to human anatomy. However the same structures and tissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and the term includes the anatomy of other animals.
The term zootomy is sometimes used to refer to non-human animals. The structure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and they are studied in plant anatomy; the kingdom Animalia contains multicellular organisms that are motile. Most animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues and these animals are known as eumetazoans, they have an internal digestive chamber, with two openings. Metazoans do not include the sponges. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are much smaller than those in the plant cell; the body tissues are composed of numerous types of cell, including those found in muscles and skin. Each has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal are derived from the embryonic germ layers; those simpler invertebrates which are formed from two germ layers of ectoderm and endoderm are called diploblastic and the more developed animals whose structures and organs are formed from three germ layers are called triploblastic.
All of a triploblastic animal's tissues and organs are derived from the three germ layers of the embryo, the ectoderm and endoderm. Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, epithelial and nervous tissue. Connective tissues are fibrous and made up of cells scattered among inorganic material called the extracellular matrix. Connective tissue holds them in place; the main types are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone. The extracellular matrix contains proteins, the chief and most abundant of, collagen. Collagen plays a major part in maintaining tissues; the matrix can be modified to form a skeleton to protect the body. An exoskeleton is a thickened, rigid cuticle, stiffened by mineralization, as in crustaceans or by the cross-linkin