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Organometallic chemistry

Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, transition metals, sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron and tin, as well. Aside from bonds to organyl fragments or molecules, bonds to'inorganic' carbon, like carbon monoxide, cyanide, or carbide, are considered to be organometallic as well; some related compounds such as transition metal hydrides and metal phosphine complexes are included in discussions of organometallic compounds, though speaking, they are not organometallic. The related but distinct term "metalorganic compound" refers to metal-containing compounds lacking direct metal-carbon bonds but which contain organic ligands. Metal β-diketonates, alkoxides and metal phosphine complexes are representative members of this class; the field of organometallic chemistry combines aspects of traditional inorganic and organic chemistry.

Organometallic compounds are used both stoichiometrically in research and industrial chemical reactions, as well as in the role of catalysts to increase the rates of such reactions, where target molecules include polymers and many other types of practical products. Organometallic compounds are distinguished by the prefix "organo-" e.g. organopalladium compounds. Examples of such organometallic compounds include all Gilman reagents, which contain lithium and copper. Tetracarbonyl nickel, ferrocene are examples of organometallic compounds containing transition metals. Other examples include organomagnesium compounds like iodomagnesium MeMgI, dimethylmagnesium, all Grignard reagents. In addition to the traditional metals, lanthanides and semimetals, elements such as boron, silicon and selenium are considered to form organometallic compounds, e.g. organoborane compounds such as triethylborane. Representative Organometallic Compounds Many complexes feature coordination bonds between a metal and organic ligands.

The organic ligands bind the metal through a heteroatom such as oxygen or nitrogen, in which case such compounds are considered coordination compounds. However, if any of the ligands form a direct M-C bond complex is considered to be organometallic, e.g. 2+. Furthermore, many lipophilic compounds such as metal acetylacetonates and metal alkoxides are called "metalorganics." A occurring transition metal alkyl complex is methylcobalamin, with a cobalt-methyl bond. This subset of complexes is discussed within the subfield of bioorganometallic chemistry. Illustrative of the many functions of the B12-dependent enzymes, the MTR enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from a nitrogen on N5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to the sulfur of homocysteine to produce methionine; the status of compounds in which the canonical anion has a delocalized structure in which the negative charge is shared with an atom more electronegative than carbon, as in enolates, may vary with the nature of the anionic moiety, the metal ion, the medium.

For instance, lithium enolates contain only Li-O bonds and are not organometallic, while zinc enolates contain both Zn-O and Zn-C bonds, are organometallic in nature. The metal-carbon bond in organometallic compounds is highly covalent. For electropositive elements, such as lithium and sodium, the carbon ligand exhibits carbanionic character, but free carbon-based anions are rare, an example being cyanide; as in other areas of chemistry, electron counting is useful for organizing organometallic chemistry. The 18-electron rule is helpful in predicting the stabilities of metal carbonyls and related compounds. Most organometallic compounds do not however follow the 18e rule. Chemical bonding and reactivity in organometallic compounds is discussed from the perspective of the isolobal principle; as well as X-ray diffraction, NMR and infrared spectroscopy are common techniques used to determine structure. The dynamic properties of organometallic compounds is probed with variable-temperature NMR and chemical kinetics.

Organometallic compounds undergo several important reactions: oxidative addition and reductive elimination transmetalation carbometalation hydrometalation electron transfer β-hydride elimination organometallic substitution reaction carbon-hydrogen bond activation cyclometalation migratory insertion nucleophilic abstraction Early developments in organometallic chemistry include Louis Claude Cadet's synthesis of methyl arsenic compounds related to cacodyl, William Christopher Zeise's platinum-ethylene complex, Edward Frankland's discovery of diethyl- and dimethylzinc, Ludwig Mond's discovery of Ni4, Victor Grignard's organomagnesium compounds. The abundant and diverse products from coal and petroleum led to Ziegler–Natta, Fischer–Tropsch, hydroformylation catalysis which employ CO, H2, alkenes as feedstocks and ligands. Recognition of organometalli

Niall McCarthy (judge)

Niall McCarthy was an Irish judge who served as a Judge of the Supreme Court from 1982 to 1992. McCarthy was born in Cork in 1925, he was the son of a district court judge. He was educated at Clongowes Wood College, the Christian Brothers in Dún Laoghaire, at University College Dublin, he was called to the Bar in 1945 and the inner Bar in 1959. He was chairman of the Bar Council of Ireland from 1980 until his appointment to the Supreme Court in 1982. A renowned barrister of his day, his work included representing Charles Haughey in the Arms Trial and to act for Gulf Oil in the Whiddy Island Disaster and for the owners of the Stardust fire venue: he was the country's advocate of choice for two decades. On the Supreme Court, to which he was appointed on 1 November 1982, McCarthy seen as a liberal voice. Though a firm respecter of the separation of powers, he was without deference to the executive and sometimes took government and legislature to task, he berated the Government for its "inexcusable" failure to introduce appropriate laws with regard to abortion.

He was affectionately known by his colleagues as "God". He sat in a much larger number of unreported cases. Judicial writing is dry, but the advocate's panache surfaced: in McGarry v. Sligo County Council 1 Irish Reports 99, the case which prevented the Carrowmore megalithic tombs complex from being turned into a pithead, he quoted a Yeats verse and heartily endorsed a Swedish archaeologist's rhetorical question,'Do the Irish have no pride?’ In Norris v. Attorney General I. R. 36, heard only a few months after McCarthy's appointment, his dissenting judgment is a tour de force of classic liberalism. He noted that under the law as it stood, the male homosexual suffered legal sanctions not visited upon'the venal, the dishonest, the corrupt and the like', he expounded a notably broad theory of the legal standing necessary to raise particular constitutional issues and rejected the view, analogous to American'originalism', that the mores prevailing when the constitution was adopted in 1937 are determinative of a contemporary constitutional challenge.

He plangently asserted the right to privacy, at the end of the most important and influential dissenting judgment for fifty years. In Trimbole v. Governor of Mountjoy Prison I. R. 550, McCarthy rejected the view that a state illegality might lead to judicial rebuke but should not interfere with the result of the case. The authorities, ` must not be permitted to think' along those lines. On the contrary, such conduct: will result in the immediate enforcement, without qualification, of the constitutional rights of the individual concerned whatever the consequences may be. If the consequences are such as to enable a fugitive to escape justice such consequences are not of the court's creation. In Attorney General v. X, the notorious abortion injunction case, he eschewed the narrow ground that found favour with some others and baldly declared'to go to another State to do something lawfully done there cannot... admit of a restraining order'. He pointed to the obvious need for legislation to reconcile the separate rights acknowledged in the eighth amendment to the constitution: ‘The failure of the Legislature to enact the appropriate legislation is no longer just unfortunate.

On 21 August 1992, just weeks before his sudden death, McCarthy delivered a coruscating dissent in Attorney General v. Hamilton 2 I. R. 250, the case that upheld the Reynolds government's claim to absolute confidentiality for cabinet discussions. This was in the context of the Hamilton tribunal enquiries into the issue of export credit insurance: McCarthy appended to his judgment the civil service note of what Mr Reynolds had said the government had decided on that topic. Though McCarthy was in the minority, the absolute confidentiality found to attach was removed by the twelfth amendment to the constitution of 1997. On 1 October 1992, Niall McCarthy and his wife were killed in a motor accident near Seville in Spain whilst he was a sitting judge

If Society

If Society is an independent record label from Helsinki, Finland. Black Audio Echo Is Your Love Fun Frivolvol Hero Dishonest Ninetynine Radiopuhelimet Siniaalto Valse Triste Viola Fun: Zu-pa! Radiopuhelimet: Viisi tähteä Valse Triste: Madon luku Ninetynine: Worlds of Population, Worlds of Space, Worlds of Robots Echo Is Your Love: Humansize Black Audio: Iron Rhino Viola: Anything Can Stop Us Boys of Scandinavia: Kill the Party Red Carpet: The Noise of Red Carpet Frivolvol: Frivolous vol 2: The False Security Program Hero Dishonest: Juggernaut + Let Your Poison Scream Viola: Melancholydisco Rytmihäiriö: Saatana on Herra Echo Is Your Love: Paper Cut Eye Fun: Szklarska Poreba LP Hero Dishonest: Let Your Poison Scream Siniaalto: Tallentumia Viola: Tearcandy Siniaalto: Siniaalto Hero Dishonest: Juggernaut Echo Is Your Love: 8 Hours Hero Dishonest: Pleasure/ Disgust Echo Is Your Love: Sheets of Blank Fucking Paper V/A: Rantings Of A Free Thinker Sissy Spacek: Telegram before departure If Society website If Society at Last.fm

Raven Rock Mountain Complex

The Raven Rock Mountain Complex known as Site R, is a U. S. military installation with an underground nuclear bunker near Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, at Raven Rock Mountain, called an "underground Pentagon". The bunker has emergency operations centers for the United States Army, Air Force and United States Marine Corps. Along with Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center in Virginia and the Cheyenne Mountain Complex in Colorado, it formed the core bunker complexes for the US Continuity of Government plan during the Cold War to survive a nuclear attack; the installation's largest tenant unit is the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, RRMC communications are the responsibility of the 114th Signal Battalion. The facility has 38 communications systems, the Defense Information Systems Agency provides computer services at the complex. Raven Rock Mountain is adjacent to Jacks Mountain on the north while Miney Branch flows west-to-east between them in the Potomac River Watershed; the 1820 Waynesboro-Emmitsburg Turnpike with toll station for the 1787 crossroad was constructed between the mountains, where the Fight at Monterey Gap was conducted after the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg In 1870, copper ore was discovered to the north, the nearby Fountain Dale Springs House was established in 1874.

The scenic area's mountain recreation facilities to the west included the 1877 Pen Mar Park, the 1878 High Rock Tower, the 1885 Monterey Country Club, several resorts. The 1889 Jacks Mountain Tunnel on the Western Extension was completed near Raven Rock Mountain, nearby stations were at Blue Ridge Summit and Charmian; the Army's 1942 Camp Ritchie was built southwest of the resorts, a local road was built eastward from Blue Ridge Summit and intersected the north-south Fountaindale-Sabillasville Road Planning for a protected Cold War facility near Washington, D. C. began in 1948 for relocation of military National Command Authorities and the Joint Communications Service. The planned deep underground communications center was identified in the original 1950 federal petition to seize the Beard Lot, a 1,500-foot-high, mile-long hill located at Fountaindale and extending east and south along the Waynesboro-Emmitsburg road, The "Declaration of Taking" for "United States of America Versus 1,100 Acres of Land" was filed at the Adams County courthouse on 23 January 1951, made the government the official owner of the 280-acre tract seized from four properties.

South of and above the Carson service station on the Sunshine trail, bulldozers began work on 19 January 1951. By 26 May the Army had named the landform Raven Rock Mountain and listed its elevation as 1,527 feet. By 17 October 1951, there had been two deaths: one due to premature dynamite detonation in the Beard Lot tunnel, another due to crushing of a power-shovel operator; the S. A. Healy Company was working on the alternate Pentagon in November 1951, when Washington a cut-back in defense appropriations would affect the installation. On 16 January 1952, the government indicated that when completed, the bunker would have a standby group of 100 personnel; because of construction damage to the Sunshine Trail, the US said it would rebuild the trail in any fashion the state desired. By 29 March 1952, more than 100 workers were striking from building additional Raven Rock housing at Camp Ritchie, to be a supplemental installation for the underground Pentagon at Fountaindale. No work was going on in the Raven Rock tunnel at that time.

Local travelers having to bypass on the serpentine on the slope between Monterey and Fountaindale grew frustrated during the delay By 7 April 1952, United Telephone Company rights of way had been secured for four tracts, including one in Cumberland Township. Easements for three additional private tracts were filed by the government in December 1953 A 1952 Army history disclosed Raven Rock information. Three underground buildings were completed in 1953, the year a guard shelter burned on the installation. By April 1954, "Little Pentagon" development had cost $35,000,000. After the 1954 Air Defense Command blockhouse was built at Ent Air Force Base, where the joint 1955 Continental Air Defense Command was activated, in August 1955 OSD approved the automatic activation of Raven Rock's Alternate Joint Communication Center on declaration of air defense warning or notice of surprise attack; the AJCC was equipped with command and control hardware by the end of 1955. In July 1956 at Raven Rock, a joint War Room Annex was established and was operated by the Air Force, Raven Rock's readiness was broadened in April 1957 activation prior to emergency if JCS thought it necessary.

By 1959, the services as well as JCS regarded Raven Rock as their primary emergency deployment center. For the Air Force, it served as Headquarters USAF Advanced, capable of receiving the Chief of Staff and key officers. After President Dwight D. Eise

Kseniya Yorsh

Kseniya Yorsh is a Belarusian film producer who resides in Los Angeles. Yorsh obtained her degree in International Relations at the Belarusian State University in Minsk, Belarus, she went to receive a 1-Year Conservatory certificate in Documentary Filmmaking from the New York Film Academy in Los Angeles, CA, a Business and Management of Entertainment certificate from UCLA Extension in Los Angeles, CA. Kseniya's first documentary Mask-Up talked about perception of female beauty by women, she went on to produce a live-action short film What's Next? that received nominations at a variety of festivals around the world, such as Miami Independent Film Festival, Roma Cinema DOC, Brocken Knuckle Film Festival, as well as winning InterShort Online Film Awards in September 2015. A documentary Yorsh produced that year, was showcased at Cannes Short Film Corner in 2016 and received distribution in Spain with Feelmakers and US with Play Festival Films. In 2016 she did an array of films, starting with Unorthodox, nominated for the Audience Award at the HollyShorts Film Festival and was well-reviewed afterwards.

A short film Visitors was nominated for Best Sci-Fi Short at the New York City International Film Festival, Vail Film Festival, Newport Beach Film Festival. The film was well received in the review by Tinsel Town News Now. Yorsh directed and produced the short documentary Love in Porn - an insider's look into the romantic lives of those who have succeeded in the adult film industry; the film screened at the Cannes Film Festival in 2016 and received distribution in Spain with Feelmakers, in the US with Play Festival Films and in France with Gonella. The bloggers spoke of the sex-positive way in which the film depicts the workers of the sex industry. In 2017 another short film she produced, Stand By Her, is going to Cannes as well. Kseniya Yorsh's latest collaboration is with a Panamanian director Eric Iglesias for whom she is producing a feature film about one girl's choice and test of her moral values

Oscar Crino

Oscar Crino is a former Australian international footballer who played as a central midfielder. He was an Australian Institute of Sport scholarship holder. Crino played in the National Soccer League with South Melbourne, Footscray JUST and Preston. A regular player in the Australian national side through the 1980s Crino played 37 times for the national team scoring 6 goals, Crino is regarded as one of the most skilful Australian midfielders of his generation, he played in Cyprus with Anorthosis Famagusta and in Hong Kong with Tung Sing. Crino is now coaching in Victorian State League 2NW with Carinlea FC. OzFootball profile Oscar Crino at National-Football-Teams.com