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Oro Valley, Arizona

Oro Valley, incorporated in 1974, is a suburban town located 6 miles north of Tucson, United States, in Pima County. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 41,011, an increase from 29,700 in 2000 census. Dubbed the "Upscale Tech Mecca" of Southern Arizona by the Arizona Daily Star newspaper, Oro Valley is home to over 10 high tech firms and has a median household income nearly 50% higher than the U. S. median. The town is located 110 miles southeast of the state capital of Phoenix. Oro Valley is situated in the western foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains at the base of Pusch Ridge; the Tortolita Mountains are located north of the town, vistas of the Tucson valley are to the south. The town occupies the middle Cañada del Oro Valley. Oro Valley hosts a large number of residents from around the US who maintain second or winter homes in the town; the town hosted the 2006 Pac-10 Women's Golf Championships at the Oro Valley Country Club. Oro Valley Country Club was the site for the 2006 Girl's Junior America's Cup, a major amateur golf tournament for the Western United States Annual events in Oro Valley include the Oro Valley Festival of the Arts, El Tour de Tucson bicycle race, the Tucson Marathon, the Cactus Speed Classic for inline skaters, the Arizona Distance Classic.

The area of Oro Valley has been inhabited discontinuously for nearly two thousand years by various groups of people. The Native American Hohokam tribe lived in the Honeybee Village in the foothills of the Tortolita Mountains on Oro Valley's far north side around 450 A. D. Hohokam artifacts continue to be discovered in the Honeybee Village that the Hohokam inhabited continuously for nearly 800 years, studied by archaeologists around the globe. Early in the 16th century, Native American tribes known as the Apache arrived in the southern Arizona area, including Oro Valley; these tribes inhabited the region only a few decades prior to the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors, including Francisco Coronado. The Spanish established forts in the area, including the Presidio at Tucson beginning in the late 16th century. Beginning in the 19th century, Americans settled in the Arizona Territory, following the Mexican–American War and the subsequent Gadsden Purchase including Southern Arizona. Following the Civil War and several Army efforts to pacify the Apaches, Tucson settlers ventured north to settle Oro Valley.

Francisco Romero, from a Hispanic family tracing its Tucson roots to the early nineteenth century, established a ranch in what is Catalina State Park today by 1869. He constructed ranch buildings on the foundations of the Hohokam ruins in the park. Romero lived there intermittently from 1869 to his death in 1905. Members of the Romero family occupied land in that same area until 1930. <Francisco Romero Biofile, Arizona Historical Society><Williams, James. Claiming the Desert, 2018.> George Pusch, a German immigrant, occupied land in the area of Oro Valley after 1874, establishing a cattle ranch. This ranch was unique because it utilized a steam pump to provide water popularizing Pusch's property as the Steam Pump Ranch on the Cañada del Oro; the steam pump was one of only two in the Arizona Territory. Pusch and his family never lived on the ranch, they visited and employed caretakers to manage the property. George Pusch, the Pusch Land and Cattle Company, owned Steam Pump Ranch until 1925. Pusch's ranch provided respite for travelers entering and leaving the Tucson area.

Pusch Ridge is named in honor of George Pusch.<Williams, James. Claiming the Desert, 2018.> Ranching continued to flourish in the area as greater numbers of Americans settled in the Arizona Territory and the state of Arizona. Federal homesteads became available after 1903 when surveys of land were completed. Homesteads were claimed by individuals from 1903 until the 1940s. Hispanic homesteaders included Francisco Romero, Jesus Elias, Francisco Marin, Francisco Aragon and others. Female homesteaders included Ina Gittings, Mabel Burke Johnson, Margaret Moodie and others. Other prominent homesteaders included William Sutherland, James Reidy and David Morgan. <> Large ranching families came to the Oro Valley area in the period 1930-1960. Many of these were wealthy individuals from the Midwest and the East, they vacationed in Tucson during the period and became interested in living in the desert. They purchased many of the homesteads occupied by original settlers who sold out after 1930; these wealthy ranchers obtained properties of 1000 to 7000 acres. They lived on the ranches in the winter months and employed caretakers to manage the property and cattle; these wealthy ranchers included Walter McDonald, John Procter, Lawrence Rooney, Joseph McAdams and Lloyd and Betty Golder.<Williams,James. Claiming the Desert, 2018.>

Gold rushers into the American West were attracted to southern Arizona, where gold was said to be in abundance in and around the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. Fueled by the legend of the lost Iron Door Gold Mine in the mountains, those in search of gold trekked through the Oro Valley area focusing their attention along the Cañada del Oro washbed. No significant amounts of gold were found locally. After World War II, the Tucson area experienced dramatic population growth, impacting Oro Valley as well. Property owners began subdividing local real estate for development in the early 1930s. Construction of Campo Bello, the first suburban development, began in 1948. Lots in the Linda Vista Citrus Tracts were sold from the late 1930s to the 1960s and occupied by residents. In the early 1950s the Oro Valley Country Club opened at the base of Pusch Ridge, affirming the area's future as an affluent community; the Suffolk Hills development was constructed i


Lowesby is a small parish and township situated in the district of Harborough in Leicestershire county. It is 8 miles east of the county capital, 90 miles north of London. Lowesby parish is located 500 metres above sea level in a hilly region. Other than Queniborough brook there are no other sites of topographic interest in Lowesby due to the intensive farming in the area. Local farming may have been influenced by the geology of the area, predominantly serpentine rock. Lowesby Hall was first owned by Richard Wallaston from the mid 17th century and remained in his family until Anne Wallaston married into the Fowke family, in whose hands the Hall remained well into the 20th century, it is now under private ownership. The Rutland and Melton District, which includes Lowesby, is represented by A. Duncan, who has held the seat since 1992. In addition to his duties for the Rutland and Melton area, he is minister of state for international development, where he is involved with countries in Africa, the Caribbean, the Middle East and Asia.

The councillor for Harborough is Michael Rook, elected in May 2007. The county councillor for Lowesby is Simon Galton; the name Lowesby stems from Old Norse and is thought to mean Lausi's farm or settlement, which refers to the owner and subsequent land use. The manor of Lowesby is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as containing two plough teams consisting of five men each; the manor was held from Countess Judith, a niece of William the Conqueror, by a Norman named Hugh Burdet from Cuilly in Normandy, who made Loseby his seat for many generations. The Burdets founded Loseby parish church and gave its advowson to the Order of St Lazarus based at Burton Lazars which they supported for many generations until relations soured in about 1290 when the Order started to appropriate part of the parish's tithes. Riots broke out over the ensuing years, Loseby's vicar was excommunicated and William Burdet's actions "polluted" the churchyard by bloodshed in 1297. Calm was restored to the parish and in 1298 Sir William Burdet agreed to pay for the reconsecration of the church and reconfirmed his family's grants to the Order but relations were never the same again.

In 1831 agriculture was by far the most prominent industry, with 64% of the male population of the age of 20 employed in this sector. However, fifty years this number had dropped to 40%, while agriculture was still the most common employment, the remainder of the population was working in other occupations, including as coachmen, gardeners for the manor, or as machinists; the parish's main land use in 2001 is still farming but just 9% of the population now work in agriculture and the manor no longer provides employment. Lowesby railway station has been closed since 7 December 1953, is now part of a farm, it was the first station to open on the Great Northern Railway route to Leicester on 15 May 1882. The tertiary sector, otherwise described as the service sector, is the dominant area of employment in Lowesby with 62% of the population working in this area. There has been a movement into scientific and technical industries, which employs 10% of those working in tertiary industry in Lowesby; the population of Lowesby Parish was 127 in 2011.

This level of population has not always been constant throughout the parish's history. The population of Lowesby grew by 100 people during the first fifty years of the 19th century. By the time of the 1851 census, a UK-wide railway network had been completed. Coupled with minor depressions and a second phase of British industrialisation, it may have led to a decline in the local population; the population has not recovered since with Lowesby having averaged one hundred inhabitants during the 20th century. Media related to Lowesby at Wikimedia Commons

Shakespeare Institute

The Shakespeare Institute is a centre for postgraduate study dedicated to the study of William Shakespeare and the literature of the English Renaissance. It is part of the University of Birmingham, is located in Stratford-upon-Avon; the Institute was set up in 1951 at the former home of novelist Marie Corelli. Budgetary problems forced it to be relocated to the main campus at Birmingham during the 1970s, but under the guidance of Professor Stanley Wells, the Institute was returned to Mason Croft in the 1980s and its position was consolidated in 1996 with the opening of the purpose-built Shakespeare Institute Library, it has been described by the current director, Michael Dobson, as "the best place on earth in which to explore the impact Shakespeare’s work has had across four centuries of world culture". The directors of the Institute have been: Allardyce Nicoll Terence Spencer Philip Brockbank Stanley Wells Peter Holland Russell Jackson Kathleen McLuskie Michael Dobson The Shakespeare Institute Library contains about 60,000 volumes and manuscripts, audio-visual collections.

The library aims to collect every significant publication for the study of Shakespeare and Renaissance drama and the supporting collections cover literary, political and social history of the period. Significant research collections include: Renaissance Theatre Company archive Renaissance Films PLC archive Unpublished Shakespeare Film Script collection New Shakespeare Company archive E. K. Chambers Papers Newscuttings collection 1902–present English Short Title Catalogue 1475-1640 on microfilm Francis Longe Play Collection on microfilm; the Shakespeare Institute Players is the dramatic society for the postgraduate students of the University of Birmingham's Shakespeare Institute, located in Stratford-upon-Avon. The Shakespeare Institute Players have been around under many different names since the University of Birmingham's Shakespeare Institute has existed; the first recorded production was A Yorkshire Tragedy as The Shakespeare Institute Dramatic Society. It was performed in February 1953. Since the group has had many different names, but the most used name is The Shakespeare Institute Players.

Foster, A.. Birmingham. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10731-5. Ives, E.. The First Civic University: Birmingham, 1880–1980 – An Introductory History. Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press. ISBN 1-902459-07-5. Official Website


Mbalam is a place in Cameroon near the southern border with the Republic of the Congo where there are significant deposits of iron ore. The mining company is Sundance Resources Limited. There are two other places in Cameroon with the same name. A 510 km railway connection to a deepwater port is required to exploit these ore deposits efficiently. Several routes were planned using Quantm software; the railway will start at an elevation of about 650m at the mine, proceed along a level alignment for 350 km, drops steeply for 100 km down to the coastal plain traverses that plain for 50 km to the port. The gradients favour loaded trains. In September 2010, Sundance Resources signed a memorandum of understanding with CRCC China-Africa Construction Ltd, which outlined construction plans for a 490 km railway linking the planned iron ore mines to a proposed port near Lolabé. Another Chinese company, China Harbour Engineering Co Ltd, will build the port. A two-stage development of a mine and port for the cross-border iron ore deposits in Cameroon and Congo is estimated to cost US$7.7 billion.

The new railway is expected to carry 35 million tonnes of ore per year for 25 years. Railway stations in Cameroon


Nelarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was known as 506U78. Nelarabine is a prodrug of arabinosylguanine nucleotide triphosphate, a type of purine nucleoside analog, which causes inhibition of DNA synthesis and cytotoxicity. Pre-clinical studies suggest that T-cells are sensitive to nelarabine. In October 2005, it was approved by the FDA for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma that has not responded to or has relapsed following treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens, it was approved in the European Union in October 2005. Complete responses have been achieved with this medication, it is marketed in the US as Arranon and as Atriance in the EU by Novartis

Medini Ray

Medini Ray a.k.a. Madini Rai or Madini Ray ruled from 1658 to 1674 in the Palamu region of Bihar, now in Jharkhand. After consolidating his position, he started to expand his chieftency, he extended his sway over South Gaya and setup post in Kothi and Kunda in Chatra and Deogaon in Palamu. He defeated nagpuri raja Raghunath Shah and ransacked his capital, he conquered Raja of smaller kingdoms including Belunja siris, Jupla and Sherghati in Gaya. Upon accession of Aurangzeb to the Grant of Diwani jagirdars of Bihar, he placed contingents at the command of Daud Khan. Daud Khan started expedition against Palamu on 1660, he was accompanied by Mirza Khan, faujdar of Darbhanga,Tahawwur Khan, jagirdar of Chainpur, Raja Bahroz of Munger the Nagbanshi ruler of Kokrah. Orders were received from Emperor Aurangzeb. In battle, Medini Ray escaped to forest. Both the forts were occupied by the invaders and the region was brought under subjugation; the Chero capital was cleared of the Hindu population and the temples with their idols were destroyed.

Medini Rai, the Chero ruler of Palamau, had fled to Surguja after his defeat by Daud Khan. Once again he took possession of Palamu, he made sincere efforts to promote agriculture and to better the desolate state of Palamu, caused by the repeated Mughal invasions. The region became prosperous and the people had ample food and other amenities of life. Maharaja had rebuild the old Palamu fort, earlier build by kings of Raksel dynasty. For defence he erected several turrets. In 1673, he was started constructing new fort on a hillock on the west of old fort. In new fort, the gate is known as Nagpuri gate. After victory over Nagpuri Raja, he built one of the Palamu Forts, he decided to built gate in Nagpuria style. Beyond the Nagpuri gate, there is another small gate. On both outer side of the gate there is Persian and Sanskrit inscription of Barnmali Mishra the Pandit of Maharaja Medini Rai. According to inscription the construction work started in magh samwat 1680, he began building the fort for his heir Pratap Rai.

After Maharaja Medini Rai's death, his son Pratap Rai took up the work of finishing the fort