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Orra E. Monnette

Orra Eugene Monnette was an attorney and banker. Monnette was the Founder of the Bank of America, L. A.. Orra E. Monnette was born in southern Crawford County, Ohio to Mervin J. Monnette and Olive Hull Monnette. Monnette's father was involved in farming, raising stock, banking. Mervin J. Monnette, along with his brothers established the town of Monnett in southern Crawford County, Ohio for the purposes of shipping cattle to the markets north of their farms, his family were staunch members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, now part of the modern United Methodist Church. Monnette's great-grandfather was the Reverend Jeremiah Crabb Monnett, an itinerant Methodist Episcopal preacher who led the settlement of Southern Crawford County by M. E. Church members. Monnette attended Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, where he joined the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. A first cousin of his grandfather – Mary Monnett Bain – had donated a sizable sum to the college in the 1850s which resulted in the building of Monnett Hall.

In his youth, Monnette helped in the organization of subscriptions for the building of Monnett Memorial M. E. Chapel in Crawford County Ohio. Monnette was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1896, practicing in Bucyrus and relocating to Toledo, Ohio, he was admitted to the California bar in 1909. While Monnette was trained as an attorney, his father’s foray into mining in 1904-1906 changed his career path. In 1906, the elder Monnette struck a significant gold vein in the thought tapped out Mohawk Mine, Nevada; the strike, known as the Monnette-Hayes Lease, with mining expert G. H. Hayes and set records for the value of the ore shipped in 1906. Mervin Monnette realized a $5,000,000 profit on the Mohawk, which he assigned to his son for investment. With his father’s mining proceeds, Orra Monnette began purchased stock in Los Angeles area banks; this led to a controlling interest in the American National Bank of Los Angeles. In 1909, ANB was merged into Savings Bank of Los Angeles. In 1911, Monnette purchased the Broadway Bank and Trust Company, which when merged with the family’s other holdings formed the Citizens Bank and Trust Company, of which Orra E. Monnette was Chairman of the Board.

Monnette left Citizens in 1922. His next venture, opening at the corner of Wilshire and Western Avenues in Los Angeles in 1923 was christened Bank of America, Los Angeles. On opening day, the bank posted an operating capital of one million dollars. Monnette’s intention was to build capital for national expansion. A. In 1928 Monnette and Giannini, agreed that a merger of both entities under the Bank of America name promised the best opportunity for all concerned; as part of the deal, Monnette sold his rights to the "Foundation Story" of the combined entity. Monnette was growing concerned about financial markets; the formal name change to Bank of America National Savings Bank. Monnette was named Co-chairman of the new BoA and made a Director of the bank. During the early 1930s, with his interests elsewhere, Monnette was made a Vice President in the bank and retained his Board seat. Monnette founded the Lincoln Mortgage Company of California, not included in the BoA merger. Monnette continued to serve as its President until his death.

Throughout his life in Los Angeles, Orra Monnette served on numerous commissions and boards charged with public projects and the operation of various public organizations. Monnette was appointed to the Los Angeles Municipal Annexation Commission in 1913, to the Los Angeles City Planning Commission in 1920 and was made a member of the Board of Freeholders which framed Los Angeles’ city charter between 1923 and 1924. In 1914, Monnette was appointed to the Los Angeles Public Library Board, reappointed every five years until his death in 1936. Monnette was elected President of the Library Board in 1916, retained that office until his death as well. During the twenty-three years of his tenure, Monnette championed three major library bond packages which were supported by the citizens of Los Angeles; the bond packages allowed the city to build forty-eight branches throughout the Los Angeles area as well as the landmark art deco Central Library in Downtown Los Angeles. In 1907, Monnette became a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California.

An avid genealogist, he brought experience and leadership to the evolution of the society's library, founded in 1893, which remains open free to the public as a public service of that organization. Mervin Jeremiah Monnette, Orra's father, joined him as a Life Member in 1908. Orra E. Monnette died in Los Angeles California in 1936. In addition to the placement of a memorial bronze bust of Monnette honoring him in the lobby of the Main Library, in 1961 his complete genealogical library of over 1,700 books on the subject and history, along with genealogical notes were given to the Los Angeles Public Library System; the book collection remains an important part of genealogy section for the Central Library, the private papers and genealogical notes are held by accessible in the manuscript division. In 2006, the remainder of Monnette's personal papers were given to the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. A street in Koreatown "Monnette Place" is named in his honor. Breithaupt, Jr. Richard Hoag, 1994, Sons of the Revolution in the State of

Brian Brake

John Brian Brake was a photographer from New Zealand. Born in Wellington, New Zealand, Brake was the adopted son of John Samuel Brake and his wife Jennie Brake, he was raised at Doyleston, before his father moved the family to Arthur's Pass, where his father owned the general store, Christchurch, where he attended Christchurch Boys' High School. His early interest in photography was inspired by his aunt Isabel Brake, who exhibited with the Christchurch Photographic Society, several of his older cousins. Brake trained with wellington portrait photographer Spencer Digby from 1945. Three years he joined Government filmmaking body the National Film Unit as an assistant cameraman. Brake worked on 17 films at the Unit as a cameraman as a director. Though Brake's skills with studio lighting were utilised, the majority of his work involved the NFU's heavy diet of scenic shorts, including a series of'snow' films Brake filmed in the Southern Alps. Snows of Aorangi, one of three NFU films Brake directed, was the first New Zealand film nominated for an Academy Award, in the Best Short Subject category in 1959.

It was beaten to the Oscar by James Algar's nature film Grand Canyon. Brake left New Zealand for London in 1954. In 1955 he met members of the photo agency Magnum Photos; this led to his acceptance as a nominee member in the same year, full membership in 1957. He remained a Magnum photographer until 1967, he worked as freelance photographer in Europe and Asia until the mid-1960s, when he began working more for Life magazine. He is best known for his 1957 and 1959 coverage of China, his 1955 photographs of Pablo Picasso at a bullfight,His "Monsoon" series of photographs taken in India during 1960 were published internationally in magazines including Life and Paris Match. Brake used Aparna Das Gupta as the model for what was to become one of his best known photographs from the "Monsoon" series — a shot of a girl holding her face to the first drops of monsoon rain; the shoot was set up on a Kolkata rooftop with a ladder and a watering can. Sen describes the shoot: He took me up to the terrace, had me wear a red sari in the way a village girl does, asked me to wear a green stud in my nose.

To be helpful, I said let me wear a red one to match, he said no — he was so decisive, rather brusque — I think a green one. It was stuck to my nose with glue. Someone had a large watering can, they poured water over me, it was a simple affair. It took maybe half an hour. In the same year as he shot "Monsoon", Brake photographed in New Zealand; the images were published in gift of the sea. The book remained in print for over a decade and was republished in an new format and with different images, but the same title, in 1990. In 1965 Nigel Cameron and Brake published Peking: A tale of three cities, dedicated to Brake's father, John Brake. In 1967 Brake and William Warren were commissioned by James Thompson to produce The House on the Klong, first published after the mysterious disappearance of silk merchant and former CIA agent James Thompson, in January 1968; this book was the first of many on art objects. Titles include The sculpture of Thailand and reality: early ceramics from South-East Asia, Art of the Pacific, Craft New Zealand: the art of the craftsman.

In 1970 Brake founded Zodiac Films in Hong Kong and made documentary films in Indonesia for the following six years. In 1976 he returned to New Zealand, he commissioned an East Asian influenced architectural award-winning house designed by Ron Sang on Titirangi's Scenic Drive, in the Waitakere Ranges to the west of Auckland, where he lived with his life partner, Wai-man Lau, for the remainder of his life, although he continued to accept freelance assignments abroad. In 1985 he helped establish the New Zealand Centre for Photography. In the 1981 Queen's Birthday Honours, Brake was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to photography. Brake died at Titirangi of a heart attack in 1988. Brake was careful to retain his negatives and transparencies, as well as copyright, wherever possible, his entire collection of photographs is now housed at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The Museum showed his China work in a 1995 exhibition, Brian Brake: China, the 1950s, in 1998, Monsoon: Brian Brake's images of India.

Images from this series were published independently in 2007 as Monsoon. In 2010 the Museum mounted a major retrospective exhibition of his work, Brian Brake: Lens on the world, again with a illustrated catalogue. Brian Brake pages at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Profile and NFU short films at NZ On Screen Brian Brake Collection at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Monsoon exhibition by Brian Brake at the National Gallery of Australia, 1999 Brake's first published photographs - of an architectural model The Brake House heritage listing

List of United Kingdom by-elections (1931–1950)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1931 and 1950, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: red for a Labour gain, blue for a Conservative gain, orange for a Liberal gain, yellow for a SNP gain and grey for any other gain. A grand total of 333 by-elections were held during this period. Where the cause of by-election is given as "resignation" or "seeks re-election", this indicates that the incumbent was appointed on his or her own request to an "office of profit under the Crown", either the Steward of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Steward of the Manor of Northstead; these appointments are made as a constitutional device for leaving the House of Commons, whose Members are not permitted to resign. British Parliamentary By-Elections since 1945 List of MPs since 1660 F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1832-1987 F. W. S. Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-49 F. W. S. Craig, Chronology of British Parliamentary By-elections 1833-1987

Nim (programming language)

Nim is an imperative, general-purpose, multi-paradigm, statically typed, compiled programming language designed and developed by Andreas Rumpf. It is designed to be "efficient and elegant", supporting metaprogramming, message passing and object-oriented programming styles by providing several features such as compile time code generation, algebraic data types, a foreign function interface with C and C++, compiling to C, C++, Objective-C, JavaScript. Nim is statically typed, it supports compile-time metaprogramming features such as syntactic macros and term rewriting macros. Term rewriting macros enable library implementations of common data structures such as bignums and matrices to be implemented efficiently, as if they were builtin language facilities. Iterators are supported and can be used as first class entities, as can functions, allowing for the use of functional programming methods. Object-oriented programming is supported by multiple dispatch. Functions can be generic and can be overloaded, generics are further enhanced by the support for type classes.

Operator overloading is supported. Nim includes tunable automatic garbage collection based on deferred reference counting with cycle detection, which can be turned off altogether. In 2014, Andrew Binstock said: "Nimrod... presents a most original design that straddles Pascal and Python and compiles to C code or JavaScript." Today, Nim compiles to C, C++, JavaScript, Objective-C. The goal for Nim is to be as fast as C, as expressive as Python, as extensible as Lisp. Nim's initial development was started in 2005 by Andreas Rumpf, it was named Nimrod and the project was made public in 2008. The first version of the Nim compiler was written in Pascal using the Free Pascal compiler. In 2008, a version of the compiler written in Nim was released; the compiler is free and open-source software and is being developed by a community of volunteers working with Andreas Rumpf. The language was renamed from Nimrod to Nim with the release of version 0.10.2 in December 2014. On the 23rd of September, 2019, version 1.0.0 of Nim was released signifying the maturation of the language and its toolchain.

The syntax of Nim is readable as it resembles that of Python. Code blocks and nesting statements are identified through use of white-space according to the offside-rule, many keywords are identical to their Python equivalents, which are English keywords, where other programming languages use punctuation. Though Nim supports indentation based syntax like Python, it introduced flexibility whereby one could break statement with a comma or binary operator to the next line. Nim supports user-defined operators. Nim is fully style-insensitive. In details, it is influenced by: Modula-3: traced vs untraced pointers Object Pascal: type safe bit sets, case statement syntax, various type names and filenames in the standard library Ada: subrange types, distinct type, safe variants – case objects C++: operator overloading, generic programming Python: Off-side rule Lisp: Macro system, embrace the AST, homoiconicity Oberon: export marker C#: async – await, lambda macros Go: deferAlso, Nim supports a Uniform Function Call Syntax and identifier equality.

The Nim compiler emits optimized C code by default and defers compiling to object code to an external C compiler to leverage the existing optimizing and portability capabilities of the C compiler. Many C compilers are supported including GNU Compiler Collection; the Nim compiler can emit C++, Objective-C, JavaScript code to allow easy interfacing with application programming interfaces written in those languages. This allows writing applications for Android; the Nim compiler is self-hosting. The Nim compiler supports cross compilation for other computer/Operating System from a different computer/OS; this is handy when building applications for embedded systems as compiling in those systems is slower and for building softwares for rare computer architecture. Nimble is the standard package manager used by Nim to package Nim modules, it was developed by Dominik Picheta, a core Nim developer. Newer releases of Nim come with Nimble included. Nimble packages are defined by.nimble files, which contain information about the package version, license, description and more.

These files support a limited subset of the Nim syntax called NimScript, with the main limitation being the access to the FFI. These scripts allow changing for custom tasks to be written; the list of packages is stored in a JSON file, accessible in the nim-lang/packages repository on GitHub. This JSON file provides Nimble with a mapping between the names of packages and their Git or Mercurial repository URLs; because Nimble comes with the Nim compiler, it is possible to test the Nimble environment by running: nimble -v This command will reveal the version number, the compilation date and time and git hash of nimble. Nimble utilizes git; the Nimble command-line is used as interface for installing and upgrading/patching module packages. C2nim is a transcompiler/transpiler that helps to generate new bindings by translating ANSI C code to Nim code; the output is human-readable Nim code, meant to be tweaked by hand after the translation process. Choosenim was developed by Dominik Picheta, the author of the book Nim in Action, as a tool that enab

Edward H. Spicer

Edward Holland "Ned" Spicer was an American anthropologist who combined the four-field approach outlined by Franz Boas and trained in the structural-function approach of Radcliffe-Brown and the University of Chicago. He joined the anthropology faculty at the University of Arizona in 1946 and retired from teaching in 1976. Spicer contributed to all four fields of anthropology through his study of the American Indians, the Southwest, the clash of cultures defined in his award-winning book, Cycles of Conquest. Spicer combined the elements of historical and functional analysis to address the question of socio-cultural change, he was a teacher, researcher and practitioner, who applied his perspective to address the issues confronting the people he worked with. Edward Holland Spicer was born on November 25, 1906 in Cheltenham, PA, the youngest of three children born to Robert Barclay Spicer and Margaret Jones Spicer; the Spicers' first son died several years before their second son, known as Bill, was born.

Edward, known as Ned, was born several years later. In 1908, a Quaker, moved his family to Arden, Delaware where he took a job as editor of the Quaker journal, The Friends Intelligencia. Arden was founded in 1900 by a Quaker group as a single tax community based on the principle of Henry George, they participated in the local Shakespearean Theater every summer. Arden provided a pleasant rural setting in which the boys absorbed the intellectual atmosphere of the town. Robert was fired from his editor's post because of his extreme liberal views; as a result, he turned to truck farming which introduced Ned to farming life. They helped with the daily hoeing of the plants and vegetables, they tended to the animals of the farm, including goats and rabbits, helped the household out by hauling firewood for the house and water from the town pump. In keeping with the local practice, Margaret homeschooled the boys; the mothers in the community took in their neighbors' children for schooling in their homes for a month at a time, each month switching off with another mother.

During this period, he developed a lifelong love for books and writing. From his father, Ned learned about philology. By the time he was 12, he was copying texts of the Algonquin language. Ned displayed curiosity in nature and the environment in and around Arden, he spent time memorizing the scientific names of local plants and animals. Ned was homeschooled until he was 13. Ned began his formal education, his parents enrolled Ned in the Friends School in nearby Wilmington. Ned commuted from home to the school by train daily for the next 3 years, his formal education continued in 1922 when his father moved the family to Louisville, Kentucky after Robert took a job with the Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. Ned was enrolled at the Louisville Male High School. While in Louisville, Ned developed an interest in sailing, he outfitted it with a sail, which he sailed and cruised in around the Ohio River. In February 1924, Ned graduated, left home, enrolled in the Commonwealth College in New Llano, Louisiana.

Commonwealth College was an experimental institution that featured classical and experiential training. After 2 months and his friend Vic dropped out and went to New Orleans to find work as seamen. Vic found a job on a merchant ship and left Ned on his own until he found a job as a "cook's helper" on the Aquarius, a merchant ship sailing to Germany. Ned's first international travel brought him to post-war Germany where he visited Bremerhaven and Hamburg where he witnessed a different world. Upon returning to Louisville he found his father Robert dying of cancer. Following his father's death, he and his mother returned to Wilmington where they found employment at the Greenwood Bookstore. Louisville had been a mixed period in Ned's life: while he enjoyed his experiences on the river and building of the boat, it was a period of mixed emotions and self-doubt common to teenage boys. Ned turned 18 in November and continued to work at the bookstore until he found himself drawn back to the sea. In early 1925, Ned returned to the sea, first as a crewman on the banana boat, that left New Orleans for Puerto Barrios, Guatemala.

According to his wife, that experience ended Ned's interest in eating bananas. Upon return he signed on to the ore ship, John C. Coolidge, on the Great Lakes. A seaman's strike that year ended Ned's career as a seaman. In the fall of 1925, Ned planned to major in Chemistry, he had enjoyed the chemistry classes in Louisville and thought of a career as a chemist with Dupont, there in Wilmington. He changed majors to literature and drama, which Ned's mother had encouraged her son to explore after he found the chemistry being taught at the university was not what he expected. During his time at the university, Ned acted in several plays, he joined the compulsory ROTC program, despite his Quaker upbringing, rose to the rank of cadet Captain. He studied German during his two years there.) While at the University of Delaware, he wrote a paper entitled "Is there Race Superiority?" that awakened an interest in the social sciences. One of the courses he took was in economics; as a child and his brother, were raised in a socialist environment.

He would remark, "In my youth I had been influenced … by Scott Netting, the radical economists at the Wharton School …, a friend of my father.". During his sophomore year he heard about a new program at Johns Hopkins University in B

Nabil Elaraby

Nabil Elaraby is an Egyptian politician and diplomat, Secretary-General of the Arab League from 1 July 2011 to 3 July 2016. He was Foreign Affairs Minister of Egypt in Essam Sharaf's government from March to June 2011. Elaraby was born on 15 March 1935, he holds a J. S. D. and an LL. M. from New York University School of Law and a law degree from Cairo University's Faculty of Law. Elaraby is a partner at Zaki Hashem & Partners in Cairo, specializing in negotiations and arbitration. Elaraby was legal adviser and director in the Legal and Treaties Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1976 to 1978 and Ambassador to India from 1981 to 1983, he returned to his previous post at the Foreign Ministry from 1983 to 1987. He was legal adviser to the Egyptian delegation to the Camp David Middle East peace conference in 1978, head of the Egyptian delegation to the Taba negotiations from 1985 to 1989, Agent of the Egyptian Government to the Egyptian-Israeli arbitration tribunal from 1986 to 1988.

He was appointed by the Egyptian Minister of Justice on the list of arbitrators in civil and commercial affairs in Egypt in 1995. In 1968, Elaraby was an Adlai Stevenson Fellow in International Law at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, he was appointed a Special Fellow in International Law at UNITAR in 1973, was legal adviser to the Egyptian delegation to the United Nations Geneva Middle East peace conference from 1973 to 1975. Elarby was Egypt's Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York from 1978 to 1981, the Permanent Representative to the UN Office at Geneva from 1987 to 1991, the Permanent Representative to the UN in New York from 1991 to 1999, a member of the International Law Commission of the United Nations from 1994 to 2004, President of the Security Council in 1996, Vice-President of the General Assembly in 1993, 1994 and 1997, he was a commissioner at the United Nations Compensation Commission in Geneva from 1999 to 2001, a member of the International Court of Justice from 2001 to February 2006.

Elaraby has served as Chairman for the First Committee of the General Assembly, the Informal Working Group on an Agenda for Peace, the Working Group on Legal Instruments for the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, the UN Special Committee on Enhancing the Principle of the Prohibition of the Use of Force in International Relations. Elaraby was an Arbitrator at the International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration in Paris in a dispute concerning the Suez Canal from 1989 to 1992, he was a judge in the Judicial Tribunal of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries in 1990. Elaraby was a member of the governing board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute from 2000 to 2010. Since December 2008 he has been serving as the Director of the Regional Cairo Centre for International Commercial Arbitration and as a counsel of the Sudanese government in the "Abyei Boundary" Arbitration between the Government of Sudan and the Sudanese People's Revolutionary Movement.

Elaraby has served as a Member of the Board for the Cairo Regional Centre for International Commercial Arbitration, a Member of the Board for the Egyptian Society of International Law, a Member of the World Intellectual Property Organization Arbitration and Mediation Centre List of Neutrals. Nabil Elaraby was one of the group of about 30 high-profile Egyptians acting as liaison between the protesters and the government, pressing for the removal of President Hosni Mubarak. At a democracy forum on 25 February 2011, he said the Egyptian government suffered from a lack of separation of powers, a lack of transparency and a lack of judicial independence, he said foreign policy should be based on Egypt's interests, including "holding Israel accountable when it does not respect its obligations."On 6 March 2011, he was appointed Foreign Affairs Minister of Egypt in Essam Sharaf's post-revolution cabinet. Since he has opened the Rafah Border Crossing with Gaza and brokered the reconciliation of Hamas with Fatah.

On 15 May 2011, he was appointed Secretary General of the Arab League. He took office on 1 July 2011. Taba, Camp David, Israeli West Bank barrier: From United Nations Security Council to the International Court of Justice, ed. Dar al-Chorouq, Cairo, 2017. Biography at the Wayback Machine at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Appearances on C-SPAN Works by or about Nabil Elaraby in libraries Egypt’s foreign minister on the way forward after Mubarak, Lally Weymouth, The Washington Post, 6 May 2011 Nabil El-Arabi -- justice-based diplomacy, Dina Ezzat, Al-Ahram Weekly, 19 May 2011