Corson County, South Dakota
Corson County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 4,050, its county seat is McIntosh. The county was named for Dighton Corson, a native of Maine, who came to the Black Hills in 1876, in 1877 began practicing law at Deadwood; the county is encompassed within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which extends into North Dakota. The Lakota people reside in the South Dakota part of the reservation; the Grand River, a tributary of the Missouri River, runs through the reservation. Corson County lies on the north line of South Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Missouri River flows south-southeastward along its eastern boundary line; the county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills. A portion of the land is dedicated to agriculture; the Grand River flows eastward through the central part of the county to discharge into the river, Standing Cloud Creek flows eastward through the county's lower SW area.
The terrain slopes to the east and south. Corson County has a total area of 2,530 square miles, of which 2,470 square miles is land and 60 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in South Dakota by area. The entire county lies within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which includes Sioux and Dewey counties; the eastern portion of South Dakota's counties observe Central Time. Corson County is the easternmost of the SD counties to observe Mountain Time. Grand River National Grassland C. C. Lee State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,181 people, 1,271 households, 949 families in the county; the population density was 1.7 people per square mile. There were 1,536 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.80% Native American, 37.19% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.05% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. 2.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
27.3% were of German ancestry. There were 1,271 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.82. The county population contained 36.9% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,654, the median income for a family was $23,889. Males had a median income of $22,717 versus $19,609 for females; the per capita income for the county was $8,615. About 32.80% of families and 41.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.60% of those under age 18 and 32.70% of those age 65 or over.
The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,050 people, 1,260 households, 939 families in the county; the population density was 1.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,540 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.0% American Indian, 29.7% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 1,260 households, 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families, 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.21 and the average family size was 3.73. The median age was 29.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $30,877 and the median income for a family was $36,500.
Males had a median income of $32,037 versus $23,167 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,359. About 24.1% of families and 35.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.7% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. McIntosh McLaughlin Morristown Bullhead Little Eagle Like Ziebach County, unlike the arch-Republican white West River counties, Corson is a competitive, fluctuating swing county, it voted Democratic in the three elections from 2004 to 2012 – doing so by over twenty percentage points for Barack Obama in 2008 – but as with most Native American counties there was a substantial swing against Hillary Clinton in 2016. National Register of Historic Places listings in Corson County, South Dakota
Kaw Lake is a reservoir completed in 1976 in the northern reaches of the U. S. state of Oklahoma, near Kaw City. It is 8 miles east of Ponca City. Kaw Dam is 9,466 feet long and 121 feet above the stream bed; the dam lies 654 miles above the mouth of the Arkansas River. The top of the flood control pool is 1,044.5 feet. The Reservoir covers 17,040 acres, it is the seventh largest lake in Oklahoma by surface area. At normal levels, the lake holds 428,600 acre feet of water, the ninth largest lake in capacity in Oklahoma, it lies in Kay County and in Osage County. Kaw Dam was authorized by Congress in the Flood Control Act of 1962. Ground was broken for the dam on May 21, 1966; the original town of Kaw City was covered by the waters of Kaw Lake in 1975. The city was rebuilt about two miles west of the old site during the late 1960s; the dam was completed by the Corps of Engineers in May 1976. The cost of the dam and the lake was $111 million; the Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority, a state governmental agency created in 1981 to provide wholesale electricity to cities and towns in Oklahoma, purchased the substructure of the dam in July 1987 at a cost of $3.8 million and constructed a hydroelectric plant, completed in September 1989 at a cost of $25 million.
Kaw Hydroelectric generates 104 gigawatt hours of energy annually. The generator is nominally rated at 25.6 megawatts at 76 feet of gross head with a maximum rating of 36.7 MVA. The plant at Kaw Dam provides power for over 35 municipal electrical systems in Oklahoma and southern Kansas; the project engineer for the Kaw Lake dam was Jr.. The Corps of Engineers and Camp McFadden offers camping on the west shore of Kaw Lake at Ponca Cove; the southern tip of Kaw Lake is 8 miles east of Ponca City. Newkirk is 6 miles west of the upper end of the lake. Kaw City is located on a hill overlooking the lake. Camp McFadden is an outdoor recreational area on over 250 acres overlooking the west side of Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma. Camp McFadden was created in 1927 as a children's camp by Bill McFadden on the Kygar ranch; the camp includes high and low ropes courses, cabins, a lodge with full kitchen, outdoor activities, RV and tent camping and is used for team building, reunions and church camps and getaways.
Future plans include disc golf, softball field, soccer field and archery range. Camp McFadden is a non-profit 501. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: Kaw Lake Kaw Lake information and photos on TravelOK.com Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma Camp McFadden Recreation Area Kaw Lake Association Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority information on Kaw Lake at "operations" tab Ponca City Tourism Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
The Cherokee Nation known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated from the Southeast due to increasing pressure to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears; the tribe includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen and Natchez Nation. Over 299,862 people are enrolled in the Cherokee Nation, with 189,228 living within the state of Oklahoma. According to Larry Echo Hawk, former head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the current Cherokee Nation is not the historical Cherokee tribe but instead a "successor in interest". Headquartered in Tahlequah, the Cherokee Nation has a tribal jurisdictional area spanning 14 counties in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma; these are Adair, Craig, Mayes, McIntosh, Nowata, Rogers, Tulsa and Washington counties. During 1898–1906, beginning with the Curtis Act of 1898, the US federal government all but dissolved the former Cherokee Nation's governmental and civic institutions, to make way for the incorporation of Indian Territory into the new state of Oklahoma.
From 1906 to 1938, the structure and function of the tribal government was not defined. After the dissolution of the tribal government of the Cherokee Nation in the 1900s and the death of William Charles Rogers in 1917, the Federal government began to appoint chiefs to the Cherokee Nation in 1919; the service time for each appointed chief was so brief that it became known as "Chief for a Day". Six men fell under this category, the first being A. B. Cunningham who served from November 8 to November 25; the short service times were just long enough to have one sign a treaty to cede more land. In the 1930s, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration worked to improve conditions by supporting the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which encouraged tribes to reconstitute their governments and write constitutions. On August 8, 1938, the tribe convened a general convention in Oklahoma to elect a Chief, they choose J. B. Milam as principal chief. President Franklin D. Roosevelt confirmed the election in 1941.
W. W. Keeler was appointed chief in 1949. After the U. S. government under President Richard Nixon had adopted a self-determination policy, the nation was able to rebuild its government. The people elected W. W. Keeler as chief. Keeler, the president of Phillips Petroleum, was succeeded by Ross Swimmer. In 1975 the tribe drafted a constitution, under the name Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, ratified on June 26, 1976; the tribe has conducted litigation using this name. In 1985 Wilma Mankiller was elected as the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation; the Cherokee Nation was destabilized in May 1997 in what was variously described as either a nationalist "uprising" or an "anti-constitutional coup" instigated by Joe Byrd, the Principal Chief. Elected in 1995, Byrd became locked in a battle of strength with the judicial branch of the Cherokee tribe; the crisis came to a head on March 22, 1997, when Byrd said in a press conference that he would decide which orders of the Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court were lawful and which were not.
A simmering crisis continued over Byrd's creation of a armed paramilitary force. On June 20, 1997 his private militia illegally seized custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal and its court clerks, they ousted the lawful occupants at gunpoint. The court demanded that the courthouse be returned to the judicial branch of the Cherokee Nation, but these requests were ignored by Byrd; the Federal authorities of the United States refused to intervene because of potential breach of tribal sovereignty. The State of Oklahoma recognized. By August, it sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. Byrd was required to attend a meeting in Washington, DC with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at which he was compelled to reopen the courts, he served the remainder of his elected term. In 1999 Byrd lost the election for Principal Chief to Chad Smith but was elected to the Tribal Council in 2013. A new constitution was drafted in 1999 that included mechanisms for voters to remove officials from offices, changed the structure of the tribal council, removed the need to ask the Bureau of Indian Affairs' permission to amend the constitution.
The tribe and Bureau of Indian Affairs negotiated changes to the new constitution and it was ratified in 2003. Confusion resulted. To overcome the impasse, the Cherokee Nation voted by referendum to amend its 1975/1976 Constitution "to remove Presidential approval authority," allowing the tribe to independently ratify and amend its own constitution; as of August 9, 2007, the BIA gave the Cherokee Nation consent to amend its Constitution without approval from the Department of the Interior. Certain non-Cherokee groups contest the viability of this constitution; the Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a treaty with the United States in 1866. This was in the wake of the American Civil War, when the US emancipated slaves and passed US constitutional amendments granting freedmen citizenship in the United States. In reaching peace with the Cherokee, who had sided with the Confederates, the US government required that they end s
The Ohio Country was a name used in the mid to late 18th century for a region of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and north of the upper Ohio and Allegheny Rivers extending to Lake Erie. The area encompassed all of present-day Ohio, northwestern West Virginia, Western Pennsylvania, a wedge of southeastern Indiana; this area was disputed in the 17th century by the Iroquois and other Native American tribes, by France and Great Britain in the mid-18th century. During British sovereignty, several minor "wars" including Pontiac's Rebellion and Dunmore's war were fought here. Ohio Country became part of unorganized U. S. territory in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris. It was one of the first frontier regions of the United States. Several colonial states had conflicting claims to portions of it, including Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania. In 1787, it became part of the larger organized Northwest Territory. In the 17th century, the area north of the Ohio River had been occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and some Siouan language-speaking tribes.
Around 1660, during a conflict known as the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois seized control of the Ohio Country, driving out the Shawnee and Siouans, such as the Omaha and Ponca, who settled further northwest and west. The Iroquois conquered and absorbed the Erie, who spoke an Iroquoian language; the Ohio Country remained uninhabited for decades, was used as a hunting ground by the Iroquois. In the 1720s, a number of Native American groups began to migrate to the Ohio Country from the East, driven by pressure from encroaching colonists. By 1724, Delaware Indians had established the village of Kittanning on the Allegheny River in present-day western Pennsylvania. With them came those Shawnee who had settled in the east. Other bands of the scattered Shawnee tribe began to return to the Ohio Country in the decades that followed. A number of Seneca and other Iroquois migrated to the Ohio Country, moving away from the French and British imperial rivalries south of Lake Ontario; the Seneca were the westernmost of the Iroquois nations based in New York.
In the late 1740s and the second half of the 18th century, the British angled for control of the territory. In 1749, the British Crown, via the colonial government of Virginia, granted the Ohio Company a great deal of this territory on the condition that it be settled by British colonists. With the arrival of the Europeans, both Great Britain and France claimed the area and both sent fur traders into the area to do business with the Ohio Country Indians; the Iroquois League claimed the region by right of conquest. The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, the Ohio natives for control of the region played an important part in the French and Indian War from 1754 through 1760. After remaining neutral, the Ohio Country Indians sided with the French. Armed with supplies and guns from the French, they raided via the Kittanning Path against British settlers east of the Alleghenies. After they destroyed Fort Granville in the summer of 1756, the colonial governor John Penn ordered Lt. Colonel John Armstrong to destroy the Shawnee villages west of the Alleghenies.
The British defeated the their allies. Meanwhile, other British and colonial forces drove the French from Fort Duquesne and built Fort Pitt, the origin of the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In the 1763 Treaty of Paris, France ceded control of the entire Ohio region to Great Britain, without consulting its native allies, who still believed they had territorial claims. Colonies such as Pennsylvania and Virginia claimed some of the westward lands by their original charters. In an attempt to improve relations with the Native Americans to encourage trade and avoid conflicts with colonists, George III in his Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed the Ohio Country in what was declared an Indian Reserve, stretching from the Appalachian Mountains west to the Mississippi River and from as far north as Newfoundland to Florida; the British ordered the existing settlers either to leave or obtain special permission to stay and prohibited British colonists from settling west of the Appalachians. The area was closed to European settlement by the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
The Crown no longer recognized claims. On June 22, 1774, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Colonists in the Thirteen Colonies considered this one of the Intolerable Acts passed by Parliament, contributing to the American Revolution. Despite the Crown's actions, frontiersmen from the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies began to cross the Allegheny Mountains and came into conflict with the Shawnee; the Shawnee referred to the settlers as the Long Knives. Because of the threat posed by the colonists, the Shawnee and other nations of the Ohio Country chose to side with the British against the rebel colonists during the American Revolutionary War. Americans wanted to establish control over the region. In 1778, after victories in the region by the Patriot general George Rogers Clark, the Virginia legislature organized the first American civil government in the region, they called it the Illinois County, which encompassed all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia had any claim.
The high-water mark of the Native American struggle to retain the region was in 1782: the Ohio Nations and the British met in a council at the Chalawgatha village along the Little Miami River to plan what was the successful rout of the Americans at the Battle of Blue Licks, south of the Ohio River, two weeks later. In 1783, following the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain ceded the area to
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River to a designated Indian Territory. The Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson, who took a hard line on Indian removal, but it was put into effect under the Martin van Buren administration. Indian removal was a consequence of actions first by European settlers to North America in the colonial period by the United States government and its citizens until the mid-20th century; the policy traced its direct origins to the administration of James Monroe, though it addressed conflicts between European Americans and Native Americans, occurring since the 17th century, were escalating into the early 19th century as white settlers were continually pushing westward. The Indian Removal Act was the key law that forced the removal of the Indians, was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
American leaders in the Revolutionary and Early National era debated whether the American Indians should be treated as individuals or as nations in their own right. Some of these views are summarized below. In a draft, "Proposed Articles of Confederation", presented to the Continental Congress on May 10, 1775, Benjamin Franklin called for a "perpetual Alliance" with the Indians for the nation about to take birth with the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy: Article XI. A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be entered into as soon as may be with the Six Nations; the Boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall be ascertained and secured to them in the same manner. And all Purchases from them shall be by the Congress for the General Advantage and Benefit of the United Colonies. In his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson defended American Indian culture and marveled at how the tribes of Virginia "never submitted themselves to any laws, any coercive power, any shadow of government" due to their "moral sense of right and wrong".
He would write to the Marquis de Chastellux in 1785, "I believe the Indian to be in body and mind equal to the whiteman". His desire, as interpreted by Francis Paul Prucha, was for the Native Americans to intermix with European Americans and to become one people. To achieve that end, Jefferson would, as President, offer U. S. citizenship to some Indian nations, propose offering credit to them to facilitate their trade—with the expectation, as Bernard Sheehan argues, that they would be unable to honor their debts and thereby allow the United States to acquire their land. President George Washington, in his address to the Seneca nation in 1790, describing the pre-Constitutional Indian land sale difficulties as "evils", asserted that the case was now altered, publicly pledged to uphold their "just rights". In March and April 1792, Washington met with 50 tribal chiefs in Philadelphia—including the Iroquois—to discuss closer friendship between them and the United States; that same year, in his Fourth Annual Message to Congress, Washington stressed the need for building peace and commerce with America's Indian neighbors: I cannot dismiss the subject of Indian affairs without again recommending to your consideration the expediency of more adequate provision for giving energy to the laws throughout our interior frontier, for restraining the commission of outrages upon the Indians.
To enable, by competent rewards, the employment of qualified and trusty persons to reside among them, as agents, would contribute to the preservation of peace and good neighbourhood. If, in addition to these expedients, an eligible plan could be devised for promoting civilization among the friendly tribes, for carrying on trade with them, upon a scale equal to their wants, under regulations calculated to protect them from imposition and extortion, its influence in cementing their interests with our’s could not but be considerable. In 1795, in his Seventh Annual Message to Congress, Washington intimated that if the U. S. government wanted peace with the Indians it must give peace to them, that if the U. S. wanted raids by Indians to stop raids by American "frontier inhabitants" must stop. The Confederation Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which would serve broadly as a precedent for the manner in which the United States' territorial expansion would occur for years to come, calling for the protection of Indians' "property and liberty": The U.
S. Constitution of 1787 makes Congress responsible for regulating commerce with the Indian tribes. In 1790, the new U. S. Congress passed the Indian Nonintercourse Act to protect and codify the land rights of recognized tribes; as president, Thomas Jefferson developed a far-reaching Indian policy. First, the security of the new United States was paramount, so Jefferson wanted to assure that the Native nations were bound to the United States, not other foreign nations. Second, he wanted "to
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United