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Oscar Hammerstein I

Oscar Hammerstein I was a German-born businessman, theater impresario, composer in New York City. His passion for opera led him to open several opera houses, he rekindled opera's popularity in America, he was the grandfather of American lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II and the father of theater manager William Hammerstein and American producer Arthur Hammerstein. Oscar Hammerstein I was born in Stettin, Kingdom of Prussia, to German Jewish parents Abraham and Berthe Hammerstein, he took up the flute and violin at an early age. His mother died. During his youth, Hammerstein's father wanted him to continue with his education and to specialize in subjects such as algebra, but Hammerstein wanted to pursue music. After Oscar went skating in a park one day, his father found out and whipped him as punishment, goading Hammerstein to flee his family. With the proceeds from the sale of his violin, Hammerstein purchased a ticket to Liverpool, from which he departed on a three-month-long cruise to the United States, arriving in New York City in 1864.

Hammerstein made ends meet by working at a cigar factory on Pearl Street. He worked his way up to become a cigar maker himself, founded the U. S Tobacco Journal. Hammerstein would become the owner of at least 80 patents, with most of them being related to the machines he made for the cigar-making process. Hammerstein's best-known contribution to the cigar-making process was adding an air-suctioning component to cigar rollers, enabling them to hold down tobacco leaves more so the leaves could be cut more cleanly; the initial machine only sold for $6,000, but subsequent improvements boosted its value to $200,000. Another invention of Hammerstein's was a more efficient plumbing system after his kitchen sink sprang a leak, he became wealthy industrializing cigar manufacturing, his tobacco fortune provided the money he used to pursue his theater interests. Hammerstein built his first theater, the Harlem Opera House, on 125th Street in 1889, along with 50 housing developments, his second theater, the Columbus Theatre, was built in 1890 on the same street, featuring light theatrical productions.

His third theater was the first Manhattan Opera House, built in 1893 on 34th Street. This failed as an opera house and was used, in partnership with Koster and Bial, to present variety shows. Hammerstein was displeased with the partnership to the point that it fell into bitterness: "When I get through with you, everybody will forget there was a Koster and Bial. I will build a house the likes of which has never been seen in the whole world.". In 1895 he opened a fourth venue, the Olympia Theatre, on Longacre Square, where he presented a comic opera that he wrote himself, Santa Maria. While it was positively received by The New York Times, Hammerstein's personal experience was less than peaceful, with the production being plagued by monetary issues with the cast and stage set. In the end, Hammerstein had profited only one-tenth of the costs that were put into the Santa Maria production. Nine years Longacre Square was renamed Times Square, the area had become, through his efforts, a thriving theater district.

Hammerstein built three more theaters there, the Victoria Theatre, which turned to vaudeville presentation in 1904 and was managed by his son, Willie Hammerstein before closing in 1915. He wrote a musical called Punch, Judy & Co. in 1903. Hammerstein opened Hammerstein's Paradise Roof Garden above the Victoria and Republic theatres. In 1906, dissatisfied with the Metropolitan Opera's productions, opened an eighth theater, his second Manhattan Opera House, to directly compete with it, he opened the Philadelphia Opera House in 1908, however, he sold early in 1910. He produced contemporary operas and presented the American premieres of Louise, Pelleas et Melisande, Elektra, Le jongleur de Notre-Dame, Thaïs, Salome, as well as the American debuts of Mary Garden and Luisa Tetrazzini. Since the star soprano Nellie Melba was disenchanted with the Metropolitan, she deserted it for Hammerstein's company, rescuing it financially with a successful season, he produced the successful Victor Herbert operetta Naughty Marietta in 1910.

Hammerstein became famous during his opera years for putting noticeably large budgets out for his productions, Santa Maria being one example. More than not, he would fall into financial trouble within a short period of time; the New York Times conducted an interview with Hammerstein, when the interviewer asked him about his financial habits, Hammerstein responded: Financially, I never undertake anything without plenty of ammunition. I am never afraid of being ambushed in this account. I decided that my preliminary contracts should be drawn up provisionally upon my success in securing the great stars. I always contemplated an honorable retreat. In the end, Hammerstein's high-quality productions were too expensive to sustain, by his fourth opera season, he was going bankrupt; the costs at the Metropolitan, were skyrocketing, as the Metropolitan spent more and more in order to compete. Hammerstein's son Arthur negotiated a payment of $1.2 million from the Metropolitan in exchange for an agreement not to produce grand opera in the United States for 10 years.

With this money, Hammerstein built his tenth theater, the London Opera House, in London, where he again entered competition with an established opera house

Rhizomarasmius undatus

Rhizomarasmius undatus is a small mushroom which grows on fern rhizomes. The species can be described as follows: The cap has a powdery covering, is whitish and convex and becomes brownish grey and expands to be flat, it grows to about 2.5 cm in diameter. The gills are whitish and distant, broadly adnate to the stem, or decurrent; the spore powder is white. The rigid stem can grow to about 12 cm long by about 2 mm in diameter, it is white at the top and dark brown to black lower down, with a puinose covering of short white hairs. The smell and taste are not distinctive; the spores are lemon-shaped to ellipsoid and measure 9-12 µm x 5-7 µm. The species epithet undatus, meaning "wavy", is the past participle of the Latin verb "undo"; this species was described in 1836 as Agaricus undatus by Miles Joseph Berkeley. As it happened, in 1838 the famous mycologist Elias Magnus Fries defined a different mushroom under the same name, but due to the nomenclatural rules of precedence, that definition is illegitimate.

This was confirmed when in 1849 Fries renamed Berkeley's fungus with the combination Marasmius undatus, a name, current for more than a century. In 2000 it was one of the two initial species with which R. H. Petersen created the new genus Rhizomarasmius, the other one being the type species R. pyrrhocephalus. This mushroom grows on rhizomes of bracken and other ferns, it is widespread but rare in northern and western Europe and has been reported from North Africa, North America, the Altai mountains

Golden-plumed parakeet

The golden-plumed parakeet is a Neotropical parrot species within the family Psittacidae, belonging to the monotypic genus Leptosittaca. This somewhat Aratinga-like species is found in humid temperate highland forests with Podocarpus, on the east Andean slope in Colombia and Peru, it is local and uncommon. It is threatened by habitat loss. Clearing of high altitude forests for agricultural reasons has impacted the loss of habitat for this parakeet species. Existence of such habitats will continue to diminish the amount of Golden-plumed Parakeets left in Southern America, it is the only known parakeet subspecies. BirdLife Species Factsheet

Cecily Bulstrode

Cecily Bulstrode was a courtier and subject of poetry. She was the daughter of Cecily Croke. Two years she served as a Gentlewoman of the Bedchamber to Anne of Denmark, she was born to Edward Bulstrode of Hedgerley in Buckinghamshire and Cecily or Cecill Croke, the daughter of Sir John Croke of Chilton, in Beaconsfield. Her parents Edward and Cecily produced nine other children, amongst them Edward, who served as a judge in the courts of chancery, king's bench, the Oxford assize circuits, the Warwickshire quarter sessions throughout his lifetime. Cecily was the fourth of six daughters, the names of her nine siblings are recorded on her father's tomb at St Laurence's Church, Upton-cum-Chalvey. Bulstrode was baptized at Beaconsfield on 12 February 1584, Spelling variations on her first and last name include "Cecilia", "Celia", "Boulstred". In June 1608 Bulstrode's mother Cecily married again, to Sir John Brown of Flamberds, at Cold Norton, Essex, her grandfather Sir John Croke died at Chilton in February 1609.

Bulstrode followed in the footsteps of her ancestors as a courtier. In 1605, she became part of the entourage of her mother's first cousin Lucy Russell, Countess of Bedford; when King James I came to the throne, the countess of Bedford became First Lady of the Bedchamber to the queen. Bulstrode and her youngest sister Dorothy Lady Eyre, moved up with Lucy Russell, becoming Maidens of the Queen’s Bedchamber. There, Bulstrode "became a noted wit in the court of James I." As a good friend of the countess of Bedford and servant of the Queen, Bulstrode was a lady of consequence at court. During her time at the court of Anne of Denmark, Bulstrode became the subject of works by poets such as Ben Jonson who threatened her reputation with rumours of promiscuity. Other writers, including John Donne, used the event of her death as an opportunity to gain favor with her friend and patron of the literary arts, the countess of Bedford; the only known work of Bulstrode’s is News of My Morning Work written in 1609.

While at court, Bulstrode became the topic of scandalous rumour. She had a brief courtship, possible engagement, with Sir John Roe in 1602; the reason for their breakup is unknown, but in To Mistress Boulsted, 1602 an elegy ghost-written for Roe by his friend Ben Jonson, Bulstrode seems accused of sluttish behavior: Shall I go force an elegy? Abuse My wit, break the hymen of my Muse For one poor hour’s love?... I’ll have a Succuba as good as you! -An Elegy to Mistress Boulsted, 1602 lines 1-3, 24This poem circulated at court as a letter to Bulstrode from "J. R." John Roe. The poem takes the viewpoint of a man who rejects the advances of his female friend because he doesn’t want to ruin their friendship "for one poor hour’s love." Although the speaker claims to be a sincere friend who will keep the poem secret to protect her reputation, the poem was not kept secret and was most an attempt to ruin Bulstrode's reputation and allege, according to Donald Foster, “that Boulstred solicited Roe for sex, which caused him to reject her as unfit for marriage.”

In 1628, Ben Jonson revealed that he ghostwrote this poem for Roe. Boulstred started a relationship with Sir Thomas Roe, Sir John Roe's cousin; this relationship most would have led to marriage if she had not become sick in 1609. In 1609 over a few months, Bulstrode died, her illness was diagnosed by doctors of the College of Medicine as "the mother" called the "wandering womb", an imprecise diagnosis for ailments thought to attend upon feminine frailty. Her symptoms included stomach pain, sleeplessness and vomiting. No cure could be found, she wasted away at the countess of Bedford’s house, Twickenham Park, unable to hold down food or liquids. In a letter to Sir Henry Goodyere, John Donne reported on her condition. I sent this morning to ask of her passage of this night. According to Dr. Francis Anthony, called upon by Bulstrode's mother after treatment under the College of Medicine physicians was unsuccessful, she showed improvement in symptoms in her final days, "for in all the other administering of this medicine... her spirits were relieved!

She daily recovered strength. All passions and accidents of disease ceased, her sickness left her, she recovered perfect health!"But in regard to her “perfect health,” Anthony exaggerated. Although he gave her doses of potable gold in an attempt to cure her, Bulstrode died within days; as Jongsook Lee puts it, Anthony was "a quack." Bulstrode's brother in-law, James Whitlocke noted her death, “Cecill Bulstrode, my wife’s sister, gentlewoman to Queen An, ordinary of her bedchamber, died at Twitnam in Middlesex, the erl of Bedford’s house, 4 August 1609”, she was buried at St Mary's, Twickenham two days later.. Although Sir Thomas Roe missed his chance to marry Bulstrode, his love for her remained, he carried a miniature watercolour portrait of her around with him for the rest of his life after he married. In death, Bulstrode's body became a theme of court poets who competed for the literary matronage of her Lucy Russell, countess of Bedford. Lucy Russell's favour was valued, as she had a large amount of power and leverage at court as first Lady of the Queen's Bedchamber.

The poems True Love Finds Wit and An Elegy to Mistress Boulstred have been attributed

No Exit (Blondie album)

No Exit is the seventh studio album by American rock band Blondie. It was released on February 1999, by Beyond Records, it was the band's first album in 17 years and features the UK number-one single "Maria". As of March 2006, the album had sold two million copies worldwide; as was customary for a Blondie album, No Exit dabbled in many genres, including pop, reggae and hip hop. Mike Chapman, who had produced all but the first two of Blondie's previous albums, produced some of the early demos for the album, though final production of the album fell to Craig Leon. A cover of The Shangri-Las' 1965 song "Out in the Streets" was included on the album, it was recorded by the band in 1975 while they were trying to get a record deal. The demo version was first issued on EMI's 1994 anthology The Platinum Collection and was included on the 2001 remastered version of the band's eponymous debut studio album. A comeback promotional tour, the No Exit Tour, was launched preceding the release of the album, which spanned 13 months and visited Europe, North America and Oceania.

No Exit reached number three on the UK Albums Chart, was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry for sales in excess of 100,000 copies. It was preceded by the single "Maria", which became Blondie's sixth UK number one 20 years after the band's first number one, "Heart of Glass", making them the first American band to have chart-topping UK singles in three different decades: 1970s, 1980s, 1990s. A second single, "Nothing Is Real but the Girl", peaked at number 26 on the UK Singles Chart; the title track, "No Exit", was released as a limited-edition third single in Europe, is a fusion of classical, hip hop and rock, featured raps by Mobb Deep, Coolio, U-God, Inspectah Deck. The album was released in several editions in different countries with various bonus tracks live versions of songs recorded during the band's No Exit Tour; the album was reissued in 2001 along with all of Blondie's other studio albums, this time including three bonus tracks. Chris Stein commented on the title of the album in a 2004 interview: "The title was taken from a Sartre play, which says there's no madness in individuals, it's all in groups.

I think that's what all these reality TV shows are about. Maybe we were a reality TV show before there was reality TV." Notes On the 2001 reissue, tracks 15 to 17 are sequenced as one track with a total duration of 17:51. Credits adapted from the liner notes of No Exit. Clem Burke Jimmy Destri Deborah Harry Chris Stein Rob Roth – art direction, photography Jana Paterson – design

Art Mazmanian

Arthur S. Mazmanian was an American baseball coach and manager, he was the longtime baseball coach at Dorsey High School of Los Angeles, his alma mater spent 31 seasons as head coach of baseball at Mount San Antonio College of Walnut, where his teams won 709 games and had only two losing campaigns. He was a second baseman, scout and manager in professional baseball from 1949 through 1987, he died at the age of 91 on March 22, 2019. Mazmanian was born in Michigan, to parents who were born in Armenia. After Dorsey High School, he graduated from the University of Southern California, where he was an All-American and the second baseman on the Trojans' 1948 national championship team, he was listed as 5 feet, 10 inches tall and 170 pounds. Mazmanian's six-year playing career was spent in the New York Yankees' farm system, including 2½ seasons at the Triple-A level with the Kansas City Blues of the American Association. In 1955, he became a coach in the St. Louis Cardinals' organization launched his managing career the following season with the Grand Island Athletics, Class D Nebraska State League affiliate of the Kansas City Athletics of the American League.

During the 1960s he scouted for the Cleveland Indians. He resumed his managerial career in 1971 and achieved sustained success in the decade when he rejoined the Yankees as skipper of their Short Season Class-A New York–Penn League affiliate, the Oneonta Yankees, he managed the O-Yankees to five consecutive division championships and four league playoff championships. He managed in the New York–Penn League for the Baltimore Orioles for three seasons and recorded his last season in organized baseball with a "co-op" team in the same circuit in 1987. Apart from a temporary assignment with the Visalia Oaks of the California League in 1960, all of Mazmanian's years as a professional baseball manager were spent in "short season" or rookie-level leagues, he compiled a managing record of 663–487. In 1984, he took a leave of absence from the Orioles to serve as an assistant coach for the United States Olympic Baseball Team. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Mount San Antonio College, "Legendary Coach Maz Passes Away"