Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Henry Hastings Sibley
Henry Hastings Sibley was the first Governor of the U. S. state of Minnesota and a U. S. Representative of the Minnesota Territory and the Wisconsin Territory. Henry Hastings Sibley was born in Detroit, where his parents, Solomon Sibley, a native of Sutton and Sarah Whipple Sibley had moved in 1797, it was part of a major westward migration after the American Revolutionary War by New Englanders. Solomon Sibley became a prominent judge in the early history of the state, he was of English ancestry, all of, in North America since the early 1600s. As a young man, Henry Sibley read about and studied law in his father's office to prepare for the bar and licensing. In 1828, the young Sibley started as a clerk at a mercantile house in Sault Ste. Marie, a prominent fur trading center on both the United States and Canadian sides. From 1829–1834, he worked as a supply-purchasing agent of the American Fur Company at Mackinac. In 1834, Sibley became a partner in the company and relocated to their headquarters in St. Peter's, Minnesota.
He lived there from 1834–1862. In 1836, Sibley built the first stone house in Minnesota, now the Sibley House Historic Site; the home, in Mendota, overlooks Fort Snelling from across the Minnesota River. Over the winter of 1839–40 he entered a de facto marriage with Red Blanket Woman, granddaughter of a Mdewakanton Dakota chief; the circumstances of Sibley and Red Blanket Woman's relationship are obscure, but several sources suggest that she remarried a Dakota man in 1842, died in early 1843. On May 2, 1843, Sibley married Sarah Jane Steele, daughter of General James Steele, commander of Fort Snelling, his wife Mary. Sarah Jane's brother was Franklin Steele, a prominent Minneapolis businessman, her sister Anna Abby Steele married Dr. Thomas R. Potts, who became the first mayor of St. Paul, Minnesota. For her part, Helen was placed with a missionary family and grew up acculturated to white society in St. Paul; the political boundaries changed so from 1836 through 1862 that, although all of Sibley's white children were born in this house, they were each recorded as having been born in different political units: Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota Territory and the state of Minnesota.
In 1862, the Sibley family moved to St. Paul. Sibley started his public career shortly after the organization of Iowa Territory, receiving a commission as Justice of the Peace of Clay County by governor John Chambers, he received commissions and extensions to his commission in 1838, 1839 and 1840. Sibley's political life began when he was elected to represent Wisconsin Territory to the 30th United States Congress in an unusual organizational vacuum after Wisconsin became a state on May 29, 1848, his election was mandated to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John H. Tweedy, he took over as the Wisconsin Territory At-large congressional district representative on October 30, 1848, although he was not recognized to be seated until the subsequent January. The Wisconsin Territory's At-large congressional district was eliminated with the creation of the Territory of Minnesota on March 3, 1849, he was subsequently elected as the first representative of the Minnesota Territory's At-large congressional district, serving in the 31st and 32nd congresses from July 7, 1849 – March 3, 1853.
Sibley was elected to the Minnesota Territorial House of Representatives, convened from January to March 1855, as the representative of Dakota County. He was a member of the Democratic Party wing of the first Minnesota Constitutional Convention, of which he became president. Assembled July 13, 1857, the convention resulted in adoption of the constitution as framed on October 13, 1857. In 1858 Sibley was elected as the first governor of the state, is one of just four Minnesota Democrats to win a gubernatorial election with a Democrat in the White House, he served from May 24, 1858, until January 2, 1860. After narrowly defeating Republican Alexander Ramsey in the first state gubernatorial contest, Sibley declared in his inaugural address, "I have no object and no interests which are not inseparably bound up with the welfare of the state." He did not seek reelection. When the legislature voted for the state to issue bonds to the railroads to provide for construction of the transcontinental route, Sibley refused.
He said. The state supreme court ordered the governor to issue the legislatively authorized state bonds to railroads; the legislature asked him to market the bonds in New York. Although he made an effort to do, the capitalists refused to buy the bonds; the state subsequently repudiated the issuance. The U. S. Dakota War of 1862 In 1862, after the American Civil War began, Sibley was appointed colonel of the state militia, he was directed to the upper Minnesota River to protect exposed settlements from the Sioux American Indians. After the massacre at Acton, August 18, 1862, he was involved in the following engagements: The Battle of Birch Coulee The Battle of Wood LakeThe last engagement was a decisive battle, it resulted in Sioux bands' releasing about 250 captive whites. In the action, the militia captured both men and women. Of these captives, 321 warriors were tried for capital crimes and 303 were sentenced to death, it was a Kangaroo Court with no lawyers for the defendants. Some of the "trials" lasted only a few minutes.
Thirty-eight men were hanged at Mankato, December 26, 1862
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Hawkeye Point is the highest natural point in Iowa at 1,670 feet. It is 4.5 miles north of Sibley on the eastern side of SR 60 and 3.5 miles south of the Iowa-Minnesota state border. The high ground lies 100 feet due south of an old silo; the land that includes the highpoint was donated by the Sterler family, who worked this land for many decades, to Osceola County with the stipulation that the land be turned into a park. Osceola County, through its Economic Development Commission and Hawkeye Point Committee, has removed a few structures that were deemed to be hazardous to public safety including the old hog feed bunker at the highpoint site and a few small barns, they have erected an informational kiosk which highlights the family and the county and features a display of license plates from the 50 states sent in over the years to the Sterlers. The county purchased 6 acres of surrounding land including the old family farm house, being used as office space for the county. There are a flagpole, picnic bench, tile mosaic, several granite markers, five tall posts with signs pointing to the other 49 state highpoints, each with the correct distance noted.
The local 4-H group and high school youths contributed a great deal to this effort. The Hawkeye Point Commission recently purchased a wooded plot of land of about 7 acres on the north side of the county road abutting the property with the intent to turn it into a campground; the Highpointers Foundation, a non-profit charity set up to benefit owned state highpoints, has provided much of the funding for the renovations at Hawkeye Point. Outline of Iowa Index of Iowa-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation "Hawkeye Point". SummitPost.org. Highpointers Foundation
Dickinson County, Iowa
Dickinson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,667; the county seat is Spirit Lake. The county was organized in 1857 and is named in honor of Daniel S. Dickinson, a U. S. Senator for New York. Dickinson County comprises the Spirit IA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 404 square miles, of which 381 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water, it is the smallest county by land area in Iowa, the fifth-smallest by total area. A region known as the Iowa Great Lakes is in Dickinson County, making it a popular vacation destination for Iowans, explaining the recent high population growth in the area; the lakes include West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake, Spirit Lake. U. S. Highway 71 Iowa Highway 9 Iowa Highway 86 Jackson County, Minnesota Emmet County Clay County Osceola County The 2010 census recorded a population of 16,667 in the county, with a population density of 43.7385/sq mi.
There were 12,849 housing units, of which 7,554 were occupied. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,424 people, 7,103 households, 4,759 families residing in the county; the population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 11,375 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.90% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.43% from two or more races. 0.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,103 households out of which 26.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families. 28.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.78. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.90% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 23.90% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 20.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,020, the median income for a family was $47,739. Males had a median income of $30,523 versus $22,131 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,929. 6.00% of the population and 4.20% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty 5.90% of those under the age of 18 and 7.00% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Montgomery Dickinson County is divided into twelve townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Dickinson County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Dickinson County, Iowa R. A. Smith, A History of Dickinson County, Iowa: Together with an Account of The Spirit Lake Massacre, the Indian Troubles on the Northwestern Frontier. Des Moines, IA: The Kenyon Printing & Mfg. Co. 1902.
History of Emmet County and Dickinson County, Iowa: A Record of Settlement, Organization and Achievement. In Two Volumes. Chicago: Pioneer Publishing Co. 1917. Volume 1 | Volume 2 Dickinson County government's website http://www.iowadot.gov/maps//msp/pdf/Dickinson.pdf
Iowa's 4th congressional district
Iowa's 4th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Iowa that covers its northwestern part. The district includes Sioux City, Mason City, Fort Dodge and Carroll. Since the 1880s, there have been major changes in the location or nature of Iowa's 4th Congressional District. From 1886 until 1941, the district was made up of rural counties in northeastern Iowa, including the easternmost five counties in the northernmost two rows. During that era, the district included areas from Mason City east to the Mississippi River. In 1941, Iowa's 5th Congressional District was renumbered as Iowa's 4th Congressional District, counties in the old 4th District were placed in the 3rd District and the 2nd District.. From 1941 until 1960 the 4th Congressional District included the central five counties of each of the two southernmost tiers, plus four counties between Des Moines and Iowa City. 5th District incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Karl M. LeCompte was reelected in the reconfigured 4th District in 1942, was reelected in the next seven races.
In 1958, when LeCompte did not run for reelection, Democrat Steven V. Carter defeated Republican John Kyl. A recurrence of cancer would claim Carter's life before the end of his only term, Kyl won the special election and next general election. In 1961 the 4th Congressional District was expanded to include five central Iowa counties - Warren, Marshall and Benton - but retained its rural character. Kyl held this seat until he was swept out in the massive Democratic landslide of 1964. However, he regained his old seat in 1966, was reelected two more times; the rural character of the district was changed when most of its territory was merged with the Des Moines-based 5th District of Democratic incumbent Neal Smith after the 1970 census. Polk County was added. Smith defeated Kyl in the 1972 congressional election; the district became less rural in 1981, when Story County was added, other rural counties were taken out. The district was altered after the 1990 census, when it was reconfigured to take in the southwest quadrant of the state from Des Moines to Council Bluffs.
Smith defeated in 1994 by Republican Greg Ganske. The 2001 remap made the 4th district a north-central Iowa district, it could not be said to be the successor of any of the previous districts. It was a rural district, though it included Ames and Mason City, it did not include any of the state's nine largest cities, only four of the twenty largest Iowa cities. The plan went into effect in 2003 for the 108th U. S. Congress; the 5th's incumbent congressman, Tom Latham, had his home in Alexander drawn into the 4th, was elected from this district five times. For the 2012 elections, the Iowa Legislature passed a plan that went into effect in 2013 for the 113th U. S. Congress; the district now covers the northwest corner of the state, merged the northern half of the old 5th District with the western third of the old 4th. The new map placed Latham and 5th District incumbent Steve King in the same district. Although the new 4th was geographically more Latham's district, he opted to move to the redrawn 3rd District, leaving King to take the seat.
NOTE: Jim Hennager ran on the Earth Federation Party platform on the ballot. As of May 2015, four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Iowa's 4th congressional district are alive. Iowa's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present