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Osmia bicornis

Osmia bicornis, synonym Osmia rufa, is a species of mason bee, is known as the red mason bee due to its covering of dense gingery hair. It is a solitary bee that nests in holes or stems and is polylectic, meaning it forages pollen from various different flowering plants; these bees can be seen aggregating together and nests in preexisting hollows, choosing not to excavate their own. These bees are not aggressive. Females only mate once with related males. Further, females can determine the sex ratio of their offspring based on their body size, where larger females will invest more in diploid females eggs than small bees; these bees have trichromatic color vision and are important pollinators in agriculture. This species is part of the order Hymenoptera, which consists of bees, wasps and sawflies. O. bicornis is the current scientific name for this bee, although it was known as O. rufa. In 1758, Linnaeus described the male of this species under the name Apis rufa and described the female as a separate species Apis bicornis.

In 1802 Kirby recognised that A. bicornis and A. rufa were the same species and he named this species Apis bicornis. Subsequently, the opinion was accepted that A. rufa was the correct specific name, because it appeared directly before bicornis in the systema naturae. The use of the name rufa does not comply with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature's rules which mean that this form of "line priority" does not apply and that the decision of the first revising author, must be followed, thus the correct scientific name for the species is Osmia bicornis, although O.rufa is still used. This bee is a member of the family Megachilidae, which consists of solitary bees, is among 11 species of Osmia identified in Britain; the three subspecies of O. bicornis include O. b. bicornis, O. b. cornigera, O. b. fractinoris. O. bicornis is about the same body size as the honeybee. Sexual dimorphism is observed in this species. Body size in O. bicornis decreases. Beyond 25 °C, body growth can be truncated, leading to small adult body size or mortality.

The male and females are distinguishable by antenna length, with males possessing an additional antenna segment. Males are 8–10 mm long, they have a gray-white tuft of hair on their faces, including on the clypeus. The females have two horns and darker hairs on their heads, are 10–12 mm long. Clypeal hairs are absent in females. O. bicornis is found in England, southern Scotland, Ireland, mainland Europe, Norway, North Africa, Georgia and Iran. Of the 11 species identified of Osmia in England, O. bicornis is both the largest and most common species present. O. Bicornis occupies a variety of nesting sites in sites of human construction; these bees have been known to nest in key holes, empty snail shells, plant stems, empty beetle hollows. O. bicornis occupies the old shells of these three species: Helix nemoralis, Helix hortensis, Helix pomatia and the nests of Anthophora species. Additionally, these bees make their nests in such sites as sandy banks, decaying trees planted in clay soil like the willow tree, old-mortared walls, flint stone holes, garden shed fifes, window frame holes and cracks.

The maximum foraging distance for O. bicornis is about 600 m, though high plant density around the nests allow bees to forage closer to the nest and for a shorter duration. The nest of O. bicornis consists of an array of partitioned cylindrical cells in holes in wood or reed tubes. These bees accept a diverse range of pre-existing cavities as nest sites; the cells are arranged linearly within a narrow tube. If the internal diameter of the tube exceeds 12 mm this linear arrangement may be forced into two rows instead of one; the length of each cell can vary from 10 to 21 mm. The inner sides of the partitions are rough and convex, while the outer sides are smooth and concave. Between the cells and the terminal plug is a space known as the vestibular cell; the vestibule acts as a form of protection against volatile environmental conditions. The bees whose nests are exposed to the sun and heat build vestibules more frequently; the material used to build the nests is mud mixed with their mandibles, but the sides of the tunnel in which the nests are located are not lined with mud, with the exception of some irregularly arranged nests.

Females construct around six cells per nest on average. When it is time for females to lay their eggs, they add pollen to each brood cell and lay one egg in each cell next to the pollen; the sequence of nesting behavior is: cell construction, egg-laying, sealing the cell. Cells containing females are larger than those containing males, due to the sexual dimorphism of the species. Additionally, cells containing females are situated towards the back of the nest, while those with males are closer to the nest entrance; because of this, male offspring leave the nest sooner than females. Due to the linear arrangement of cells in the nest, the youngest bee leaves earlier than older ones. Although these bees may be seen into late June, they are most active during the spring and early summer; each year, one generation of bees is formed. About one week after eggs are laid in the brood cells, the eggs hatch and larvae develop through the summer; the larvae enter the pupal stage upon spinning cocoons, in which t

A. N. Murthy Rao

Akkihebbalu Narasimha Murthy Rao was a Kannada author. Born at Akkihebbalu in, he studied in Mysore and taught English at Mysore University, he was the first Director of Kannada and Culture Department of the Karnataka Government and presided over the 56th All India Kannada Sahitya Sammelana held in 1984. Though popular for his atheistic thoughts and writings, he has written dramas, short stories and in addition headed a couple of government assignments, he was the first director of the Kannada & Sanskriti Department, spearheaded by Kengal Hanumanthaiah. AaShaDhaBhoothi Devaru: aleyuva mana: Aparavayaskana America Yatre sanjegaNNina hinnOTa Hagaluganasugalu Minugu Minchu Janatha Janardhana Mahabharatadalli Kedu Aembudara Samasye Ganavihara Sahitya Mattu Satya Hemavathi Teerada Tavasi Poorvasoorigalodane Shakespeare B. M. Srikantaiah Paschatya Sanna kathegalu Chitragalu Patragalu Socratesana Koneya Dinagalu Yodhana Punaragamana And multiple collections of light essays which he was known for

Luca Rizzo

Luca Rizzo is an Italian professional footballer who plays for Livorno, on loan from Bologna. A youth product of hometown club Sampdoria, Rizzo had spent 3 seasons on loan to lower divisions, for Lega Pro Prima Divisione clubs Pergocrema and Foligno in 2011–12 season. On 9 July 2013, he was spotted by Serie B club Modena in temporary deal with an option to co-own the player. Modena exercised the option after a successful season, however Sampdoria exercised the counter-option. On 30 June 2015, Rizzo joined Serie A newcomers Bologna in a temporary deal with an obligation to buy at the end of season, for €5.240 million. On 31 January 2019, he joined Carpi on loan. On 9 August 2019, he joined Livorno on loan. AIC profile Lega Serie A profile Luca Rizzo at Soccerway

The Road to Wellville

The Road to Wellville is a 1993 novel by American author T. Coraghessan Boyle. Set in Battle Creek, during the early days of breakfast cereals, the story includes a historical fictionalization of John Harvey Kellogg, the inventor of corn flakes; the title comes from an actual booklet called "The Road to Wellville" written by C. W. Post, a former patient at the sanitarium, inspired by his diet there to found his own cereal business and become a major competitor to the Kelloggs. Post used to give out his booklet in boxes of Grape-Nuts cereal. In the novel, the character Will Lightbody incurs Kellogg's wrath; the Road to Wellville was adapted into a movie in 1994, directed by Alan Parker and starring Anthony Hopkins, Bridget Fonda, Matthew Broderick, John Cusack, Michael Lerner, Dana Carvey, Lara Flynn Boyle, John Neville, Colm Meaney, Camryn Manheim, Monica Parker. The northeast US scenes were filmed at Mohonk Mountain House, an historic stick-frame hotel in New Paltz, New York; the book's plot details three narratives which take place between November 1907 and late May 1908 in John Harvey Kellogg's Battle Creek, Michigan sanitarium.

The first thread concerns Eleanor Lightbody. Eleanor, a fan of Dr. Kellogg, drags Will to Kellogg's sanitarium. Will has suffered stomach pains and is still recovering from bouts of alcohol and drug addiction—the latter at the hands of his wife. Eleanor suffered a brutal miscarriage. Hoping to improve his marriage, Will goes along but is filled with doubts about Kellogg's health methods. While he takes part in the therapy, he gags at health food, does not enjoy the laughing therapy, watches as his friend Homer Praetz is electrocuted during a sinusoidal bath. Meanwhile, his wife Eleanor finds too much enjoyment at the sanitarium at the hands of Dr. Spitzvogel, a doctor who practices Die Handhabung Therapeutik—or in common parlance, erotic massage. Charlie Ossining, a peripatetic merchant attempts to market a new type of cereal, Per-Fo, with a partner Bender, whose slick and untrustworthy behavior disarms him, they join forces with George Kellogg, adopted son of John Harvey Kellogg, who has had a falling out with his father and seeks revenge.

George agrees to use his name on Per-Fo in the hopes the cereal will be bought out by the Kellogg's Company. John Harvey Kellogg, a doctor fond of health food and what would now be called alternative medicine, inserts himself into the life of each character, whether as health guru to Eleanor, competitor to Charlie and Bender, or torturer of Will, his attempts at untested health cures, such as radium treatments, are comically tragic. As the sanitarium unravels, son George becomes angry, father and "master of all" John must assert his control and keep his institution afloat; the Road to Wellville by T. C. Boyle Hardcover - ISBN 0-670-84334-2 published by Viking Press Paperback - ISBN 0-14-016718-8 published by Penguin Books T. C. Boyle official web site


Freelanthropy was started in 2004 to help non-profit organizations raise money online. Freelanthropy was developed to tap the power of "pay per click" search advertising for non-profit organizations. In August 2004 along with its parent company, Freelanthropy was merged with Vendare Media and Freelanthropy launched to the public in early 2005 with its first product, the Charitable Toolbar, powered by Yahoo! and AskJeeves search services. Dan Sheehy, who had conceived the idea and retained social entrepreneur Thorsten Hoins to develop the beta site, purchased Freelanthropy from Vendare in December 2005. Freelanthropy still offers free customized browser search toolbars to non-profit organizations, but no installed software is required to use the service and Freelanthropy's offerings have expanded to include a consumer search portal that allows users to designate support for any one of more than 1.3 million 501 and 527 group organizations in Freelanthropy's database. In 2006 Freelanthropy entered into a new multi-year partnership with Yahoo! who now powers the search experience for both Freelanthtropy's custom browser toolbars as well as the search portal. is no longer involved. Freelanthropy helps to generate revenue for its non-profit partners through its "Shop & Give" directory which includes hundreds of online merchants; when people access any of these merchants through Freelanthropy's Shop & Give program, money is raised for the designated non-profit organization. All of Freelanthropy's services are free for its non-profit partners, their constituents, as well as the general public that support charities through the search portal. Freelanthropy does not collect any identifiable information; the toolbars that Freelanthropy creates for its nonprofit partners are free of any adware, spyware or "malware," and function purely to reinforce the charities' brand with their supporters, facilitate Yahoo searches, deliver messages from the charities to their supporters via the toolbar's RSS feature. Fundraiser Online fundraising Charity Navigator Walkathon Freelanthropy company site Freelanthropy Charitable Giving Index Study Article from Association of Fundraising Professionals Article from Chronicle of Philanthropy

Zé Arigó

Zé Arigó was a faith healer and proponent of psychic surgery. He claimed to have performed psychic surgery with his hands or with simple kitchen utensils while in a mediumistic trance, therefore he was known as the Surgeon of the Rusty Knife. During his operations he embodied the spirit of Dr. Adolf Fritz. Zé Arigó was born José Pedro de Freitas on a farm located 6 kilometers from Congonhas do Campo, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, his family was poor and he could only study up to the third grade of school. At the age of 14 he began working at a mine. According to his autobiography, around 1950 he began to suffer from strong headaches, insomnia and hallucinations. One day he felt that the voice, pursuing him took over his body, he had a vision of a bald man, dressed in a white apron and supervising a team of doctors and nurses in an enormous operating room; this entity identified itself as "Dr. Fritz." After claiming to have channeled Dr. Fritz, Arigó began to perform operations using scalpels and needles.

His reputation soared and spread throughout Brazil after it was alleged that he had removed a cancerous tumor from the lung of a well-known Brazilian senator. Over the next twenty years, thousands of people who mistrusted traditional medicine, or had not found help in it, came to Congonhas in search of a cure. In 1956 Arigó was convicted of illegally practicing medicine, he was sentenced to 15 months in prison, but was pardoned by President of Brazil Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira. In 1962 he was held for seven months for practicing medicine without a license. However, he was allowed to continue treating people. Arigó died in 1971 in an automobile accident. Magician and skeptic James Randi considered the psychic surgery of Arigó to be the result of sleight of hand trickery. Randi published a photograph of himself performing a knife stunt that Arigó was alleged to have performed. Skeptical investigator Joe Nickell has written that Arigó "prescribed various potions and concoctions that depended for their effectiveness on the placebo effect.

His prescriptions were filled at the only pharmacy in town run by the amateur doctor's brother. By such means were Arigo's alleged "miracle healings" performed."Philosopher and skeptic Robert Todd Carroll author of The Skeptic's Dictionary considered Arigó to be a hoaxer. Martin Gardner protesting Crowell-Collier's publishing of the John G. Fuller's book Arigo withdrew publication of his own book. João Maria de Jesus Kardecist Spiritism Rubens Farias Jr. Fuller, John G.. Arigo: Surgeon of the Rusty Knife. Afterword by Henry K. Puharich, M. D. New York: Crowell. ISBN 0-690-00512-1. Playfair, Guy L.. The Flying Cow. Research into Paranormal Phenomena in the World's Most Psychic Country. London: Souvenir Press. ISBN 0-285-62160-2. Haughton, Brian. "José Arigó – Psychic Surgeon and Healer". Mysterious People. Retrieved 2006-10-05. Stemman, Roy. "Arigo:surgeon extraordinary". In Peter Brookesmith; the Unexplained. 3. Great Britain: Marshall Cavendish. Pp. 378–380. ISBN 0-86307-098-1. "Surgeon of the Rusty Knife". Retrieved 2012-10-10.

"Arigo-Psychic Surgeon". Retrieved 2013-05-10