SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Ossuary

An ossuary is a chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. They are used where burial space is scarce. A body is first buried in a temporary grave after some years the skeletal remains are removed and placed in an ossuary; the reduced space taken up by an ossuary means that it is possible to store the remains of many more people in a single tomb than if the original coffins were left as is. In Persia, the Zoroastrians used a deep well for this function from the earliest times and called it astudan. There are many regulations in the Zoroastrian faith concerning the astudans. Many examples of ossuaries are found within Europe, including the Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini in Rome, Italy; the village of Wamba in the province of Valladolid, has an impressive ossuary of over a thousand skulls inside the local church, dating from between the 12th and 18th centuries. A more recent example is the Douaumont ossuary in France, which contains the remains of more than 130,000 French and German soldiers that fell at the Battle of Verdun during World War I.

The Catacombs of Paris represents another famous ossuary. The catacombs beneath the Monastery of San Francisco in Lima, Peru contains an ossuary; the use of ossuaries is a longstanding tradition in the Orthodox Church. The remains of an Orthodox Christian are treated with special reverence, in conformity with the biblical teaching that the body of a believer is a "temple of the Holy Spirit", having been sanctified and transfigured by Baptism, Holy Communion and the participation in the mystical life of the Church. In Orthodox monasteries, when one of the brethren dies, his remains are buried for one to three years, disinterred and gathered into the monastery's charnel house. If there is reason to believe that the departed is a saint, the remains may be placed in a reliquary; the remains of an abbot may be placed in a separate ossuary made out of metal. The use of ossuaries is found among the laity in the Greek Orthodox Church; the departed will be buried for one to three years and often on the anniversary of death, the family will gather with the parish priest and celebrate a parastas, after which the remains are disinterred, washed with wine and placed in a small ossuary of wood or metal, inscribed with the name of the departed, placed in a room in or near the church, dedicated to this purpose.

During Second Temple period, Jewish burial customs were varied, differing based on belief. For the wealthy, one option available included primary burials in burial caves, followed by secondary burials in ossuaries; these were placed in smaller niches of the burial caves, on the benches used for the desiccation of the corpse, or on the floor. These ossuaries are exclusively made of limestone 40% of which are decorated with intricate geometrical patterns. Many ossuaries, plain or decorated, feature inscriptions identifying the deceased. Among the best-known Jewish ossuaries of this period are: an ossuary inscribed'Simon the Temple builder' in the collection of the Israel Museum, another inscribed'Elisheba wife of Tarfon', one inscribed'Yehohanan ben Hagkol' that contained an iron nail in a heel bone suggesting crucifixion, another inscribed'James son of Joseph, brother of Jesus', the authenticity of, opposed by some and supported by others, ten ossuaries recovered from the Talpiot Tomb in 1980, several of which are reported to have names from the New Testament.

Geographically, ossuaries are exclusively associated with tombs in and around Jerusalem. There is ongoing scholarly disagreement as to the origin of ossuary burial; some argue. In the Mishnah and Talmud, Jewish sages from the period are depicted debating the methods and beliefs around ossuary burial; the perspectives they espouse are connected to the Pharisaic tradition. The custom of secondary burial in ossuaries did not persist among Jews past the Second Temple period nor appear to exist among Jews outside the land of Israel; the skeletal remains of six million people lie, neatly arranged, in catacombs beneath the streets of Paris, France. The city is riddled with an estimated 300 km of tunnels and pathways, of which 11,000 square meters are packed with the bones of those re-interred from the city's overflowing cemeteries in the late 1700s. Aircraft boneyard Boneyard, Arizona Catacomb Charnel house Columbarium Crypt Grave James Ossuary Mausoleum Reliquary Tomb Tzompantli

Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff was the highest joint military command body of the Spanish Armed Forces that operated between 1977 and 2005. The Board, subject to the political dependence of the Prime Minister, constituted the highest collegiate body of the chain of military command of Army, the Navy and the Air Force; the Board consisted of a president, selected from among lieutenant generals or admirals of the three branches of the Armed Forces, their chiefs of staff and a secretary. The president had to belong to the Group of Arms Command or Group "A" and was chief of the Defence High Command, until the dissolution of this body in 1980; the Board had a General Headquarters, created in 1980 as a result of the dissolution of the Defence High Command, where the organs of aid to the command were integrated. Of the General Headquarters of the JUJEM they depended: The General Technical Secretariat of the General Headquarters; the Joint Staff of the Board, constituted in a balanced way by members of each of the three branches of the Armed Forces.

The command of the Board fell to a divisional general or vice admiral of the same scale and group as the members of the Board, at the proposal of the same. The Higher Center for National Defence Studies; the Command of the General Headquarters. Legal Service. After its dissolution, the functions of the Board were assumed by the current Defence Staff; the most important functions entrusted to the Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff were the following: Provide technical advice in the preparation of the military policy to be formulated by the National Defence Board. Formulate and propose, for approval by the Government, the Joint Strategic Plan, within it, the joint objective of the Force. Exercise the strategic direction of said Plan and coordinate the plans of the three branches of the Armed Forces derived from it. Establish the doctrine of Unified Action and, where appropriate, the doctrine of Combined Action with the Armies of other countries. Prepare combined plans with armies of other nations. Propose to the Prime Minister the creation of the unified and specified commands, as well as the persons who should exercise it and who, under the direct dependency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, were necessary for the execution of the Joint Strategic Plan, defining mission and areas of action.

Promote, in coordination with the National Mobilization Service, the preparation of integrated plans for general mobilization. After 1984, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was the Chief of the Defence Staff. † denotes people. Defence High Command Defence Staff Chief of the Defence Staff Spanish Armed Forces The content of this article incorporates material published in the Boletín Oficial del Estado, in the public domain in accordance with the provisions of Article 13 of the Spanish Intellectual Property Law. Real Decreto-ley 11/1977, de 8 de febrero, por el que se institucionaliza la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor y se regulan sus atribuciones, funciones y responsabilidades; the Spanish Official Gazette núm. 34, de 9 de febrero de 1977, página 3135. Real Decreto 1125/1980, de 13 de junio, por el que se crea el Cuartel General de la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor; the Spanish Official Gazette núm. 143, de 14 de junio de 1980, página 13287

Haunted (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)

Haunted is a trade paperback collecting comic stories based on the Buffy the Vampire Slayer television series. The story features the first appearance of Faith in Buffy comics Faith tells Angel a story that takes place after she was put into a coma, it seems Richard Wilkins, wants revenge against Buffy. Buffy must now cope with guilt over stabbing a poltergeist following her every movement. Takes place a few days after "Graduation Part Two" and Double Cross. Angel has left, now two more of the gang are preparing to leave. Cordelia is going to become an actress while Xander intends to travel wide. Despite her comatose status, Faith once again becomes involved in Buffy's life. Meanwhile, vampires are surprising Buffy. One such incident leaves Rupert Giles out of action with a bad head injury; the killed Mayor of Sunnydale plans his strike against Buffy. Wilkins formalizes his plans to hit back at Buffy. There is something weird happening beneath the University campus in Sunnydale, something Wilkins will not like.

Wilkins tries to destroy Buffy. He discovers this body in the Initiative basement. Xander leaves. Buffy must face Wilkins without knowing what or who he is, must try to figure out Faith's message: "You're dead." This comic takes place in the summer of 1999. The prologue, which appeared on the internet and in the TPB collection but not in the pages of the comics themselves, is supposed to be set concurrent with early Angel season 2, it shows the origins of season four's villain Adam and how he came to be. Buffy comics such as this one are not considered by fans as canonical; some fans consider them stories from the imaginations of authors and artists, while other fans consider them as taking place in an alternative fictional reality. However unlike fan fiction, overviews summarising their story, written early in the writing process, were'approved' by both Fox and Joss Whedon, the books were therefore published as Buffy merchandise; some fans would argue that this comic is canon, because it was written by Jane Espenson, one of the main writers of the Buffy television series for five of its seven seasons, as well as a run on the canonical Buffy "Season 8" comic