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Oswald the Lucky Rabbit

Oswald the Lucky Rabbit is an anthropomorphic cartoon rabbit created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks for Universal Pictures. He starred in several animated short films released to theaters from 1927 to 1938. A total of 27 animated Oswald one-reelers were produced at the Walt Disney Studio; when the Disney studio was removed from the Oswald series and several of its animators departed to Winkler, Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks created Mickey Mouse. In 2003, Buena Vista Games pitched a concept for an Oswald-themed video game to Disney President and COO Bob Iger, who became committed to acquiring the rights to Oswald. In 2006, The Walt Disney Company managed to acquire the intellectual property of Oswald and the catalog of Disney-produced Oswald films. Oswald returned to prominence in Epic Mickey; the game's metafiction plot parallels Oswald's real-world history, dealing with the character's feelings of abandonment by Disney, envy towards Mickey Mouse. He has since appeared in Disney theme parks and comic books, as well as two follow-up games, Epic Mickey 2: The Power of Two and Epic Mickey: Power of Illusion.

Oswald made his first appearance in a Disney animated production in 85 years through his cameo appearance in the 2013 animated short Get a Horse!. He was the subject of the 2015 feature film Walt Before Mickey. Oswald appears as a townsperson in Disney Infinity 2.0. While under Disney's creative control, Oswald was one of the first cartoon characters that had personality; as outlined by Walt himself: "Hereafter we will aim to Oswald a younger character, alert and venturesome, keeping him neat and trim." With Oswald, Disney began to explore the concept of "personality animation", in which cartoon characters were defined as individuals through their movements and acting, instead of through their design. Around this period, Disney had expressed, "I want the characters to be somebody. I don't want them just to be a drawing." Not only were gags used, but his humor differed in terms of what he used to make people laugh. He presented physical humor, used situations to his advantage, presented situational humor in general and frustration comedy best shown in the cartoon The Mechanical Cow.

He would make use of animal limbs to solve problems and use his own limbs as props and gags. He could turn anything into tools, his distinct personality was inspired by Douglas Fairbanks for his courageous and adventurous attitude as seen in the cartoon short Oh, What a Knight. In regards to Oswald's personality, Disney historian David Gerstein describes the difference between Mickey and Oswald: In order to make his Oswald cartoons look "real", Disney turned away from the styles of Felix the Cat, Koko the Clown and Krazy Kat and began emulating the camera angles and editing of live-action films. To learn how to base gags on personality and how to build comic routines, rather than heaping one gag after another, he studied Laurel and Hardy, Harold Lloyd, Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton. In order to stir emotion in an audience, Disney studied and scrutinized the shadow effects, cross-cutting and staging of action in films featuring Douglas Fairbanks and Lon Chaney. Walt Disney did not want for Oswald to be "a rabbit character animated and shown in the same light as the known cat characters", as well as just a peg for gags.

Instead, his stated intention was "to make Oswald peculiarly and OSWALD." In 1927, because of cost and technical restrictions and his chief animator Ub Iwerks decided to end their work on the Alice Comedies series in search of new creative opportunities. Coincidentally, Universal Pictures wanted to get into the cartoon business and needed a cartoon character of its own. So Disney's distributor Charles Mintz told Disney and Iwerks to create a new character they could sell to Universal. Wanting to make cartoons with an all-animated look, Disney signed a contract with Universal Studios leading to the creation of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit and Universal's first cartoon series. Work on both the character and series began. Disney chose to make the character a rabbit since there were two popular animated cats at the time, Felix the Cat and Krazy Kat. Universal was given the right to name the rabbit and it selected a name out of a hat; the first Oswald cartoon, Poor Papa, was rejected by the Universal studio heads for its poor production quality and the sloppiness and age of Oswald.

Disney, together with Iwerks, decided to create a second cartoon titled Trolley Troubles featuring a much younger, neater Oswald. The short, released on September 5, 1927 launched the series and proved to be Disney's greatest success to date; the storyline for Poor Papa was reused in a Mickey Mouse short five years in Mickey's Nightmare, 1932. Oswald the Lucky Rabbit became Disney's first major hit in 1927, rivaling other popular cartoon characters, such as Felix the Cat and Koko the Clown; the success of the Oswald series allowed the Walt Disney Studio to grow to a staff of nearly twenty. Walt's weekly salary from the series was $100 while Roy Disney's was $65; the Disney brothers earned $500 per Oswald short and split the year-end profits, with Walt receiving 60%, Roy receiving 40%. With income gained from the Oswald series and Roy purchased ten acres of land in the desert, they invested in an oil-drilling venture. Iwerks invested his income in several stone mills to crush paint pigment he used to make paint formulas that were utilized by animators

Cornelia L├╝decke

Cornelia Lüdecke is a German polar researcher and author. A leading figure in the history of German polar research and the history of meteorology and oceanography, she founded the Expert Group on History of Antarctic Research within the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, institutionalising historical study and reflection for the Antarctic scientific community, her books, among others, about the Schwabenland Expedition to Antarctica during the Third Reich and Deutsche in der Antarktis are milestones in the history of polar research publications. Lüdecke was born in 1954 in Germany, her interest in physics and nature rather than the arts led her to study meteorology at Munich's Ludwig Maximilians University, receiving her diploma in 1980. While doing a literature review on the physical properties of sea ice for MAN Neue Technologie AG, she learned more about polar exploration from her colleagues who had overwintered at the Georg-von-Neumayer Station, Germany's Antarctic science station.

Fascinated by polar research, Lüdecke decided to study the history of earth sciences at the LMU's Institute for History of Natural Sciences while working part-time for MAN. After giving birth to two daughters in 1990 and 1992, in 1994 she submitted her PhD thesis on German Polar research since the turn of the century and the influence of Erich von Drygalski. Lüdecke completed her second thesis titled Chapters from the history of earth-sciences – protagonists, institutions at the Centre for History of Natural Sciences and Technology at the University of Hamburg in 2002 and attained the title "Privatdozent“ in 2003. After her studies Lüdecke participated in meteorological experiments on ships and aircraft including research vessels RS Gauss and RS Meteor, she was a staff member of the operation centers of international meteorological experiments ALPEX in the Alps and EMEX in Australia's Northern Territory. Lüdecke teaches history of history of polar research at the University of Hamburg. In 1991 Lüdecke founded the History of Polar Research Working Group of the German Society of Polar Research which she now heads.

In 1995 she became chair of the History of Meteorology Specialist Group of the German Meteorological Society. After the establishment of the International Commission on History of Meteorology in 2001, Lüdecke was elected Vice-President and was President from 2006–2009. Since 2002, she has been a member of the International Polar Heritage Committee of the International Council of Monuments and Sites. In 2004 Lüdecke founded the Expert Group on History of Antarctic Research within the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, for which she is the Chief Officer, she organizes sessions during the bi-annual SCAR Open Science Conferences. Since 2012 she has been one of the Vice-Presidents of the International Commission on History of Oceanography. During the opening of the Antarctic Treaty Summit on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty in 2009 Lüdecke gave the historical talk on “Parallel Precedents for the Antarctic Treaty”. For SCAR's first Antarctic and Southern Ocean Science Horizon Scan in April 2014, Lüdecke was among 75 scientists and policy-makers from 22 countries to identify the 80 most important scientific research topics concerning for the next two decades.

She became Professor at the University of Hamburg in 2016. Lüdecke is a member of the curatory of the Academia Dominator, she is active on the scientific board of the German Society of Polar Research and the Geographical Society in Munich. Lüdecke is member of the editorial boards of several scientific journals, including Polarforschung, Polar Record, Journal of Northern Studies, The Polar Journal, Revista Electrónica Estudios Hemisféricos y Polares, Earth Sciences History. Lüdecke has organized numerous national and international workshops and conferences on the history of polar research and the history of meteorology. In 2010 Lüdecke received the Reinhard Süring Medal from the German Meteorological Society for her "long-time dedicated activities in research and teaching in the field of history of natural sciences and the successful organization of numerous national and international symposia”. In 2012 she was elected as corresponding member of the International Academy of the History of Science in Paris.

In March 2019 Lüdecke received the Paulus-Preis award for History of Meteorology from the German Meteorological Society. Lüdecke has published over 180 papers and book chapters. Lüdecke, C.: Deutsche in der Antarktis: Expeditionen und Forschungen vom Kaiserreich bis heute.. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag 2015. Lüdecke, C.: Eine Entdeckungsreise in die Südpolarregion 1839 - 1843. Wiesbaden: Edition Erdmann marixverlag, 2014. Lüdecke, C. 2009 Expanding to Antarctica - Discussions about German naming and a new map of Antarctica in the early 1950s. In: C. Lüdecke, 2nd SCAR Workshop on the History of Antarctic Research. Multidimensional exploration of Antarctica around the 1950s. Boletín Chileno Antartico, Instituto Chileno Antártico, Punta Arenas, 45–52. Lüdecke, C.: Steps of Foundation of Institutionalized Antarctic Research. Proceedings of the 1st SCAR Workshop on the History of Antarctic Research, Munich 2–3 June 2005, Reports on Polar and Marine Research = Reports on polar and marine rese

Hamana High School

Shizuoka Prefectural Hamana Senior High School is a public co-educational senior high school in Hamakita-ku, Japan. Hamana High School is a public senior high school with two departments, a full-time day school and a part-time evening school; the school was founded in 1913 as the Kitahama Sewing Cram School for girls. In 1947, the Kitahama High School merged with Kasai Girls' High School and the next year the name was changed to Shizuoka Prefectural Hamana Senior High School. 1913: Kitahama Sewing Cram School for girls was founded. 1914: Approval of Kitahama practical course girls' school. 1919: Promotion to Kitahama practical course girls' high school. 1926: School became Kitahama girls' high school. 1925: Kasai Vocational School for girls was founded. 1937: Approval of Kasai Vocational High School for girls. 1944: Promotion to Kasai Commercial School for girls. 1946: School became Kasai Girls' High School. 1947: Kitahama Girls' High School merged with Kasai Girls' High School to become Hamana Girls' High School.

1948: The school was renamed Hamana High School and a part-time course was set up. 1950: The school house was built. 1953: The gymnasium was completed. 1955: Schooling system became a full-time course. 1956: School song was written and adopted. 1962: The new school building was completed in its current location. 1963: It changed to a full-time schooling system, including a general education part with about 300 students, a home economics part with 100 students and a commercial part with 200 students. 1973: The commercial part was closed down. The general education part was increased to 6 classes and the home economics was decreased to 2 classes, 8 classes in total. 1984: The home economics section was closed down. 1995: Construction began on the current school building. 1997: Ceremony to celebrate the completion of the current building. The Japanese school year begins near the beginning of April and ends in mid-March, with 5–6 weeks of summer vacation from the last week of July to the end of August and about 2 weeks of winter vacation around the New Year's holiday.

April- Entrance Ceremony June- School Festival September- Disaster drill, Cultural field trip to watch a play or musical, Sports Festival, School Trip October- Field trip or school trip November- Disaster drill, Health Lecture, Traffic Safety Lecture January- School Marathon March- Graduation ceremony In this course, students have supplementary classes every morning before school and two times a week after school in addition to their regular classes. The focus in these classes is on studying. Students in this course aim to enter prestigious public universities. In this course, the focus is on the sciences and the curriculum includes many math classes. Students have math classes twice a day on some days. In this course, students study all subjects including science. In this course, there is less emphasis on science. Students take classes in art, calligraphy or dress design; as in most Japanese high schools, the school clubs at Hamana are mandatory. Students join only one club and continue it throughout high school.

Students have one opportunity after their first year to change their club. Students finish their club activity requirement after the first semester of their final year to concentrate on studying, the exception being some athletic clubs. Athletic clubs meet every day to practice. Students practice after school, during holidays and school vacations. SoccerHamana has a strong soccer team which has competed at the national level multiple times in the All Japan High School Soccer Tournament. BaseballHamana's baseball team attended at a national event, competing in the 75th Japanese High School Baseball Championship as one of 3 teams representing the Tōkai region in 2003; the baseball team has participated in the Shizuoka Prefectural Baseball Tournament. Other athletic clubs, many of which compete at the prefectural or national level, include volleyball, swimming and field, soft tennis and kendo. There are many cultural clubs at Hamana; these clubs meet just one hour a week on Fridays, with the exception being the dance club which meets more to practice.

English Math Dance Art Computer Photography Handmade Japanese chess Japanese calligraphy Drama Tea Ceremony Flower arrangement Natural Science History Brass band It is held on a Friday and Saturday around the beginning of June. In-school performances are held on Friday with the whole school in attendance. On the Friday morning, there is a dance club performance, a drama club performance and a concert by the school brass band. In the afternoon there are several guest performers for example comedians. On the Saturday morning, the student bands play; the festival is open to the public from mid-morning on Saturday. There are classroom exhibitions including photo and flower arrangements; the dance club and drama club have performances and the English club performs puppet shows in English. The tea ceremony club offers the experience to try the tea ceremony for a small fee. Visitors can enjoy games created by the computer club members. There are classroom exhibitions by the second and third grade home rooms which include games and activities for visitors to enjoy.

Takahiro Mazuka Kisho Yano Masaaki Yanagishita Takumi Wada Takuya Matsuura Masaya Sato Most of the information contained within was translated from the school's informational handbook and the Japanese Wikipedia Page by the Hamana High School English Club students and teachers. Much of the information can be found on the school's official website. Official website

Standard Motor Company

The Standard Motor Company Limited was a motor vehicle manufacturer, founded in Coventry, England, in 1903 by Reginald Walter Maudslay. It purchased Triumph in 1945 and in 1959 changed its name to Standard-Triumph International and began to put the Triumph brandname on all its products. For many years, it manufactured. All Standard's tractor assets were sold to Massey Ferguson in 1959. In September 1959, Standard Motor Company was renamed Standard-Triumph International Limited. A new subsidiary took the name The Standard Motor Company Limited and took over the manufacture of the group's products; the Standard name was last used in Britain in 1963, in India in 1988. Maudslay, great-grandson of the eminent engineer Henry Maudslay, had trained under Sir John Wolfe-Barry as a civil engineer. In 1902 he joined his cousin Cyril Charles Maudslay at his Maudslay Motor Company to make marine internal combustion engines; the marine engines did not sell well, still in 1902 they made their first engine intended for a car.

It was fitted to a chain-drive chassis. The three-cylinder engine, designed by Alexander Craig was an advanced unit with a single overhead camshaft and pressure lubrication. Realising the enormous potential of the horseless carriage and using a gift of £3,000 from Sir John Wolfe-Barry, R. W. Maudslay left his cousin and became a motor manufacturer on his own account, his Standard Motor Company was incorporated on 2 March 1903 and he established his business in a small factory in a two-storey building in Much Park Street, Coventry. Having undertaken the examination of several proprietary engines to familiarise himself with internal combustion engine design he employed seven people to assemble the first car, powered by a single-cylinder engine with three-speed gearbox and shaft drive to the rear wheels. By the end of 1903 three cars had been built and the labour force had been increased to twenty five; the increased labour force produced a car every three weeks during 1904. The single-cylinder model was soon replaced by a two-cylinder model followed by three- and four-cylinder versions and in 1905 the first six.

The first cars boasted shaft drive as opposed to chains, the engines were not "square" but had 6" diameter pistons with a 3" stroke. As well as supplying complete chassis, the company found a good market selling engines for fitting to other cars where the owner wanted more power. Although Alex Craig, a Scottish engineer, was engaged to do much of the detail work, Maudslay himself was sufficiently confident to undertake much of the preliminary layout. One of the several derivations of the name "Standard" is said to have emanated from a discussion between Maudslay and Craig during which the latter proposed several changes to a design on the grounds of cost, which Maudslay rejected, saying that he was determined to maintain the best possible "standard". In 1905 Maudslay himself drove the first Standard car to compete in a race; this was the RAC Tourist Trophy in which he finished 11th out of 42 starters, having had a non-stop run. In 1905 the first export order was received, from a Canadian who arrived at the factory in person.

The order was reported in the local newspaper with some emphasis, "Coventry firm makes bold bid for foreign markets". The company exhibited at the 1905 London Motor Show in Crystal Palace, at which a London dealer, Charles Friswell 1872-1926 agreed to buy the entire factory output, he joined Standard and was managing director for many years. In late 1906 production was transferred to larger premises and output was concentrated on 6-cylinder models; the 16/20 h.p. tourer with side-entrance body was priced at £450. An indication of how much this was can be gained from the fact. In 1907 Friswell became company chairman, he worked hard to raise its profile, the resulting increase in demand necessitated the acquisition of a large single-storey building in Cash's Lane, Coventry. This was inadequate after the publicity gained when a fleet of 20 cars, 16/20 tourers, were supplied for the use of Commonwealth editors attending the 1909 Imperial Press Conference in London. In 1909 the company first made use of the famous Union Flag Badge, a feature of the radiator emblem until after the Second World War.

By 1911 the range of vehicles was comprehensive, with the 8-horsepower model being produced in quantity whilst a special order for two 70 hp cars was at the same time executed for a Scottish millionaire. Friswell's influence culminated in supplying seventy 4-cylinder 16 hp cars for King George V and his entourage, including the Viceroy of India, at the 1911 Delhi Durbar. In 1912 Friswell sold his interest in Standard to C. J. Band and Siegfried Bettmann, the founder of the Triumph Motor Cycle Company. During the same year the first commercial vehicle was produced, the 4-cylinder model "S" was introduced at £195, the first to be put into large-scale production. 1,600 were produced before the outbreak of the First World War, 50 of them in the final week of car production. These cars were sold with a three-year guarantee. In 1914 Standard became a public company. During the First World War the company produced more than 1,000 aircraft, including the Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.12, Royal Aircraft Factory R.

E.8, Sopwith Pup and Bristol F.2-B in a new works at Canley that opened on 1 July 1916. Canley would subsequently become the main centre of operations. Other war materials produced included shells, mobile workshops for the Royal Engineers, trench mortars. Civilian car production was restarted in 1919 with models based on pre-war designs, for example the 9.5 model "S" was re-introduced as the model SLS although this was soon superseded by an

System safety

The system safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach. This is different from traditional safety strategies which rely on control of conditions and causes of an accident based either on the epidemiological analysis or as a result of investigation of individual past accidents; the concept of system safety is useful in demonstrating adequacy of technologies when difficulties are faced with probabilistic risk analysis. The underlying principle is one of synergy: a whole is more than sum of its parts. Systems-based approach to safety requires the application of scientific and managerial skills to hazard identification, hazard analysis, elimination, control, or management of hazards throughout the life-cycle of a system, project or an activity or a product. "Hazop" is one of several techniques available for identification of hazards. A system is defined as a set or group of interacting, interrelated or interdependent elements or parts, that are organized and integrated to form a collective unity or a unified whole, to achieve a common objective.

This definition lays emphasis on the interactions between the parts of a system and the external environment to perform a specific task or function in the context of an operational environment. This focus on interactions is to take a view on the expected or unexpected demands that will be placed on the system and see whether necessary and sufficient resources are available to process the demands; these might take form of stresses. These stresses can be either expected, as part of normal operations, or unexpected, as part of unforeseen acts or conditions that produce beyond-normal stresses; this definition of a system, includes not only the product or the process but the influences that the surrounding environment may have on the product’s or process’s safety performance. Conversely, system safety takes into account the effects of the system on its surrounding environment. Thus, a correct definition and management of interfaces becomes important. Broader definitions of a system are the hardware, human systems integration and training.

Therefore, system safety as part of the systems engineering process should systematically address all of these domains and areas in engineering and operations in a concerted fashion to prevent and control hazards. A “system", has implicit as well as explicit definition of boundaries to which the systematic process of hazard identification, hazard analysis and control is applied; the system can range in complexity from a manned spacecraft to an autonomous machine tool. The system safety concept helps the system designer to model, gain awareness about and eliminate the hazards, apply controls to achieve an acceptable level of safety. Ineffective decision making in safety matters is regarded as the first step in the sequence of hazardous flow of events in the "Swiss cheese" model of accident causation. Communications regarding system risk have an important role to play in correcting risk perceptions by creating and understanding information model to show what factors create and control the hazardous process.

For any system, product, or service, the most effective means of limiting product liability and accident risks is to implement an organized system safety function, beginning in the conceptual design phase and continuing through to its development, testing, production and ultimate disposal. The aim of the system safety concept is to gain assurance that a system and associated functionality behaves safely and is safe to operate; this assurance is necessary. Technological advances in the past have produced positive as well as negative effects. A root cause analysis identifies the set of multiple causes that together might create a potential accident. Root cause techniques have been borrowed from other disciplines and adapted to meet the needs of the system safety concept, most notably the tree structure from fault tree analysis, an engineering technique; the root cause analysis techniques can be categorised into two groups: a) tree techniques, b) check list methods. There are several root causal analysis techniques, e.g.

Management Oversight and Risk Tree analysis. Others are Event and Causal Factor Analysis, Multilinear Events Sequencing, Sequentially Timed Events Plotting Procedure, Savannah River Plant Root Cause Analysis System. Safety engineering describes some methods used in other industries. Traditional safety engineering techniques are focused on the consequences of human error and do not investigate the causes or reasons for the occurrence of human error. System safety concept can be applied to this traditional field to help identify the set of conditions for safe operation of the system. Modern and more complex systems in military and NASA with computer application and controls require functional hazard analyses and a set of detailed specifications at all levels that address safety attributes to be inherent in the design; the process following a system safety program plan, preliminary hazard analyses, functional hazard assessments and system safety assessments are to produce evidence based documentation that will drive safety systems that are certifiable and that will hold up in litigation.

The primary focus of any system safety plan, hazard analysis and safety assessment is to implement a comprehensive process to systematically predict or identify the operational behavior of any safety-critical failure condition or fault condition or human error that could lead to a hazard and potential mishap. This is used to

Development guide plan

A development guide plan is a detailed urban land use plan for each of the 55 planning areas in Singapore designated by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore's national planning and conservation authority. In 1991, URA released the revised Concept Plan, which maps out the vision for Singapore's long term physical development for a population of 4 million. With the completion of the Concept Plan, URA proceeded to prepare detailed plans called DGPs for gazetting as the new Master Plan. For the purpose of preparing the detailed plans, Singapore was divided into 55 planning areas. For each of these areas, a DGP was prepared where the broad vision of the Concept Plan was detailed into specific proposals; each DGP covers a planning area with a population of around 150,000 served by a town centre. The planning areas are further divided into subzones, each served by a commercial centre; the size of each planning area and its subzone varies depending on the land uses, proximity to the Central Area, existing physical separators such as expressways, major open spaces and other demarcators.

All the 55 DGPs were completed in December 1998 and were gazetted as the new statutory Master Plan, known as Master Plan 1998. The Master Plan provides a clear guide to landowners on what their land can be used for, is reviewed every five years; the term "Development Guide Plan" is no longer in use after 1998. Urban planning in Singapore Planning areas of Singapore Regions of Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority