Aalto University is a university located in Greater Helsinki, Finland. It was established in 2010 as a merger of three major Finnish universities: the Helsinki University of Technology, the Helsinki School of Economics, the University of Art and Design Helsinki; the close collaboration between the scientific and arts communities is intended to foster multi-disciplinary education and research. The Finnish government, in 2010, set out to create a university that fosters innovation, merging the three institutions into one; the university is composed of six schools with close to 17,500 students and 4,000 staff members, making it Finland's second largest university. The main campus of Aalto University is located in Otaniemi, where the engineering schools as well as the bachelor programs of the School of Business operate. Other functions of the School of Business are located in Töölö; the School of Arts and Architecture is located in Arabianranta. All of the university's activities will be located in the Otaniemi campus by 2020.
In addition to the Greater Helsinki area, the university operates in Mikkeli and Pori. Aalto University's operations showcase Finland’s experiment in higher education; the Aalto Design Factory, Aalto Ventures Program and Aalto Entrepreneurship Society, among others, drive the university's mission for a radical shift towards multidisciplinary learning and have contributed to the emergence of Helsinki as a hotbed for startups. Aaltoes is Europe’s largest and most active student run entrepreneurship community that has founded major concepts such as the Startup Sauna accelerator program and the Slush startup event; the university is named in honour of Alvar Aalto, a prominent Finnish architect and alumnus of the former Helsinki University of Technology, instrumental in designing a large part of the university's main campus in Otaniemi. In 2004, a workgroup led by Anne Brunila of the Finnish Ministry of Finance concluded that Finland had too many universities and other institutes of tertiary education which should be consolidated.
Following this, Yrjö Sotamaa, president of the University of Art and Design Helsinki at the time, proposed the merger of Aalto University's founding schools in his president's opening speech in 2005. Sotamaa's line of reasoning was that this move would create a unique interdisciplinary university, needed to create new innovative thought; the idea received attention within the Finnish Ministry of Education, which appointed Raimo Sailas, a leading official at the Ministry of Finance, to investigate the possibility of a merger. After Sailas' group reported that it considered the merger to be beneficial to the Finnish academic world and economy, the Finnish government decided to go on with the project on November 11, 2007. On May 29, 2008, the government announced that the new university would be named after the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto in honor of his achievements in technology and art; the Finnish Minister of Education at the time, Ms. Sari Sarkomaa, together with representatives of Finnish industries and professional organisations, signed the Aalto University charter on June 25, 2008 in Helsinki.
On December 19, 2008, Prof. Tuula Teeri was selected by the Board to be the first President of Aalto University. Aalto University started operating on January 1, 2010. In the process of creating the university the university law of Finland was rewritten for the university to be allowed to collect endowment; the university managed to reach its goal of collecting 200 million euros in private donations. The sum was augmented by 2.5 times by the Finnish state. As the Aalto University was founded the four schools of science and engineering were formed out of the departments of the Helsinki University of Technology, founded in 1849 by Grand Duke Nicholas I, it received university status in 1908. In 1966, the University of Technology moved from Hietalahti in downtown Helsinki to its current Otaniemi campus, designed by Alvar Aalto. At the time of creation of Aalto University, TKK had about 250 professors and 15,000 students; this means the largest part of the Aalto University is formed from the former Helsinki University of Technology.
In 2011, the former University of Technology was split up into four schools, corresponding to the former TKK faculties: School of Chemical Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, School of Science. The Helsinki School of Economics was established in Helsinki in 1904 by the business community and was given the status of a university in 1911, it operated as a private university until 1974, when the state of Finland was given the financial responsibility of the university. Following the merger, the university was renamed Aalto University School of Economics, is known as Aalto University School of Business; the University of Art and Design Helsinki has been the largest art university in the Nordic countries. It was founded in 1871. Media Centre Lume - the National Research and Development Center of audiovisual media - is located in the university; the university awarded the following academic degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Arts. The university has been active in establishing research projects and industrial collaborations via the private sector.
During the rectorship of Yrjö Sotamaa the university was active in integrating design into Finnish innovation networks. Following the merger, the university was renamed Aalto University School of Art and Design. In 2012, the Department of Archit
1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland from July 19 to August 3, 1952. Helsinki had been earlier selected to host the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II, it is the northernmost city. These were the first games to be held in a non-Indo-European language speaking country, it was the Olympic Games at which the most number of world records were broken until surpassed by the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Israel and Saarland made their Olympic debuts in Helsinki 1952. Helsinki was chosen as the host city over bids from Amsterdam and five American cities at the 40th IOC Session on June 21, 1947, in Stockholm, Sweden. Minneapolis and Los Angeles finished tied for second in the final voting; the voting results in chart below: These were the final Olympic Games organised under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström. Israel made its Olympic debut.
The Jewish state had been unable to participate in the 1948 Games because of its War of Independence. A previous Palestine Mandate team had boycotted the 1936 Games in protest of the Nazi regime. Indonesia made its Olympic debut with three athletes; the newly established People's Republic of China participated in the Olympics for the first time, although only one swimmer of its 40-member delegation arrived in time to take part in the official competition. The PRC would not return to the Summer Olympics until Los Angeles 1984; the Republic of China withdrew from the Games on July 20, in protest of the IOC decision to allow athletes from the People's Republic of China to compete. For the first time, a team from the Soviet Union participated in the Olympics; the first gold medal for the USSR was won by Nina Romashkova in the women's discus throwing event. Only after I had felt a heavy golden circle in my hand, I realized. I am the first Soviet Olympic Champion, you know, the first record-holder of the 15th Olympiad...
Tears were stinging my eyes. How happy I was!... After her win at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In Russian:Только ощутив в руке тяжелый золотой кружок, я осознала, что произошло. Ведь я первая советская олимпийская чемпионка, первая рекордсменка XV Олимпиады... Слезы щипали глаза. Как я была счастлива!... The Soviets turned the athletic competition into a metaphor for political propaganda.“Every record won by our sportsmen, every victory in international contests, graphically demonstrates to the whole world the advantages and strength of the Soviet system.” The first meeting between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in football is still the most famous one. On the political level, the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and the Yugoslav leader Josip Tito split in 1948, which resulted in Yugoslavia being excluded from the Communist Information Bureau; the origin of the conflict was Tito’s refusal to submit to Stalin’s interpretations and visions of politics and in process becoming a Soviet satellite state. Before the match, both Tito and Stalin sent telegrams to their national teams, which showed just how important it was for the two head of states.
Yugoslavia led 5 -- 1. The match was replayed, Yugoslavia winning 3–1; the defeat to the archrivals hit Soviet football hard, after just three games played in the season, CDKA Moscow, who had made up most of the USSR squad, was forced to withdraw from the league and disbanded. Furthermore, Boris Arkadiev, who coached both USSR and CDKA, was stripped of his Merited Master of Sports of the USSR title; the Olympic Flame was lit by runners Paavo Nurmi and Hannes Kolehmainen. Nurmi first lit the cauldron inside the stadium, the flame was relayed to the stadium tower where Kolehmainen lit it. Only the flame in the tower was burning throughout the Olympics. Hungary's Golden Team won the football tournament. Germany and Japan were invited after being barred in 1948. Following the post-war occupation and partition, three German states had been established. Teams from the Federal Republic of Germany and the Saarland participated. Though they won 24 medals, the fifth-highest total at the Games, German competitors failed to win a gold medal for the only time.
Rules in equestrianism now allowed non-military officers to compete, including women. Lis Hartel of Denmark became the first woman in the sport to win a medal. Emil Zátopek of Czechoslovakia won three gold medals in 10,000 m and the Marathon; the India national field hockey team won its fifth consecutive gold under captaincy of Kunwar Digvijay Singh Bob Mathias of the United States became the first Olympian to defend his decathlon title with a total score of 7,887 points. Josy Barthel of Luxembourg pulled a major surprise by winning the 1500 m. Eva Perón, the celebrated First Lady of Argentina, died of cancer in July 1952 while the Olympics were taking place, so a memorial was held at the Games for the Argentine team; the 1952 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, medals were awarded in 149 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Handball Pesäpallo With an annual average temperature of 5.9 °C, Helsinki is one of the coldest cities to have hosted the Summer Olympics.
Hämeenlinna – Modern pentathlon Harmaja – Sailing Helsinki Football Grounds – Football Huopalahti – Shooting Käpylä – Cycling Kotka – Footbal
Alepa is a grocery shop chain in the Greater Helsinki region of Finland. It is owned by HOK-Elanto, a part of the nationwide cooperative S Group. Alepa was founded in 1918, when his wife founded a shop in Sörnäinen, Helsinki; the original name of Alepa was Alennushalli Pajunen, named after the founder. The Pajunen family sold the chain to HOK in 1987; as of May 2017, the chain includes 112 stores in Helsinki, Vantaa, Hyvinkää, Klaukkala, Järvenpää and Tuusula. Outside of this region, the S Group uses the brand Sale for similar stores. Http://www.alepa.fi
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e
A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. The National Business Incubation Association defines business incubators as a catalyst tool for either regional or national economic development. NBIA categorizes their members’ incubators by the following five incubator types: academic institutions. Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs. Incubators differ from the U. S. Small Business Administration's Small Business Development Centers in that they serve only selected clients.
SBDCs are required by law to offer general business assistance to any company that contacts them for help. In addition, SBDCs work with any small business at any stage of development, not only startup companies. Many business incubation programs partner with their local SBDC to create a "one-stop shop" for entrepreneurial support. Within European Union countries there are different EU and state funded programs that offer support in form of consulting, prototype creation and other services and co-funding for them. TecHub is one of examples for IT companies and ideas.. In India, the business incubators are promoted in a varied fashion: as Technology Business Incubators and as Startup Incubators -- the first deals with technology business and the deals with promoting startups; the mission on creating specific innovations among the young minds of researchers via. 101 specialized incubators has been boosted in various parts of India through AIM-India. For instance, AIC-IIITKottayam, a Startup-based Incubator, specializes in IoT Cloud research jointly with world class incubators from Germany, USA, so forth.
The formal concept of business incubation began in the USA in 1959 when Joseph L. Mancuso opened the Batavia Industrial Center in a Batavia, New York, warehouse. Incubation expanded in the U. S. in the 1980s and spread to the UK and Europe through various related forms. The U. S.-based International Business Innovation Association estimates that there are about 7,000 incubators worldwide. A study funded by the European Commission in 2002 identified around 900 incubation environments in Western Europe; as of October 2006, there were more than 1,400 incubators in North America, up from only 12 in 1980. Her Majesty's Treasury identified around 25 incubation environments in the UK in 1997. In 2005 alone, North American incubation programs assisted more than 27,000 companies that provided employment for more than 100,000 workers and generated annual revenues of $17 billion. In 2017, research group named Social Innovation Monitor has identified 171 incubators in Italy where 60% of them are in the North of Italy.
Moreover, big corporations are applying strategies of open innovation through the creation of programme of corporate incubation. Some examples these programmes are: TIM #Wcap FoodForward by Deloitte Italia. Incubation activity has not been limited to developed countries. Since startup companies lack many resources and networks, incubators provide services which helps them get through initial hurdles in starting up a business; these hurdles include space, legal, computer services and other prerequisites to running the business. Among the most common incubator services are: Help with business basics Networking activities Marketing assistance Market Research High-speed Internet access Help with accounting/financial management Access to bank loans, loan funds and guarantee programs Help with presentation skills Links to higher education resources Links to strategic partners Access to angel investors or venture capital Comprehensive business training programs Advisory boards and mentors Management team identification Help with business etiquette Technology commercialization assistance Help with regulatory compliance Intellectual property management There are a number of business incubators that have focused on particular industries or on a particular business model, earning them their own name.
Virtual business incubator - online business incubator Kitchen incubator - a business incubator focused on the food industry Public incubator - a business incubator focused on the public good Seed accelerator - a business incubator focused on early startups Corporate accelerator - a program of a larger company that acts akin to a seed accelerator Startup studio - a business incubator with interacting portfolio companies Hybrid Incubator - A business incubator that combines virtual incubator with on-premise activitiesMore than half of all business incubation programs are "mixed-use" projects, meaning they work with clients from a variety of industries. Technology incubators account for 39% of incubation pr
Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto was a Finnish architect and designer. His work includes architecture, furniture and glassware, as well as sculptures and paintings, though he never regarded himself as an artist, seeing painting and sculpture as "branches of the tree whose trunk is architecture." Aalto's early career runs in parallel with the rapid economic growth and industrialization of Finland during the first half of the twentieth century and many of his clients were industrialists. The span of his career, from the 1920s to the 1970s, is reflected in the styles of his work, ranging from Nordic Classicism of the early work, to a rational International Style Modernism during the 1930s to a more organic modernist style from the 1940s onwards. What is typical for his entire career, however, is a concern for design as a Gesamtkunstwerk, a total work of art, his furniture designs are considered Scandinavian Modern, in the sense of a concern for materials wood, simplification but technical experimentation, which led to him receiving patents for various manufacturing processes, such as bent wood.
The Alvar Aalto Museum, designed by Aalto himself, is located in what is regarded as his home city Jyväskylä. Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto was born in Finland, his father, Johan Henrik Aalto, was a Finnish-speaking land-surveyor and his mother, Selma Matilda "Selly" was a Swedish-speaking postmistress. When Aalto was 5 years old, the family moved to Alajärvi, from there to Jyväskylä in Central Finland, he studied at the Jyväskylä Lyceum school, where he completed his basic education in 1916, took drawing lessons from a local artist named Jonas Heiska. In 1916, he enrolled to study architecture at the Helsinki University of Technology, his studies were interrupted by the Finnish Civil War. He fought on the side of the White Army and fought at the Battle of Länkipohja and the Battle of Tampere, he built his first piece of architecture while still a student, a house for his parents, at Alajärvi. Afterwards, he continued his education, graduating in 1921. In the summer of 1922 he began his official military service, finishing at the Hamina reserve officer training school, was promoted to reserve second lieutenant in June 1923.
In 1920, while still a student, Aalto made his first trip abroad, travelling via Stockholm to Gothenburg, where he briefly found work with the architect Arvid Bjerke. In 1922, he accomplished his first independent piece at the Industrial Exposition in Tampere. In 1923, he returned to Jyväskylä, where he opened his first architectural office under the name'Alvar Aalto and Monumental Artist'. At that same time he wrote articles for the Jyväskylä newspaper Sisä-Suomi under the pseudonym Remus. During this time, he designed a number of small single-family houses in Jyväskylä, the office's workload increased. On October 6, 1924, Aalto married architect Aino Marsio; the latter trip together sealed an intellectual bond with the culture of the Mediterranean region, to remain important to Aalto for the rest of his life. On their return, they continued with a number of local projects, notably the Jyväskylä Worker's Club, which incorporated a number of motifs which they had studied during their trip, most notably the decorations of the Festival hall modelled on the Rucellai Sepulchre in Florence by Leon Battista Alberti.
Following winning the architecture competition for the Southwest Finland Agricultural Cooperative building in 1927 the Aaltos moved their office to Turku. They had made contact with the city's most progressive architect, Erik Bryggman before moving, they began collaborating with him, most notably on the Turku Fair of 1928-29. Aalto's biographer, Göran Schildt, claimed that Bryggman was the only architect with whom Aalto cooperated as an equal. With increasing works in the Finnish capital, the Aaltos' office moved again in 1933 to Helsinki; the Aaltos designed and built a joint house-office for themselves in Munkkiniemi, but had a purpose-built office erected in the same neighbourhood – nowadays the former is a "home museum" and the latter the premises of the Alvar Aalto Academy. In 1926, the young Aaltos designed and had built for themselves a summer cottage in Alajärvi, Villa Flora. Aino Aalto died of cancer in 1949. Aino and Alvar Aalto had two children, a daughter, Johanna "Hanni", Mrs Alanen, a son, Hamilkar Aalto.
In 1952, Aalto married architect Elissa Mäkiniemi, working as an assistant in his office. In 1952, he designed and built a summer cottage, the so-called Experimental House, for himself and his new wife in Muuratsalo in Central Finland. Alvar Aalto died on 11 May 1976, in Helsinki, is buried in the Hietaniemi cemetery in Helsinki, his wife and the office employees continued the works of the office. In 1978 the Museum of Finnish Architecture in Helsinki arranged a major exhibition of Aalto's works. Although he is sometimes regarded as among the first and most influential architects of Nordic modernism, a closer examination of the historical facts reveals that Aalto followed and had personal contacts with other pioneers in Sweden, in particular Gunnar Asplund and Sven Markelius. What they and many others of that generation in the Nordic c
Keilaniemi is a district in the south-eastern part of Espoo, Finland. It is a high-rise business district known for the numerous head offices of large corporations located there; the district includes the head offices of Tieto, Fortum, Neste Oil, many smaller corporations such as Rovio Entertainment. Keilaniemi rose to the position of a corporate concentration in 1976, when the Fortum head office was built there; the 18-story building is still one of the tallest office buildings in Finland. Keilaniemi is bordered by the university district of Otaniemi to the north, the commercial/residential district of Tapiola to the west, the Keilalahti bay separating Espoo and Helsinki to the east, the Gulf of Finland to the south; the distance from Keilaniemi to the centre of Helsinki along the Länsiväylä highway is about 8 km. Keilaniemi is served by a station of the Helsinki metro; the extension was completed in 2017. Significant new construction is planned: construction of new tower blocks for office and residential use has been approved.
South of Keilaniemi proper, there is the small peninsula of Karhusaari, where a 19th-century mansion, the Sinebrychoff mansion, is located. The mansion, owned by the City of Espoo, houses the Karhusaari Art Centre and is used for weddings and other events. Keilaniemi metro station Districts of Espoo Media related to Keilaniemi at Wikimedia Commons