Aboriginal title is a common law doctrine that the land rights of indigenous peoples to customary tenure persist after the assumption of sovereignty under settler colonialism. The requirements of proof for the recognition of aboriginal title, the content of aboriginal title, the methods of extinguishing aboriginal title, the availability of compensation in the case of extinguishment vary by jurisdiction. Nearly all jurisdictions are in agreement that aboriginal title is inalienable, that it may be held either individually or collectively. Aboriginal title was first acknowledged in the early 19th century, in decisions in which indigenous peoples were not a party. Significant aboriginal title litigation resulting in victories for indigenous peoples did not arise until recent decades; the majority of court cases have been litigated in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the United States. Aboriginal title is an important area of comparative law, with many cases being cited as persuasive authority across jurisdictions.
Many commentators believe. Aboriginal title is referred to as indigenous title, native title, original Indian title, customary title. Aboriginal title jurisprudence is related to indigenous rights and influenced by non-land issues, such as whether the government owes a fiduciary duty to indigenous peoples. While the judge-made doctrine arises from customary international law, it has been codified nationally by legislation and constitutions. Aboriginal title arose at the intersection of three common law doctrines articulated by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council: the Act of State doctrine, the Doctrine of Continuity, the Recognition Doctrine; the Act of State doctrine held that the Crown could confiscate or extinguish real or personal property rights in the process of conquering, without scrutiny from any British court, but could not perpetrate an Act of State against its own subjects. The Doctrine of Continuity presumed that the Crown did not intend to extinguish private property upon acquiring sovereignty, thus that pre-existing interests were enforceable under British law.
Its mirror was the Recognition Doctrine, which held that private property rights were presumed to be extinguished in the absence of explicit recognition. In 1608, the same year in which the Doctrine of Continuity emerged, Edward Coke delivered a famous dictum in Calvin's Case that the laws of all non-Christians would be abrogated upon their conquest. Coke's view was not put into practice, but was rejected by Lord Mansfield in 1774; the two doctrines were reconciled, with the Doctrine of Continuity prevailing in nearly all situations in Oyekan v Adele. The first Indigenous land rights case under the common law, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut, was litigated from 1705 to 1773, with the Privy Council affirming without opinion the judgement of a non-judicial tribunal. Other important Privy Council decisions include In re Southern Rhodesia and Amodu Tijani v. Southern Nigeria; the former rejected a claim for aboriginal title, noting that: Some tribes are so low in the scale of social organization that their usages and conceptions of rights and duties are not to be reconciled with the institutions or the legal ideas of civilized society.
Such a gulf cannot be bridged. Two years Amodu Tijani laid the basis for several elements of the modern aboriginal title doctrine, upholding a customary land claim and urging the need to "study of the history of the particular community and its usages in each case." Subsequently, the Privy Council issued many opinions confirming the existence of aboriginal title, upholding customary land claims. Modern decisions have heaped criticism upon the views expressed in Southern Rhodesia; the requirements for establishing an aboriginal title to the land vary across countries, but speaking, the aboriginal claimant must establish occupation from a long time ago before the assertion of sovereignty, continuity to the present day. Aboriginal title does not constitute allodial title or radical title in any jurisdiction. Instead, its content is described as a usufruct, i.e. a right to use, although in practice this may mean anything from a right to use land for specific, enumerated purposes, or a general right to use which approximate fee simple.
It is common ground among the relevant jurisdictions that aboriginal title is inalienable, in the sense that it cannot be transferred except to the general government —although Malaysia allows aboriginal title to be sold between indigenous peoples, unless contrary to customary law. In Australia, the content of aboriginal title varies with the degree to which claimants are able to satisfy the standard of proof for recognition. In particular, the content of aboriginal title may be tied to the traditions and customs of the indigenous peoples, only accommodate growth and change to a limited extent. Aboriginal title can be extinguished by the general government, but again, the requirement to do this varies by country; some require the legislature to be explicit when it does this, others hold that extinguishment can be inferred from the government's treatment of the land. In Canada, the Crown cannot extinguish aboriginal title without the explicit prior informed consent of the proper aboriginal title holders.
New Zealand required consent, but today requires only a justification, akin to a public purpose requirement. Jurisdict
The Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben is a geological structure that coincides with a 55 km wide topographic depression extending from near Montréal through Ottawa. It is part of the St. Lawrence rift system that includes the seismically active Saguenay graben; this rift valley was formed when the Earth's crust moved downward about a kilometre between two major fault zones known as the Mattawa and Petawawa faults. The length of the graben is about 700 km; the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben runs from the Montreal area on the east to near Sudbury and Lake Nipissing on the west. On the east, it joins the Saint Lawrence rift system, a half-graben which extends more than 1000 km along the Saint Lawrence River valley and links the Ottawa and Saguenay Graben; the 200 km segment of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben west of Ottawa was the first to be recognized as a graben. Since it has been traced west to Lake Nipissing, northwestwards from the confluence of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers up the valley of the latter stream to Lake Timiskaming and the Montreal River valley.
This latter branch is the Timiskaming Graben. At the rifts' western termini, the main faults split into divergent smaller faults; the graben has been interpreted as a Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic failed arm of the Iapetus Ocean, the precursor to the Atlantic Ocean. The main Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben is associated with collapse of the regional carbonate platform and formation of deep water shale basins by ~452 mya; these grabens were reactivated during the breakup of supercontinent Pangaea some 150 mya. Since the Late Proterozoic to Early Paleozoic, erosion has removed the volcanic peaks, exposing a number of relic volcanic pipes, such as Callander Bay and the Manitou Islands in Lake Nipissing; these features are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. Batholiths and dikes were exposed by erosion, such as the Timber Lake, West Arm and Bonfield batholiths; the expressions of a thick pile of dominantly mafic, bimodal volcanics and the Tibbit Hill volcanics in the Humber Zone of the Quebec Appalachians are believed to be related to the formation of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben.
The precise age of these volcanics is unknown but they are either early Cambrian and late Precambrian. This volcanism was coeval with the emplacement of the Grenville dike swarm. Minor but significant igneous activity occurred during the Mesozoic era, including kimberlite emplacement during the Jurassic period, the development of alkalic intrusions along the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben and elsewhere in Ontario; this second episode of alkalic volcanism occurred along the eastern part of the graben in the early Cretaceous. The products of this event are the Monteregian Hills in Quebec; these are thought to have formed as a result of the North American Plate sliding westward over a long-lived center of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot, is the eroded remnants of intrusive stocks. These intrusive stocks have been variously interpreted as the feeder intrusions of long extinct volcanoes, which would have been active about 125 million years ago, or as intrusives that never breached the surface in volcanic activity.
Of all these features, Mont Saint-Hilaire is the best known as a source of rare specimens. Along the northern side of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben lies a dramatic escarpment that forms the southern edge of the Gatineau Hills; this escarpment, called the Eardley Escarpment, makes this part of the graben an attractive location for rock climbers and hikers, offering a beautiful view of the flat fields below, which extend to the Ottawa River. On or near a branch of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben lies the Brent impact crater, it is 3.8 km in diameter and the age is estimated about 400 million years. The impact crater, first recognized in 1951 from aerial photographs, formed in Precambrian gneisses. Geophysical and diamond drilling investigations show that the crater has a present depth of about 425 m but is filled with sedimentary rocks with a thickness of about 274 m; the rocks beneath the crater floor are fragmented over a depth of about 610 m. Like the similar Pingualuit crater, the Brent crater is attributed to the high speed impact of a giant meteorite.
It is calculated that the impact released energy equaling 250 megatons of TNT and occurred when this area was covered by a shallow sea. The depressions formed by the graben across the rugged Canadian Shield were a spillway for the Great Lakes after the last Ice Age, they became a thoroughfare for exploration and trade. These depressions now contain the Ottawa River and its tributary the Mattawa, which rises at Trout Lake near Lake Nipissing; the latter is the source of the French River. This water route, with few portages, connected Lake Huron and the Saint Lawrence River by a much shorter route than through the lower Great Lakes, it was the mainline of the French-Canadian voyageurs engaged in the fur trade. The valley of the Ottawa and Montreal Rivers and Lake Timiskaming was part of a branch route to James Bay in the days of the fur brigades; the valleys are now used by more modern forms of transportation, including the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Trans-Canada Highway. After the arrival of European settlers in North America, the Mattawa River was an important transportation corridor for native peoples of the region and formed part of the
The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur
Ottawa River timber trade
The Ottawa River timber trade known as the Ottawa Valley timber trade or Ottawa River lumber trade, was the nineteenth century production of wood products by Canada on areas of the Ottawa River destined for British and American markets. It was the major industry of the historical colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada and it created an entrepreneur known as a lumber baron; the trade in squared timber and sawed lumber led to population growth and prosperity to communities in the Ottawa Valley the city of Bytown. The product was white pine; the industry lasted until around 1900 as both supplies decreased. The industry came about following Napoleon's 1806 Continental Blockade in Europe causing the United Kingdom to require a new source for timber for its navy and shipbuilding; the U. K.'s application of increasing preferential tariffs increased Canadian imports. The first part of the industry, the trade in squared timber lasted until about the 1850s; the transportation for the raw timber was first by means of floating down the Ottawa River, proved possible in 1806 by Philemon Wright.
Squared timber would be assembled into large rafts which held living quarters for men on their six week journey to Quebec City, which had large exporting facilities and easy access to the Atlantic Ocean. The second part of the industry involved the trade of sawed lumber, the American lumber barons and lasted chiefly from about 1850 to 1900-1910; the Reciprocity Treaty caused a shift to American markets. The source of timber in Britain changed, where its access to timber in the Baltic region was restored, it no longer provided the protective tariffs. Entrepreneurs in the United States at that time began to build their operations near the Ottawa River, creating some of the world's largest sawmills at the time; these men, known as lumber barons, with names such as John Rudolphus Booth and Henry Franklin Bronson created mills which contributed to the prosperity and growth of Ottawa. The sawed lumber industry benefited from transportation improvements, first the Rideau Canal linking Ottawa with Kingston, Ontario on Lake Ontario, much railways that began to be created between Canadian cities.
Shortly after 1900, the last raft went down the Ottawa River. Supplies of pine were dwindling and there was a decreased demand. By this time, the United Kingdom was able to resume its supply from the Baltic Region and their policies the reduction in protectionism of their colonies led to a decrease in markets in the U. K. Shipbuilding turned towards steel. Before 1950 many operations began to discontinue, many mills were removed and the spoiled land began to be restored in Urban Renewal policies in Ottawa; the industry had contributed to population increases and economic growth of Ontario and Quebec. Upper and Lower Canada's major industry in terms of employment and value of the product was the timber trade; the largest supplier of square red and white pine to the British market originated from the Ottawa River and the Ottawa Valley had "rich red and white pine forests" Bytown, was a major lumber and sawmill centre of Canada. In 1806, Napoleon ordered a blockade to European ports, blocking Britain's access to timber required for the navy from the Baltic Sea.
The British naval shipyards were in need of lumber. British tariff concessions fostered the growth of the Canadian timber trade; the British government instituted the tariff on the importation of foreign timber in 1795 in need of alternate sources for its navy and to promote the industry in its North American colonies. The "Colonial Preference" was first 10 shillings per load, increasing to 25 in 1805 and after Napoleon's blockade ended, it was increased to 65 in 1814. In 1821 the tariff was reduced to 55 shillings and was abolished in 1842; the United Kingdom resumed its trade in Baltic timber. The change in Britain's tariff preferences was a result of Britain moving to Free Trade in 1840; the 1840s saw a gradual move from protectionism in Great BritainWhen the Ottawa River first began to be used for floating timber en route to markets, squared timber was the preference by the British for resawing, it "became the main export". Britain imported 15,000 loads of timber from Canada in 1805, from the colonies, 30,000 in 1807, nearly 300,000 in 1820.
The reciprocity treaty of 1854 allowed for duty-free export of Ottawa Valley's lumber into the United States. Both the market was changing, as well as the entrepreneurs running the businesses. An American September 30, 1869 statement showed that lumber was, by far Canada's biggest export to the U. S. Here are the top 3: lumber: 424,232,087 feet, $4,761,357. Iron, pig: 26,881 do, $536,662 sheep: 228,914, $524,639 Also in 1869, about a third of the lumber manufactured at Ottawa was shipped to foreign countries, the area employed 6000 men in cutting and rafting logs, about 5,500 in the preparation of squared timber for European markets, about 5,000 at the mills in Ottawa. Somewhere between 1848 and 1861, a large increase in the number of sawmills in "the town" had occurred: 1845: 601 houses and 3 saw mills 1848: 1019 houses and 2 saw mills 1861: 2104 dwellings and 12 saw millsHere is the production of some companies in 1873, M feet of lumber and number of employees and their 1875 address listed, where available.
J. R. Booth, 40, 400, Albert Island, Chaudier Bronsons & Weston, 40, 400, Victoria Island Gilmour & Co. 40, 500-1000, 22 Bank E. B. Eddy, 40, 1700 Perley
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Hydrologically, it comprises the easterly portion of Lake Michigan–Huron, having the same surface elevation as its westerly counterpart, to which it is connected by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, it is shared on the north and east by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south and west by the state of Michigan in the United States. The name of the lake is derived from early French explorers who named it for the Huron people inhabiting the region; the Huronian glaciation was named due to evidence collected from Lake Huron region. The northern parts of the lake include the North Georgian Bay. Across the lake to the southwest is Saginaw Bay; the main inlet is the St. Marys River, the main outlet is the St. Clair River. By surface area, Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 23,007 square miles — of which 9,103 square miles lies in Michigan. By volume however, Lake Huron is only the third largest of the Great Lakes, being surpassed by Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.
When measured at the low water datum, the lake contains a volume of 850 cubic miles and a shoreline length of 3,827 mi. The surface of Lake Huron is 577 feet above sea level; the lake's average depth is 32 fathoms 3 feet. It has a greatest breadth of 183 statute miles. Cities with over 10,000 people on Lake Huron include Sarnia, the largest city on Lake Huron, Saugeen Shores in Canada and Bay City, Port Huron, Alpena in the United States. A large bay that protrudes northeast from Lake Huron into Ontario, Canada, is called Georgian Bay. A notable feature of the lake is Manitoulin Island, which separates the North Channel and Georgian Bay from Lake Huron's main body of water, it is the world's largest lake island. Major centres on Georgian Bay include Owen Sound, Wasaga Beach, Midland, Port Severn and Parry Sound. A smaller bay that protrudes southwest from Lake Huron into Michigan is called Saginaw Bay. Historic High Water The lake fluctuates from month to month with the highest lake levels in October and November.
The normal high-water mark is 2.00 feet above datum. In the summer of 1986, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their highest level at 5.92 feet above datum. The high-water records began in February 1986 and lasted through the year, ending with January 1987. Water levels ranged from 3.67 to 5.92 feet above Chart Datum. Historic Low Water Lake levels tend to be the lowest in winter; the normal low-water mark is 1.00 foot below datum. In the winter of 1964, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their lowest level at 1.38 feet below datum. As with the high-water records, monthly low-water records were set each month from February 1964 through January 1965. During this twelve-month period, water levels ranged from 1.38 to 0.71 feet below Chart Datum. The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Lake Huron has the largest shore line length of any of the Great Lakes, counting its 30,000 islands. Lake Huron is separated from Lake Michigan, which lies at the same level, by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, making them hydrologically the same body of water.
Aggregated, Lake Huron-Michigan, at 45,300 square miles, "is technically the world's largest freshwater lake." When counted separately, Lake Superior is 8,700 square miles higher. Lake Superior drains into the St. Marys River which flows southward into Lake Huron; the water flows south to the St. Clair River, at Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario; the Great Lakes Waterway continues thence to Lake St. Clair. Like the other Great Lakes, it was formed by melting ice as the continental glaciers retreated toward the end of the last ice age. Before this, Lake Huron was a low-lying depression through which flowed the now-buried Laurentian and Huronian Rivers; the Alpena-Amberley Ridge is an ancient ridge beneath the surface of Lake Huron, running between Alpena and Point Clark, Ontario. About 9,000 years ago, when water levels in Lake Huron were about 100 m below today's levels, the ridge was exposed and the land bridge was used as a migration route for large herds of caribou. Since 2008, archaeologists have discovered at least 60 stone constructions along the submerged ridge that are thought to have been used as hunting blinds by Paleo-Indians.
The extent of development among Eastern Woodlands Native American societies on the eve of European contact is indicated by the archaeological evidence of a town on or near Lake Huron that contained more than one hundred large structures housing a total population of between 4,000 and 6,000. The French, the first European visitors to the region referred to Lake Huron as La Mer Douce, "the fresh-water sea". In 1656, a map by French cartographer Nicolas Sanson