Ottokar I was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192 acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick II. He was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty. Ottokar's parents were Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia, Judith of Thuringia, his early years were passed amid the anarchy. After several military struggles, he was recognized as ruler of Bohemia by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in 1192, he was, soon overthrown for joining a conspiracy of German princes to bring down the Hohenstaufen dynasty. In 1197, Ottokar forced his brother, Duke Vladislaus III Henry, to abandon Bohemia to him and to content himself with Moravia. Taking advantage of the civil war in Germany between the Hohenstaufen claimant Philip of Swabia and the Welf candidate Otto IV, Ottokar declared himself King of Bohemia in 1198, being crowned in Mainz; this title was supported by Philip of Swabia. In 1199, Ottokar divorced his wife Adelheid of Meissen, a member of the Wettin dynasty, to marry Constance of Hungary, the young daughter of Hungarian King Béla III.
In 1200, with Otto IV in the ascendancy, Ottokar abandoned his pact with Philip of Swabia and declared for the Welf faction. Otto IV and Pope Innocent III subsequently accepted Ottokar as the hereditary King of Bohemia. Ottokar was forced back into Philip's camp by the imperial declaration of a new duke of Bohemia, Děpolt III. Subject to his recognition as duke, Ottokar had to allow his divorced wife to return to Bohemia. Having been completed this condition, he again ranged himself among Philip's partisans and still was among the supporters of the young King Frederick II. In 1212 Frederick granted the Golden Bull of Sicily to Bohemia; this document recognised his heirs as Kings of Bohemia. The king was no longer subject to appointment by the emperor and was only required to attend Diets close to the Bohemian border. Although a subject of the Holy Roman Empire, the Bohemian king was to be the leading electoral prince of the Holy Roman Empire and to furnish all subsequent emperors with a bodyguard of 300 knights when they went to Rome for their coronation.
Ottokar's reign was notable for the start of German immigration into Bohemia and the growth of towns in what had until that point been forest lands. In 1226, Ottokar went to war against Duke Leopold VI of Austria after the latter wrecked a deal that would have seen Ottokar's daughter married to Frederick II's son Henry II of Sicily. Ottokar planned for the same daughter to marry Henry III of England, but this was vetoed by the emperor, who knew Henry to be an opponent of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; the widowed emperor himself wanted to marry Agnes, but by she did not want to play a role in an arranged marriage. With the help of the pope, she entered a convent. Ottokar was married first in 1178 to Adelheid of Meissen, who gave birth to the following children: Vratislav of Bohemia. Dagmar of Bohemia, married to King Valdemar II of Denmark. Božislava of Bohemia, married to Count Henry I of Ortenberg. Hedvika of Bohemia, became a nun in Gernrode. In 1199, he married secondly to Constance of Hungary, who gave birth to the following children: Vratislav of Bohemia.
Judith of Bohemia, married to Duke of Carinthia. Anne of Bohemia, married to Henry II the Pious, High Duke of Poland. Anežka of Bohemia, died young. Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, became King of Bohemia. Vladislaus of Bohemia, Margrave of Moravia. Přemyslid of Bohemia, Margrave of Moravia, married to Margaret of Merania, daughter of Otto I, Duke of Merania. Wilhelmina of Bohemia Saint Agnes of Bohemia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ottakar I.". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 367–368. Berend, Nora. Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia and Poland, c.900–c.1300. Cambridge University Press. Bradbury, Jim; the Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge. France, John; the Crusades and the Expansion of Catholic Christendom, 1000–1714. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134196180. Lyon, Jonathan R.. Princely Brothers and Sisters: The Sibling Bond in German Politics, 1100-1250. Cornell University Press. Merinsky, Zdenek. "The making of the Czech state: Bohemia and Moravia from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries".
In Teich, Mikulas. Bohemia in History. Cambridge University Press. Wihoda, Martin. Vladislaus Henry: The Formation of Moravian Identity. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004303836
Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge was a Dutch diplomat and entomologist. Lansberge studied at the gymnasium in Zutphen from 1848–1854, at the University of Leiden, he held various diplomatic posts in Paris, Saint Petersburg and Brussels. From 1875 to 1881 he was Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, he was the first to reside in the Palace of the Governor General building, the present State Palace of Indonesia. Johan van Lansberge was a keen naturalist interested in entomology. Media related to Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge at Wikimedia Commons
Sam Greatorex Aryeetey is a Ghanaian film producer, film director and writer. He is credited as the director of the first Ghanaian feature film, No Tears for Ananse. Sam Aryeetey was born August 1929 in Accra, he was educated at Accra Methodist Boys' Achimota School. Among the first students at an Accra film training school for West Africans established by the Colonial Film Unit in 1948, Aryeetey joined the new Gold Coast Film Unit under Sean Graham. In 1952 he moved to work as an editor in England. In 1963 Aryeetey returned to Ghana to work for the Ghana Film Industry Corporation. No Tears for Ananse and directed by Aryeetey, was the first GFIC production, it was based on a story about the trickster Ananse. In 1969 Aryeetey became Managing Director of the GIFC. Manthia Diawara has argued that, by choosing to employ Europeans rather than Africans to “make films for Ghana”, Aryeetey “set back the progress of film production in Ghana to where it had been when the Colonial Film Unit left”. I Will Speak English, 1954 Mr. Mensah Builds a House, 1955 The Welfare of Youth, Editor Sporting Life, 1958 Hamile the Tongo Hamlet, 1964 No Tears for Ananse, 1965 or 1968 The African Deal, 1973 ‘’Harvest of Love’’, 1984 ‘’Other Side of Town’’, 1986 ‘’Home at Last’’, 1996 Sam Aryeetey on IMDb Sam Aryeetey at the British Film Institute
Franco Maria Ricci is an Italian art publisher and magazine editor. Amongst his publications is FMR, a Milan-based bi-monthly art magazine published in Italian, German and Spanish for over 27 years. Ricci is known for creating limited editions honoring particular independent artists, which are characterized by their tinted handmade paper, black silk-bound hardcovers with silver or gold lettering stamping, he sold his publishing house, Ricci Editore, to Marilena Ferrari in 2007 only to regain control in 2015. The first issue of FMR was published in 1982. FMR stood for the publisher's initials that once pronounced in French, it appeared to read ephémère. Praised by critics as "the most beautiful magazine in the world", it was a paragon for perfection, presenting noteworthy iconological and art historical studies without being pedantic. Known for its magnificent, large photographs, exquisite drawings, faithfully reproduced on a black background, the magazine captured many high-profile admirers, including director Federico Fellini who used to call it the "black pearl" and Jacqueline Kennedy, who defined it "the most beautiful magazine in the world".
In December 2002, after twenty years from the release of the first issue, Ricci sold the magazine to Marilena Ferrari's company Art'é to focus on his old ambition to build the largest maze in the world in Fontanellato. In 2003 art critic and curator Flaminio Gualdoni replaced Ricci as editor of the magazine. In 2007 FMR was augmented by a sister publication devoted to contemporary art. Over the years the two publications featured many notable contributors, including Alberto Arbasino, Peter Bloch, Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, Umberto Eco, Giovanni Mariotti, Octavio Paz, Nicola Spinosa and Giovanni Testori. Both FMR and FMR White ceased publication in 2009. In 2015, after completing the seven-hectares wide maze featuring an art museum and a library, Ricci bought back the copyrights of FMR with the potential intent to resume publication. Ricci is known for publishing the original edition of the Codex Seraphinianus and some of Guido Crepax's books. Official website Ricci editore Designboom portrait Designboom interview
Carcieri v. Salazar, 555 U. S. 379, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the federal government could not take land into trust, acquired by the Narragansett Tribe in the late 20th century, as it was not federally recognized until 1983. While well documented in historic records and surviving as a community, the tribe was dispossessed of its lands while under guardianship by the state of Rhode Island before suing in the 20th century; the Court ruled that the phrase of tribes "now under Federal jurisdiction" in the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 referred only to those tribes that were federally recognized when the act was passed. It ruled that the federal government could not take land into trust for the Narragansett or other tribes that were federally recognized and acquired land after 1934; the Narragansett tribe was recorded as having first contact by Europeans in 1524 at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Following King Philip's War, when the English settlers attacked tribes across southern New England, the tribe absorbed several smaller tribes, such as the Niantic.
In 1709 it came under the guardianship of the colony of Rhode Island. From 1880 to 1884, Rhode Island attempted to dissolve the tribe, selling off all but 2 acres of tribal communal land; the tribe resisted, requesting to be dealt with as a tribe. It filed suit against the state in January 1975. In the resulting settlement, Rhode Island placed 1,800 acres of land into trust for the tribe, with the condition that, with the exception of hunting and fishing regulations, state law would apply on the land. Following this, the tribe applied for federal recognition in 1979, granted in 1983. At that time, its land was taken into trust by the federal government on the tribe's behalf; the tribe and the state have disagreed on a number of issues, including the collection of taxes on cigarettes sold at a reservation smoke shop and the proposed building of a gaming casino on reservation land. In 1991, the tribe purchased 31 acres to be used for housing for elderly tribal members, petitioned the Secretary of the Interior to take the land into trust as provided for under the Indian Reorganization Act, thus removing it from state jurisdiction.
In March 1998, the Bureau of Indian Affairs notified Rhode Island of its intent to take the 31-acre parcel into Federal Trust status. The state appealed this decision to the Interior Board of Indian Appeals, which ruled in favor of the tribe and the BIA; the state filed suit in U. S. District Court, with the governor of the state, Donald Carcieri, named as plaintiff, the Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, named as defendant; the District Court ruled in favor of the tribe. Rhode Island appealed the District Court decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. A three-judge panel affirmed the summary judgment of the District Court; the state requested a rehearing en banc by the full court, granted. On rehearing, the full court affirmed the decision of the District Court; the state appealed to the Supreme Court. Justice Clarence Thomas delivered the opinion of the court, reversing the judgment of the First Circuit. Thomas determined that the authority of the BIA to take Indian land into a trust status hinged on the phrase "now under Federal jurisdiction" in 25 U.
S. C. § 479. Using rules of statutory construction, he determined that this phrase limited the BIA to take Indian Land into trust only if the tribe was federally recognized in 1934 at the time of the law's enactment; this holding excluded the Narrangansett tribe from transferring land to the BIA as trust lands, since the tribe was not federally recognized until 1983. Justice Stephen Breyer issued a concurring opinion, joined by Justice David Souter, he argued that the majority opinion was correct, but due to the legislative history of the bill, not based on statutory construction. Breyer allowed that if a tribe was not formally recognized in 1934, they could still be under federal jurisdiction due to an earlier treaty or agreement. Justice Souter issued an opinion that concurred in part and dissented in part, joined by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Souter argued that the notion of under federal jurisdiction and being federally recognized were not one and the same if, how the BIA and the tribe both understood it.
He would have remanded for a determination of the jurisdictional issue. Justice John P. Stevens dissented, arguing that "now" meant "at the time the land was turned over to the BIA," and would have affirmed the lower court's decision; the decision caused an immediate reaction in both the legal communities. The American Bar Association newsletter pointed out possible adverse consequences for Indian gaming and tribal sovereignty. Many tribes have achieved federal recognition since 1934 since the late 20th century, as a result of renewed activism and assertion of their cultures. Activists worked to "fix" the decision by Congressional legislative action in order to allow the BIA to continue to take Indian lands into trust. United States Senate bill S.676 was scheduled to be taken up before the end of the 112th Congress to amend language in the Indian Reorganization Act. If enacted into law, the changes would allow the BIA to take lands into trust on behalf of tribes recognized after 1934. Elected officials in states with existing Indian gaming operations and tribes recognized prior to 1934 oppose such legislation, as they believe it will lead to more gaming activity on newly acquired land by more recognized tribes.
Additionally, in 2009 17 state attorneys general wrote a legal opinion opposing such legislation. On June 19
Paul Linton Patterson was an American Republican politician. A native of Ohio, he served in World War I before becoming an attorney in Oregon, he served as President of the Oregon State Senate and the 26th Governor of Oregon, dying in office. Patterson was born on July 1900, in Kent, Ohio, his father was George A. Patterson, at the time attending college in Ohio, Paul's mother was Ada Linton Patterson. After completing college, George became a Congregationalist minister, moved the family to Portland, Oregon, in 1908. In his first job, young Paul would work as a newsboy on the streets of Portland working up to his own paper route, he completed a graduate of Portland's Washington High School. Patterson served in the U. S. Army during the First World War in the artillery. After the war, Patterson enrolled in the University of Oregon, first earning his B. A. in business administration a Juris Doctor. While in college, he met the daughter of a prominent Portland family, they would marry on May 16, 1927, would have three children.
After graduating, Patterson passed the State Bar and set up a law firm in Hillsboro, Oregon, in 1926. He would remain involved in this private practice until 1952; the law firm would launch Patterson's political career, starting with a position as the Deputy District Attorney of Washington County from 1926 until 1933. After serving in this capacity, he went on to serve as the city attorney for Hillsboro, Gaston and Tualatin; such service gained. He chaired the Washington County Republican Party up to 1944; this is when he noticed an open local seat in the Oregon State Senate which had no candidates for office. He agreed winning in the November 1944 election, he would hold his Senate seat from 1945 until the last year as President of the Senate. Governor Douglas McKay resigned in 1952 to accept President Eisenhower's appointment as U. S. Secretary of the Interior. At this time, Patterson, as president of the Senate, was next in line for the governorship, he was sworn in as Oregon's 26th governor on December 27, 1952.
Governor Patterson proved to be popular. He won the Republican gubernatorial nomination and election in his own right in 1954; as with his other Republican contemporaries, he was fiscally conservative, but accepted federal money for unemployment aid, transportation projects, water management programs. He supported the state's transportation infrastructure, encouraged the development of the state freeway system. No increases in funding or expansion of social programs were proposed under his leadership. An enduring legacy of Governor Paul Patterson is his opposition to a state sales tax without a popular vote. Any move to legislatively implement a sales tax has been met with major opposition since his administration. Inside his own party, he was looked upon favorably by both the local interests. Patterson had the backing of Portland's influential Arlington Club, some of whose most powerful members assisted his election campaigns. Republicans hoped to pick up Senator Wayne Morse's seat in the 1956 election, considered the popular governor as the party's best chance.
Patterson announced his candidacy January 1956, at a time when his popularity was highest. Three days after his first campaign speech, Patterson collapsed during a meeting with campaign advisers at the Arlington Club in Portland on January 31, 1956, he was reported as slumping over in his chair. When examined, it was determined; the deceased governor was provided a state funeral on February 3, 1956. Patterson’s ashes were interred at River View Cemetery in Portland. President of the Senate Elmo Smith was sworn in to succeed Patterson as governor. Klooster, Karl. Round the Roses II: More Past Portland Perspectives, pg. 136, 1992 ISBN 0-9619847-1-6 Oregon State Archives: Patterson Administration-Photo, bio and some public speeches of Governor Paul L. Patterson