Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. A person may have multiple citizenships. A person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless, while one who lives on state borders whose territorial status is uncertain is a border-lander. Nationality is used as a synonym for citizenship in English – notably in international law – although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person's membership of a nation. In some countries, e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom and citizenship can have different meanings. Each country has its own policies and criteria as to, entitled to its citizenship. A person can be granted citizenship on a number of bases. Citizenship based on circumstances of birth is automatic, but in other cases an application may be required. Citizenship by birth. If one or both of a person's parents are citizens of a given state the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well.
This might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity and is related to the concept of a nation state common in Europe. Where jus sanguinis holds, a person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is a citizen. States limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state, although some do not; this form of citizenship is common in civil law countries. Born within a country; some people are automatically citizens of the state. This form of citizenship originated in England where those who were born within the realm were subjects of the monarch and is common in common law countries. In many cases, both jus soli and jus sanguinis hold citizenship either by parentage. Citizenship by marriage. Many countries fast-track naturalization based on the marriage of a person to a citizen. Countries which are destinations for such immigration have regulations to try to detect sham marriages, where a citizen marries a non-citizen for payment, without them having the intention of living together.
Naturalization. States grant citizenship to people who have entered the country and been granted permit to stay, or been granted political asylum, lived there for a specified period. In some countries, naturalization is subject to conditions which may include passing a test demonstrating reasonable knowledge of the language or way of life of the host country, good conduct and moral character, vowing allegiance to their new state or its ruler and renouncing their prior citizenship; some states allow dual citizenship and do not require naturalized citizens to formally renounce any other citizenship. Citizenship by investment or Economic Citizenship. Wealthy people invest money in property or businesses, buy government bonds or donate cash directly, in exchange for citizenship and a passport. Whilst legitimate and limited in quota, the schemes are controversial. Costs for citizenship by investment range from as little as $100,000 to as much as €2.5m Excluded categories. In the past there have been exclusions on entitlement to citizenship on grounds such as skin color, ethnicity and free status.
Most of these exclusions no longer apply in most places. Modern examples include some Arab countries which grant citizenship to non-Muslims, e.g. Qatar is known for granting citizenship to foreign athletes, but they all have to profess the Islamic faith in order to receive citizenship; the United States grants citizenship to those born as a result of reproductive technologies, internationally adopted children born after February 27, 1983. Some exclusions still persist for internationally adopted children born before February 27, 1983 though their parents meet citizenship criteria. Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greece, although others see it as a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws. Polis meant both the political assembly of the city-state as well as the entire society. Citizenship has been identified as a western phenomenon. There is a general view that citizenship in ancient times was a simpler relation than modern forms of citizenship, although this view has come under scrutiny.
The relation of citizenship has not been a fixed or static relation, but changed within each society, that according to one view, citizenship might "really have worked" only at select periods during certain times, such as when the Athenian politician Solon made reforms in the early Athenian state. Historian Geoffrey Hosking in his 2005 Modern Scholar lecture course suggested that citizenship in ancient Greece arose from an appreciation for the importance of freedom. Hosking explained: It can be argued that this growth of slavery was what made Greeks conscious of the value of freedom. After all, any Greek farmer might fall into debt and therefore might become a slave, at any time... When the Greeks fought together, they fought in order to avoid being enslaved by warfare, to avoid being defeated by those who might take them into slavery, and they arranged their political institutions so as to remain free men. Slavery permitted sla
Andreas Peter Bernstorff
Andreas Peter Bernstorff known as Andreas Peter Graf von Bernstorff, was a Danish diplomat and Foreign Minister. He was a guardian of political liberty. Bernstorff was born in Hanover as a nephew of the statesman Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff, whose position introduced him to Danish politics, his uncle induced him to study in the German and Swiss universities and travel for some years in Italy, France and Holland, to prepare himself for a statesman’s career. During these years he made the acquaintance of the poets Gellert and Jacobi, the writer Jean-Jacques Barthélemy, the duc de Choiseul, Gottfried Achenwall, the statistician. After his European tour, he joined the Danish state service, first as a courtier and from 1760 as a state official, both in foreign political and financial matters, his career was steady. During the 1760s, he placed himself as an able but not outstanding official connected to his uncle. In the Struensee years from 1770–71, he was dismissed, but soon he was recalled by the new regime of Ove Høegh-Guldberg.
He worked at first in the financial and economical departments, took a special interest in agriculture. The improvements he introduced in the tenures of his peasantry anticipated in some respects the agricultural reforms of the next generation. In 1773, Bernstorff was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and his real Danish career began, he carried through the final solution of the Gottorp question through an exchange of territory with the Russian imperial family and a Russian alliance. In general he supported a pro-Russian line trying to hold Sweden in check. Since he saw Sweden as "Denmark-Norway's most active and irreconcilable enemy" and France as a Swedish ally, he avoided any conflict with England, seen as France's adversary, he created an outstanding position for himself but made many enemies within the government. This was due to his alleged willfulness and due to political rivalry; the difficult years during the American War of Independence strengthened his wishes of an "active neutrality".
His sympathy with England grew stronger. But he was overruled by the Crown Prince Frederick, who thought such a policy too hazardous, when Russia declined to have anything to do with it. In 1780 he concluded a League of Neutrality with Russia and Sweden, a great foreign political triumph. At the same time he concluded a special agreement with England. A deep but temporary Russian dissatisfaction with the treaty, was exploited by his Danish rivals, in November 1780, he was dismissed by Guldberg. Bernstorff kept in the background in 1780-84 as an interested observer of the political situation, but he still enjoyed support in Copenhagen merchant circles and did not give up his political ambitions. Early, he was connected to Crown Prince Frederick and became a part of the conspiracy against Guldberg, he supported the coup d'état of 1784. Bernstorff was for second time made Minister of Foreign Affairs in May 1784, that opened his real golden age; until his death, he was in reality “prime minister” of Denmark, the leading man of the cabinet by whose advice the Prince Regent was guided.
He was temporarily the President of Danish Chancellery in 1788-89. In Scandinavian matters, Bernstorff carried on a cautious pro-Russian policy without clashing with Sweden; the Russo-Swedish War in 1787-90 led to an abortive Danish involvement in 1788, he managed to escape without any open breaks. During the next years he phased out the Russian alliance and tried to improve relations to Sweden. Bernstorff's most important problem in this period was the French Revolution and the wars in its wake, he maintained a neutral line and showed his special virtuosity in balancing the great powers in order to protect Danish trade. He kept to international law but avoided provocation, his diplomacy was strong but not rigid, he maintained the economic position of the Danish merchants and in spite of problems with both France and England. All the while, he made his course respected. Among other things, he avoided a politics of convoy while he refused to take any part in the intervention in France; this was due to his principally neutral line but partly to his growing respect of national integrity.
Bernstorff was of course a foreign politician, but because of his leading role he influenced domestic politics. Early on he was known as a supporter of independent farmers and of the great agrarian reforms and other reform laws of the 1790s. A loyal supporter of Danish absolutism, he was, however, in many ways a liberal by nature and the relative freedom of the press of this period was due to his wishes, his sympathies toward England and English political conditions—quite contrary to those of his uncle—influenced him. His cultural interests were great but he did not much influence them to any extent. Bernstorff is still considered one of the great Danish statesmen of the 18th century overshadowing his uncle. To his contemporaries his early death was felt as a great misfortune – though it is impossible to decide whether he would have been able to maintain his political line. Being characterised a hot-tempered and cantankerous official as a young man, he emerged as a brilliant and adroit man of
Johann Friedrich Struensee
Johann Friedrich, Greve Struensee was a German doctor. He became royal physician to the mentally ill King Christian VII of Denmark and a minister in the Danish government, he rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda caused a scandal after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death. Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August 1737, Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee, Pfarrer in Halle an der Saale in 1732, "Dr. theol. von Halle" in 1757, pastor in Altona between 1757 and 1760, "Kgl. Generalsuperintendant von Schleswig und Holstein" between 1760 and 1791, his wife Maria Dorothea Carl, a respectable middle-class family that believed in religious tolerance. Three of the Struensee sons went to University. Johann Friedrich entered the University of Halle on 5 August 1752 at the age of fifteen where he studied Medicine, graduated as a Doctor in Medicine on 12 December 1757.
The university exposed him to Age of Enlightenment ideals, social and political critique and reform. He supported these new ideas, becoming a proponent of atheism, the writings of Claude Adrien Helvétius, other French materialists; when Adam and Maria Dorothea Struensee moved to Altona in 1758, where the elder Struensee became pastor of Trinitatiskirche, Johann Friedrich moved with them. He was soon employed as a public doctor in Altona, in the estate of Count Rantzau, in the Pinneberg District, his wages were meager, he expected to supplement them with private practice. His parents moved to Rendsburg in 1760 where Adam Struensee became first superintendent for the duchy, subsequently superintendent-general of Schleswig-Holstein. Johann Struensee, now 23 years old, had to set up his own household for the first time, his lifestyle expectations were not matched by his economics. His superior intelligence and elegant manners, soon made him fashionable in the better circles, he entertained his contemporaries with his controversial opinions.
He was ambitious, petitioned the Dano-Norwegian government in the person of Denmark-Norways’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Johann Hartwig Ernst, Count von Bernstorff for funds. He tried his hand at writing Enlightenment treatises, published many of them in his journal Zum Nutzen und Vergnügen. During Struensee's near ten-year residence in Altona he came into contact with a circle of aristocrats, sent away from the royal court in Copenhagen. Among them were Enevold Brandt and Count Schack Carl Rantzau, who were supporters of the Enlightenment. Rantzau recommended Struensee to the court as a physician to attend King Christian VII on his forthcoming tour to princely and royal courts in western Germany, the Netherlands and France. Struensee received the appointment in April 1768; the king and his entourage set forth on 6 May. While in England Struensee received the honorary degree of Doctor in Medicine from the University of Cambridge. During the eight-month tour he gained the king's affection; the king's ministers and Finance Minister H.
C. Schimmelmann, were pleased with Struensee's influence on the king, who began making fewer embarrassing "scenes". Upon the court's return to Copenhagen in January 1769, Struensee was appointed personal physician to the king. In May, he was given the honorary title of State Councillor, which advanced him to the class of the third rank at court. Struensee wrote an important report on the mental health of the King First he reconciled the king and queen. At first Caroline Matilda disliked Struensee, but she was unhappy in her marriage and spurned by the king, affected by his illness, but Struensee was one of the few people who paid attention to the lonely queen, he seemed to do his best to alleviate her troubles. Over time her affection for the young doctor grew and by spring 1770 he became her lover. Struensee was involved with the upbringing of the Crown Prince Frederick VI along the principles of Enlightenment, such as outlined by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's challenge to return to nature; however he had his own rather strict interpretation of Rousseau's ideas, by isolating the child, encouraging him to manage things on his own.
He took Rousseau's advice about cold being beneficial for children and the Crown Prince was thus only sparsely clothed during winter time. Struensee was named royal adviser and konferensråd on 5 May 1770; the royal court and government spent the summer of 1770 in Schleswig-Holstein. On 15 September the King dismissed Chancellor Bernstorff and on 18 December Struensee appointed himself maître des requêtes, consolidating his power and starting the 16-month period referred to as the "Time of Struensee"; when in the course of the year the king sank into a condition of mental torpor, Struensee's auth
Viborg, a city in central Jutland, Denmark, is the capital of both Viborg municipality and Region Midtjylland. Viborg is the seat of the Western High Court, the High Court for the Jutland peninsula. Viborg Municipality is the second-largest Danish municipality, covering 3.3% of that country's total land area. Viborg is one of the oldest cities in Denmark, with Viking settlements dating back to the late 8th century, its central location gave the city great strategic importance, in political and religious matters, during the Middle Ages. A motte-and-bailey-type castle was once located in the city. Viborg takes its name from a combination of two Old Norse words: vé, meaning a holy place, borg, meaning a fort. Viborg is famous for Viborg Cathedral; the construction of the cathedral took about 50 years. The building has been re-built several times. Only the crypt of the original cathedral is still preserved; the cathedral was and is the locus of cult of Saint Kjeld of Viborg, dean of the cathedral chapter there and had a great shrine there in the Middle Ages.
The newest parts of the church are from a restoration between 1864 and 1876. The cathedral is famous for its many paintings by Danish painter Joakim Skovgaard, which depict stories from the Bible. Next to the cathedral is the Skovgaard museum, founded in 1937. Before the Protestant Reformation Viborg was the home of five monasteries, about 12 parish churches, several chapels and of course the cathedral; the Black Friars' church dates from the 13th century. Today only a few remains of the Franciscan and the Dominican monasteries are left. Viborg has over the last decade won a reputation as one of Denmark's leading cities for sports, it started with the city's women's handball team. Subsequently, both the men's handball team and most notably the professional football team have established themselves at the top of the Danish leagues. From 1998 to 2008, Viborg FF was a constant member of the Danish Superliga, reaching an all-time high when winning the Danish cup in 2000. Viborg hosts the annual Haervejsmarchen international two-day walking festival, which attracts 8,000 participants, including many from outside Denmark.
It includes marked routes of distances of up to 45 kilometres a day. The walk is affiliated to the IML Walking Association. Viborg is home to a number including Viborg Katedralskole. Denmark's oldest educational institution celebrated its 900th birthday in 2000; the school is believed to have been founded about 1060 - at the same time as the city became the seat of a bishop. The church needed to educate boys and young men to enter into the church's service, to that purpose it created a school, its current monumental home was built in 1926 to accommodate a larger number of students and the school added a dormitory to house the many students from outer regions or islands not close to a gymnasium. Although this role is now obsolete, the dorm continues to be a popular solution for many students wanting to get away from home or for a small number of students from Greenland. Viborg Katedralskole is today one of four gymnasiums in Viborg. Viborg is home to The Animation Workshop, an art school based in a former army barracks on the outskirts of town.
The school, which achieved official recognition from the Danish government in 2003, offers students a Bachelor of Arts in character animation. For international parents Viborg has an international school where all teaching is in English based on the Cambridge International examinations. Viborg is served by Viborg railway station, it is located on the Langå-Struer railway line and offers direct InterCity services to Copenhagen and Struer and regional train services to Aarhus and Struer. Saint Kjeld, canonized 1188 Gunner, Bishop co-writer of the Law of Jutland Knud Mikkelsen ), Bishop contributor to the Law of Jutland Niels Kaas politician, Chancellor of Denmark 1573-1594 Vitus Bering poet and Supreme Court justice Peter von Scholten, Governor-General of the Danish West Indies Sophie Zahrtmann deaconess and nurse Bertel Dahlgaard politician and statistician Søren Pape Poulsen politician, leader of the Conservative People's Party Anders Primdahl Vistisen DPP politician and MEP Christen Aagaard poet Carl Deichman Norwegian mine operator, book collector and philanthropist Anne Marie Mangor cookbook writer Mads Alstrup first Danish portrait photographer with his own studio Kristian Mantzius actor Jeppe Aakjær poet and novelist, a member of the Jutland Movement Anders Randolf Danish American actor in American films Benjamin Christensen, film director and actor Gudrun Houlberg actress Olaf Wieghorst, painter Peter Seeberg, writer Peer Hultberg, writer Frank Hvam stand-up-comedian Morten Lund jazz drummer Rasmussen as Jonas Flodager Rasmussen, Danish singer and actor.
Carl Gottlob Rafn Enlightenment scientist and civil servant Hans Christian Cornelius Mortensen, ornithologist Johann Otto von Spreckelsen, architect Charles Buchwald amateur footballer, won silver medals at the 1908 and 1912 Summer Olympics Finn Døssing Jensen former footballer, 349 appearances for Viborg FF Ulrik Wilbek handball coach and elected mayor
Guldberg's hymnal is a hymnal, created by Bishop Ludvig Harboe and Ove Høegh-Guldberg and was authorized for use in 1778. On behalf of King Christian VII of Denmark, Denmark's de facto prime minister, Ove Høegh-Guldberg, appointed a two-person committee, consisting of himself and the bishop of Zealand, Ludvig Harboe, to prepare a new hymnal, they sought to modernize Kingo's hymnal by removing the hymns that lacked the requisite "correctness and strength" or whose poetic quality was too weak. To replace the hymns that would be removed from the authorized hymnal, Birgitte Cathrine Boye received royal funding to write and translate hymns; the hymnal contains 438 hymns taken from various sources: 32 from Thomissøn's hymnal 101 from Kingo's hymnal 144 from Erik Pontoppidan's hymnal 161 new hymns, of which 24 were from Germany, 133 from Denmark, two from Norway. Birgitte Cathrine Boye wrote 124 of the 133 new Danish hymns in the volume; the two Norwegian hymns were written by Johan Vibe. Boye translated some hymns, so overall 146 hymns, or one-third of those in the volume, can be credited to her.
The book is arranged following the liturgical year, with hymns designated for each Sunday and hymns for other church events. The book contains some morning and evening hymns, at the end 38 hymns with the Passion of Jesus as their theme. Guldberg's hymnal introduced some Pietist hymns from Pontoppidan's hymnal into use in Norwegian churches; when Niels Schiørring's book of melodies was added to Guldberg's hymnal, some new hymn melodies came into use. The hymnal was issued for the first time in 1778 and was printed in new editions in the following years, it was authorized for use and adopted in Copenhagen in 1781 and in other towns in 1783. The book came into more widespread use in Norway than in Denmark and, when Norway received its own assembly in 1814, the book was one of the three authorized hymnals in Norway, alongside Kingo's hymnal and the Lutheran-Christian Hymnal. Rynning, Paul Emil. 1954. Salmediktingi i Noreg. Oslo: Det norske Samlaget. Aanestad, Lars. 1962. Kristen sang og musikk. Oslo: Runa
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