Greeneville is a town in, the county seat of Greene County, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 15,062; the town was named in honor of Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene. It is the only town with this spelling in the United States, although there are numerous U. S. towns named Greenville. The town was the capital of the short-lived State of Franklin in the 18th-century history of the Tennessee region. Greeneville is notable as the town where United States President Andrew Johnson began his political career when elected from his trade as a tailor, he and his family lived there most of his adult years. It was an area of strong abolitionist and Unionist views and yeoman farmers, an environment which influenced Johnson's outlook; the Greeneville Historic District was established in 1974. The U. S. Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Greeneville was named in honor of the town. Greeneville is part of the Johnson City-Kingsport- Bristol TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – known as the "Tri-Cities" region.
Greeneville is located at 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W. It lies in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; these hills are part of the Appalachian Ridge-and-Valley Province, characterized by fertile river valleys flanked by narrow, elongate ridges. Greeneville is located halfway between Bays Mountain to the northwest and the Bald Mountains— part of the main Appalachian crest— to the southeast; the valley in which Greeneville is situated is part of the watershed of the Nolichucky River, which passes a few miles south of the town. Several federal and state highways now intersect in Greeneville, as they were built to follow old roads and trails. U. S. Route 321 follows Main Street through the center of the town and connects Greeneville to Newport to the southwest. U. S. Route 11E, which connects Greeneville with Morristown to the west, intersects U. S. 321 in Greeneville and the merged highway proceeds northeast to Johnson City. Tennessee State Route 107, which follows Main Street and Andrew Johnson Hwy, Greeneville to Erwin to the east and to the Del Rio area to the south.
Tennessee State Route 70 connects Greeneville with Interstate 81, Rogersville to the north and Asheville, North Carolina to the south. Tennessee State Route 172 connects Baileyton to the north. Tennessee State Route 93 connects Greeneville to Interstate 81, Fall Branch and Kingsport to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 17.01 square miles, all land. Buckingham Heights Cherrydale Oak Hills Windy Hills Harrison Hills Native Americans were hunting and camping in the Nolichucky Valley as early as the Paleo-Indian period. A substantial Woodland period village existed at the Nolichucky's confluence with Big Limestone Creek. By the time the first Euro-American settlers arrived in the area in the late 18th century, the Cherokee claimed the valley as part of their hunting grounds; the Great Indian Warpath passed just northwest of modern Greeneville, the townsite is believed to have once been the juncture of two lesser Native American trails. Permanent European settlement of Greene County began in 1772.
Jacob Brown, a North Carolina merchant, leased a large stretch of land from the Cherokee, located between the upper Lick Creek watershed and the Nolichucky River, in what is now the northeastern corner of the county. The "Nolichucky Settlement" aligned itself with the Watauga Association as part of Washington County, North Carolina. After voting irregularities in a local election, however, an early Nolichucky settler named Daniel Kennedy led a movement to form a separate county, granted in 1783; the county was named after Nathanael Greene, reflecting the loyalties of the numerous Revolutionary War veterans who settled in the Nolichucky Valley from Pennsylvania and Virginia. The first county court sessions were held at the home of Robert Kerr, who lived at "Big Spring". Kerr donated 50 acres for the establishment of the county seat, most of, located in the area bounded by Irish, College and Summer streets. "Greeneville" was recognized as a town in 1786. In 1784, North Carolina attempted to resolve its debts by giving the U.
S. Congress its lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, including Greene County, abandoning responsibility for the area to the federal government. In response, delegates from Greene and neighboring counties convened at Jonesborough and resolved to break away from North Carolina and establish an independent state; the delegates agreed to meet again that year to form a constitution, rejected when presented to the general delegation in December. Reverend Samuel Houston had presented a draft constitution which restricted the election of lawyers and other professionals. Houston's draft met staunch opposition from Reverend Hezekiah Balch. John Sevier was elected governor, other executive offices were filled. A petition for statehood for what would have become known as the State of Franklin was drawn at the delegates session in May 1785; the delegates submitted a petition for statehood to Congress, which failed to gain the requisite votes needed for admission to the Union. The first state legislature of Franklin met in December 1785 in a crude log courthouse in Greeneville, named the capital city t
The Cherokee–American wars known as the Chickamauga Wars, were a series of back-and-forth raids, ambushes, minor skirmishes, several full-scale frontier battles in the Old Southwest from 1776 to 1795 between the Cherokee and American settlers on the frontier. Most of the events took place in the Upper South. While the fighting stretched across the entire period, there were times of little or no action, at times spanning several months; the Cherokee leader Dragging Canoe, whom some historians call "the Savage Napoleon", his warriors and other Cherokee fought alongside and in conjunction with Indians from a number of other tribes, most Muscogee in the Old Southwest and the Shawnee in the Old Northwest. During the Revolutionary War, they fought alongside British troops, Loyalist militia, the King's Carolina Rangers. Open warfare broke out in the summer of 1776 along the frontier of the Watauga, Holston and Doe rivers in East Tennessee, as well as the colonies of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.
It spread to those along the Cumberland River in Middle Tennessee and in Kentucky. The wars can be divided into two phases; the first phase one place from 1776 to 1783, in which the Cherokee fought as allies of the Kingdom of Great Britain against the American colonies. The Cherokee War of 1776 encompassed the entirety of the Cherokee nation. At the end of 1776, the only militant Cherokee were those who migrated with Dragging Canoe to the Chickamauga towns and were known as the "Chickamauga Cherokee"; the second phase lasted from 1783 to 1794, in which the Cherokee served as proxies of the Viceroyalty of New Spain against the formed United States of America. Because of their relocation westward to new homes known as the "Five Lower Towns", they became known as the Lower Cherokee, a moniker which persisted well into the 19th century. In 1786, the Lower Cherokee became founding members of the Native Americans' Western Confederacy, organized by Mohawk leader Joseph Brant, took an active part in the Northwest Indian War.
The conflict ended in November 1794 with the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse. The Northwest Indian War, in which the Cherokee were involved, ended with the Treaty of Greenville in 1795; the French and Indian War and the related European theater conflict known as the Seven Years' War laid many of the foundations for the conflict between the Cherokee and the American settlers on the frontier. These tensions on the frontier broke out into open hostilities with the advent of the American Revolution; the action of the French and Indian War in North America included the Anglo-Cherokee War, lasting 1758–1761. British forces under general James Grant destroyed a number of major Cherokee towns, which were never reoccupied. Kituwa was abandoned, its former residents migrated west. At the end of this conflict, the Cherokee signed the Treaty of Long-Island-on-the-Holston with the Colony of Virginia and the Treaty of Charlestown with the Province of South Carolina. Conocotocko, the First Beloved Man during the conflict, was replaced by Attakullakulla, pro-British.
Valuing the support of Native Americans, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. This prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, in an effort to preserve territory for the native tribes. Many colonials resented the interference with their drive to the vast western lands; the proclamation was a major irritant to the colonists, contributing to their support for the American Revolution and ending interference by the Crown. To resolve the problem of settlers living beyond the line established in the previous treaty, John Stuart, as Superintendent for Southern Indian Affairs, negotiated a treaty signed on October 17, 1768, with the Cherokee surrendering their claims to the Colony of Virginia to the land between the Allegheny Mountains and the Ohio River, it covered what is now West Virginia and eastern Kentucky, with a bit of the southwest corner of Pennsylvania. After Pontiac's War, the Iroquois Confederacy ceded to the British government its claims to the hunting grounds between the Ohio and Cumberland rivers, known to them and other Indians as Kain-tuck-ee, in the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix.
In 1769, developers and land speculators planned to start a new colony called Vandalia in the territory ceded by the Cherokee. Plans for that fell through and Virginia annexed it as the District of West Augusta in 1774. On June 1, 1773, the Cherokee and the Muskogee ceded their claims to 2 million acres in the northern sector of the Georgia colony, in return for the cancellation of their debts. Most of the Muscogee refused to recognize the treaty, the British government rejected it; the next year, Daniel Boone led a group to establish a temporary settlement inside the hunting grounds of modern day Kansas. In retaliation the Shawnee, Lenape and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party, which included Boone's son James. James Boone and Henry Russell were captured by the Native Americans and ritually tortured to death; the colonists responded with the beginning of Dunmore's War. The Cherokee and the Muscogee were active mainly confining themselves to small raids on the backcountry settlements of the Carolinas and Georgia.
The earliest colonial settlement in the vicinity of what became Upper East Tennessee was Sapling Grove. The first of the North-of-Holston settlements, it was founded by Evan Shelby, who "purchased" the land in 1768 from John Buchanan. Jacob Brown began another settlement on the
The Watauga River is a large stream of western North Carolina and East Tennessee. It is 78.5 miles long with its headwaters on the slopes of Grandfather Mountain and Peak Mountain in Watauga County, North Carolina. The Watauga River rises from a spring near the base of Peak Mountain at Linville Gap in Avery County, North Carolina; the spring emanates from the western side of the Tennessee Valley Divide, which is, at this location, congruent with the Eastern Continental Divide. On the other side of the divides at Linville Gap are the headwaters of the Linville River in the Upper Catawba Watershed. Waters of the Linville River reach the Atlantic Ocean, whereas waters of the Watauga River reach the Gulf of Mexico; the river flows across Watauga County, North Carolina crossing the Tennessee state line at Johnson County into Carter County and ends at its confluence with the Holston River's South Fork on the Washington/Sullivan County border. After crossing into Johnson County, the Watauga River is first impounded by the Tennessee Valley Authority Watauga Dam, creating the 6,430-acre Watauga Lake.
This impoundment receives two important tributaries: the Elk River, Roan Creek. Watauga Lake is bridged by Tennessee State Route 67 over Butler Memorial Bridge just as the watercourse enters Carter County, Tennessee; the Appalachian Trail crosses the river on Watauga Dam. Nearly 3 miles below Watauga Dam, on the Horseshoe section of the Watauga River, is the TVA Wilbur Dam, which forms a much smaller but deep reservoir known as Wilbur Lake. TVA releases 130 cubic feet per second of discharged water back into the Watauga River during the summer months. Below Wilbur Dam the river flows north and west into Carter County where it forms the northern limits of Elizabethton, where the Watauga receives the Doe River. Farther downstream on the Watauga River at the boundary between Carter County and Washington County is the old TVA Watauga Steam Plant. A portion of the boundary line between Washington County and Sullivan County is formed by the Watauga River. Boone Dam is located below the slack water confluence of both South Fork Holston River and the downstream end of the Watauga River.
The distance afloat between the TVA Watauga Reservoir and Boone Lake is 20.6 miles. The true origin of the name of the Watauga River is lost to antiquity. Most documents agree that the name is of Native American origin, though which nation, tribe or language it descends from, its meaning, are in question. A North Carolina State University web page says the word "Watauga" is a Native-American word meaning "the land beyond". Another source states Watauga is derived from a Cherokee word, more written Watagi. Other common spellings include Watoda and Whatoga, yet another source suggests the word "Watauga" comes from the Yuchi phrase meaning "bass many." However, local reference to the name is attributed as meaning "beautiful river" or "beautiful water". There were at least two Native American villages so named, including one at present-day Elizabethton, which became known as "Watauga Old Fields", first explored by Daniel Boone and James Robertson in 1759. Another village called Watauga was located on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina.
The original settlers of Nashville, set out from the Watauga River area, called the Watauga Association, during the American Revolution when they realized that the British Proclamation of 1763 forbidding settlement of its colonists west of the Blue Ridge Mountains was unenforceable. Wilbur Dam is the site of first hydroelectric dam constructed in Tennessee, going online with power production and distribution in 1912. Wilbur Dam was constructed by the former Tennessee Electric Power Company, a owned utility purchased by TVA in the late 1930s. Elizabethton acquired the moniker "City of Power" because of the early local access to hydro-generated electricity from Wilbur Dam. Whitewater rafting, canoeing, fly fishing, angling with fishing reels are all popular recreation activities pursued on the Watauga River. Rainbow trout, brown trout, striped bass are all caught in the Watauga River; the Watauga River downstream of the TVA dams draws commercial rafting outfitters from both northeast Tennessee and western North Carolina during the summer months and commercial fishing guides throughout the year.
The picturesque Class II+ Bee Cliff Rapids on the Watauga River are found downstream between Wilbur Dam and the Siam Bridge, southeast of Elizabethton, Tennessee. For commercial whitewater rafting and kayaking on the Watauga River, the most popular Carter County "put-in" is downstream of the TVA Wilbur Dam, the most popular "take-out" is 2 to 2½ hours downstream at the Blackbottom riverside portion of the city linear trail park in Elizabethton; the distance afloat for paddlers from the put-in at Wilbur Dam to the Blackbottom take-out is seven miles, with landmarks along the Watauga River providing a good estimate of time and distance traveled. The Watauga River has a section of Class IV-V whitewater popular with expert kayakers, upstream of Watauga Lake and across the state line in North Carolina; this section requires significant rainfall to bring it up to runnable levels. It features continuous steep boulder bed rapids dropping up to 150 feet per mile, several falls and ledges only runnable by expert paddlers.
The Tennessee Va
Enoch Lloyd Branson was an American artist best known for his portraits of Southern politicians and depictions of early East Tennessee history. One of the most influential figures in Knoxville's early art circles, Branson received training at the National Academy of Design in the 1870s and subsequently toured the great art centers of Europe. After returning to Knoxville, he operated a portrait shop with photographer Frank McCrary, he was a mentor to fellow Knoxville artist Catherine Wiley, is credited with discovering twentieth-century modernist Beauford Delaney. Branson was born in what is now Tennessee, to English parents, his family moved to Knoxville in 1868. As a child, he impressed his friends by crafting small figures out of clay. Around the time of the Civil War, prominent Knoxville physician John Mason Boyd noticed a sketch of Ulysses S. Grant Branson had made on a cigar box, provided financial assistance for Branson to attend East Tennessee University. In 1871, Branson drew favorable attention for his exhibition at the East Tennessee Division Fair.
By the following year, his portraits had impressed art enthusiasts to the extent that the Knoxville Chronicle described him as Knoxville's "native genius." Branson moved to New York in 1873. Two years he captured first prize at one of the Academy's exhibitions for his drawing of a gladiator, which earned him a scholarship to receive further training in Paris; some of Branson's work showed elements of the French Barbizon school, though it's uncertain whether or not he visited Europe. By 1876, he had returned to Knoxville, became a leading figure in the city's art community. Working in partnership with early photographer T. M. Schleier, he focused on commercial portraits, he became a regular at the masquerade balls attended by the city's elite at the Lamar House Hotel, spent time at resorts such as Tate Springs. In 1880, Branson and photographer Frank McCrary formed Branson and McCrary, a portraiture company that operated out of a three-story building on Gay Street in Knoxville; the company, which at times included Branson's brother and sister-in-law, specialized in oil-painted photographs, oil copies, crayon-and-oil sketches, illustrated souvenirs.
Branson taught art classes in the building to members of Knoxville's upper class. Impressionist Catherine Wiley, Adelia Armstrong Lutz, Mortimer Thompson were arguably his most well-known students during this period. Branson's work was exhibited at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, the 1900 World's Fair in Paris, the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, he won the gold medal for an exhibition at the 1895 Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta and in 1896, he won a national competition for designing the Flag of Knoxville, Tennessee. Branson reached the height of his career in 1910, when his work, Hauling Marble, won the gold medal at Knoxville's Appalachian Exposition. In the early 1920s, Branson began giving lessons to a young Beauford Delaney, whose sketches he found impressive. In 1924, he arranged to send Delaney to an art school in Boston to receive further instruction. Branson died on June 12, 1925, he is buried in Old Gray Cemetery in Knoxville. Branson was a stylistically conservative painter in his early years, though some of his works show elements of impressionism and modern styles.
Most of his work consisted of commercial portraits, but his most well-known tend to depict historical scenes of the Appalachian frontier. His work is on display in the Tennessee State Museum and the Frist Center for the Visual Arts in Nashville, the Knoxville Museum of Art, the McClung Museum of Natural History and Culture, the East Tennessee History Center in Knoxville. One of Branson's most popular paintings, The Battle of King's Mountain, was displayed in the Hotel Imperial in Knoxville, was destroyed when the hotel burned in 1917. Sheep Shearing Scene The Blockhouse at Knoxville, Tennessee Assault on Fort Sanders Hauling Marble, Women at Work, 1891 California to Oregon Stagecoach, 1900 Gathering of Overmountain Men at Sycamore Shoals, 1915 Branson painted portraits of the following individuals: Adelia Armstrong Lutz Brig. Gen. John Porter McCown, C. S. A. C. 1880 Ellen McClung Berry Horace Maynard George Armstrong Custer, Lt. Col. Regular Army Abram Jones Price J. G. M. Ramsey Thomas William Humes Joseph Estabrook DeWitt Clinton Senter Peter Turney Alvin C.
York John Haywood John I. Cox James B. Frazier Montgomery Stuart Hester Thompson Stuart James Allen Smith Captain James N. Williamson, CSA, ca. 1916 Emma Elizabeth Strawn Johnson, Co-Founder and Second President of Johnson University Branson Avenue in Knoxville is named in Branson's honor. His house still stands along the road, has been purchased for restoration by the preservation group, Knox Heritage. Anderson, John A; the Art of Lloyd Branson: A Family Connection. Washington Bogart Cooper Works of Branson and McCrary — Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection Tennessee Portrait Project - Lloyd Branson entries
Battle of Camden
The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War. On August 16, 1780, British forces under Lieutenant General Charles, Lord Cornwallis routed the American forces of Major General Horatio Gates about five miles north of Camden, South Carolina, strengthening the British hold on the Carolinas following the capture of Charleston; the rout was a humiliating defeat for Gates, the American general best known for commanding the Americans at the British defeat of Saratoga, whose army had possessed a large numerical superiority over the British force. Following the battle, he never held a field command again, his political connections, helped him avoid inquiries and courts martial into the debacle. Following the British defeat at Saratoga in 1777, the Battle of Monmouth in 1778, the French entered the American Revolutionary War in June 1778, followed by the Spanish in June 1779. With the war at a stalemate in the north, the British decided to renew their "southern strategy" to win back their rebellious North American colonies.
The strategy relied on the Loyalists joining forces with British regulars to roll northward through North Carolina and Virginia, besieging the rebels in the north on all sides. This campaign repeated the successful December 1778 Capture of Savannah, with Sir Henry Clinton's successful Siege of Charleston in May 1780. British forces campaigned in the Back Country, capturing the key towns of Georgetown, Camden, Ninety Six, Augusta. Clinton returned to New York on 5 June 1780, after the southern remnants of the Continental Army were defeated in May 1780 at the Battle of Waxhaws, tasking Lord Cornwallis with the pacification of the remaining portions of the state; the Patriot resistance remaining in South Carolina consisted of militia under commanders such as Thomas Sumter, William Davie, Francis Marion. Washington sent Continental Army regiments south, consisting of the Maryland Line and Delaware Line, under the temporary command of Major General Jean, Baron de Kalb. Departing New Jersey on 16 April 1780, they arrived at the Buffalo Ford on the Deep River, 30 miles south of Greensboro, in July.
Horatio Gates, the "Hero of Saratoga" arrived in camp on 25 July 1780. Two days Gates ordered his army to take the direct road to Camden, against the advice of his officers, including Otho Holland Williams. Williams noted the country they were marching through "was by nature barren, abounding with sandy plains, intersected by swamps, thinly inhabited," and what few inhabitants they may come across were most hostile. All of the troops had been short of food since arrival at the Deep River. On 7 Aug. Gates was joined by 2,100 North Carolina militiamen under the command of General Richard Caswell. At Rugeley's Mill, 15 miles north of Camden, 700 Virginia Militia under the command of General Edward Stevens joined Gates' "Grand Army". In addition, Gates had Armand's Legion. However, at this stage, Gates no longer had the help of Marion's or Sumter's men, in fact had sent 400 of his Continentals to help Sumter with a planned attack on a British supply convoy. Gates refused the help of Col. William Washington's cavalry.
Gates planned on building defensive works 5.5 miles north of Camden in an effort to force British abandonment of that important town. Gates told his aide Thomas Pinckney he had no intention of attacking the British with an army consisting of militia. Camden was garrisoned by about 1,000 men under Lord Rawdon. General Cornwallis, alerted to Gates' movement on August 9, marched from Charleston with reinforcements, arriving at Camden on August 13, increasing the effective British troop strength to 2,239 men. Gates ordered a night march to commence at 10 PM on the 15th Aug. despite his army of 3,052, of which two-thirds were militia, having never maneuvered together. Their evening meal acted as a purgative while they marched, with Armand's horse in the lead. On a collision course was Cornwallis' army on a 10 PM night march, with Tarleton's dragoons in the lead. A short period of confusion ensued when both forces collided around 2 AM, but both sides soon separated, not wanting a night battle. Gates formed up before first light.
On his right flank he placed Mordecai Gist's 2nd Maryland and the Delaware Regiment, with Baron de Kalb in overall command of the right wing. On his left flank, he placed Caswell's 1,800 North Carolina militia. Gates and staff stayed behind the reserve force, Smallwood's 1st Maryland Regiment, about 200 yards behind the battle line. Thus, the total number of Continentals on the field numbered 900. Gates placed. Present, but whose disposition was unknown, were 70 mounted volunteer South Carolinians. Gates' formation, though a typical British practice of the time, placed his weakest troops against the most experienced British regiments, while his best troops would face only the weaker elements of the British forces. Cornwallis had 2,239 men, including Loyalist militia and Volunteers of Ireland. Cornwallis had the infamous and experienced Tarleton's Legion, who were formidable in a pursuit situation. Cornwallis formed his army into two brigades. On the right was Lt. Col James Webster, facing the inexperienced militia with the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 33rd Regiment of Foot.
Lord Rawdon was in command of the left, facing the Continental Infantry with the Irish Volunteers, Banastre Tarleton's infantry and the Loyalist troops. In reserve, Cornwallis had two battalions of the 71st Regiment of Foot and Tarleton's cavalry force
Loyalist (American Revolution)
Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time. They were opposed by the Patriots, who supported the revolution, called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America". Prominent Loyalists assured the British government that many thousands of them would spring to arms and fight for the crown; the British government acted in expectation of that in the southern campaigns in 1780-81. In practice, the number of Loyalists in military service was far lower than expected since Britain could not protect them except in those areas where Britain had military control; the British were suspicious of them, not knowing whom they could trust in such a conflicted situation. Patriots watched suspected Loyalists closely and would not tolerate any organized Loyalist opposition. Many outspoken or militarily active Loyalists were forced to flee to their stronghold of New York City. William Franklin, the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin, became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in 1778.
He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. When their cause was defeated, about 15 percent of the Loyalists fled to other parts of the British Empire, to Britain itself, or to British North America; the southern Loyalists moved to Florida, which had remained loyal to the Crown, to British Caribbean possessions bringing along their slaves. Northern Loyalists migrated to Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, they called themselves United Empire Loyalists. Most were compensated with Canadian land or British cash distributed through formal claims procedures. Loyalists who left the US received £3 million or about 37 percent of their losses from the British government. Loyalists who stayed in the US were able to retain their property and become American citizens. Historians have estimated that between 15 and 20 percent of the two million whites in the colonies in 1775 were Loyalists. Families were divided during the American Revolution, many felt themselves to be both American and British, still owing a loyalty to the mother country.
Maryland lawyer Daniel Dulaney the Younger opposed taxation without representation but would not break his oath to the King or take up arms against him. He wrote: "There may be a time. Till I shall recommend a legal and prudent resentment". Most Americans hoped for a peaceful reconciliation but were forced to choose sides by the Patriots who took control nearly everywhere in the Thirteen Colonies in 1775-76. Yale historian Leonard Woods Larabee has identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them conservative and loyal to the king and Britain: They were older, better established, resisted radical change They felt that rebellion against the Crown—the legitimate government—was morally wrong, they were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. They wanted to take a middle-of-the road position and were angry when forced by the Patriots to declare their opposition, they had a long-standing sentimental attachment to Britain.
They wanted to postpone the moment. They were afraid that chaos and mob rule would result; some were pessimists. Others recalled the dreadful experiences of many Jacobite rebels after the failure of the last Jacobite rebellion as as 1745 who lost their lands when the Hanoverian government won. Other motives of the Loyalists included: They felt a need for order and believed that Parliament was the legitimate authority. In New York, powerful families had assembled colony-wide coalitions of supporters, Men long associated with the French Huguenot/Dutch De Lancey faction went along when its leadership decided to support the crown, they felt themselves to be weak or threatened within American society and in need of an outside defender such as the British Crown and Parliament. They had been promised freedom from slavery by the British, they felt that being a part of the British Empire was crucial in terms of commerce and their business operations. In the opening months of the Revolutionary War, the Patriots laid siege to Boston, where most of the British forces were stationed.
Elsewhere there were few British troops and the Patriots seized control of all levels of government, as well as supplies of arms and gunpowder. Vocal Loyalists recruited people to their side with the encouragement and assistance of royal governors. In the South Carolina back country, Loyalist recruitment oustripped that of Patriots. A brief siege at Ninety Six, South Carolina in the fall of 1775 was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting, a Snow Campaign involving thousands of partisan militia resulted in the arrest or flight of most of the back country Loyalist leadership. North Carolina back country Scots and former Regulators joined forces in early 1776, but they were broken as a force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. By July 4, 1776, the Patriots had gained control of all territory in the Thirteen Colonies and expelled all royal officials. No one who proclaimed their loyalty to the Crown was allowed to remain, so Loyalists fled or kept quiet; some of those who remained gave aid to invading British armies or joined uniformed Loyalist regiments.
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as